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UNDERSTANDING THE MIND IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS. Beyond Words Eye contact & Body language: 55% of impact Voice (tone/rate/volume): 35% of impact Pheromones.

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Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE MIND IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS. Beyond Words Eye contact & Body language: 55% of impact Voice (tone/rate/volume): 35% of impact Pheromones."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNDERSTANDING THE MIND IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS

2 Beyond Words Eye contact & Body language: 55% of impact Voice (tone/rate/volume): 35% of impact Pheromones ? Physical contact ? Words: only 10% of total impact!

3 A question of neuroscience: What factors will make the mind maximally receptive and innovative?

4 A Shopping List… Gain trust ….need to understand belief systems

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6 The biological basis of the individual mind Newborn 3 Months 15 Months 2 Years

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8 AREA OF BRAIN CONTROLLING AN INDIVIDUAL FINGER A Pascual-Leone et al J Neurophysiology (1995)

9 A shift from SENSORY …..to COGNITIVE experience

10 Developing And Losing One ’ s Mind … … Reflected In Brain Cell branching ( Connections )

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12 Having a sensational time … Letting yourself go…..

13 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE MIND IS THE PERSONALISATION OF THE BRAIN THROUGH UNIQUE DYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS OF NEURONAL CONNECTIONS, DRIVEN BY UNIQUE EXPERIENCES

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15 Harvey Whitehouse: Neuronal connectivity established by High arousal, low frequencyLow arousal, high frequency

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20 Extreme ideologies are NOT based on unbridled emotion…. ……but on a collective story!

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22 How is a narrative instantiated in the brain?

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24 A Shopping List… Gain trust Adopt non-emotional stance

25 Mature prefrontal processing is not complete until >20 yrs old xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

26 The case of Phineas Gage: Damage to prefrontal cortex led to excessive recklessness

27 ‘ Intellectual manifestations feeble, being exceedingly capricious and childish… impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires.... A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations,.... His mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was ‘no longer Gage.’

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29 Even chimps do not have our brain capacity for post-natal growth…

30 The Evolution of the Prefrontal Cortex

31 The prefrontal cortex facilitates cohesion of the rest of the brain

32 ‘HUMAN NATURE’? ‘HUMAN NATURE’? Thinking symbolically…..

33 The Consequences of Symbolic Thinking Words, images, and behaviours can stand for something, especially a self That self can be have status, ie relate to others The self can have a past and a future, ie a life story In a life story, actions have irreversible consequences (unlike the computer screen) Consequences entail ‘meaning’ over time and free us up from the sensory press of the present

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35 (I) INVERSE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BMI AND PREFRONTAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY IN HEALTHY ADULTS. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K. Obesity (2009) 17 pp

36 (II) DECISION-MAKING IN OBESITY: A STUDY USING THE GAMBLING Pignatti R, Bertella L, Albani G, Mauro A, Molinari E, Semenza C. Eat Weight Disord. (2006) 11 pp

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39 A common factor: The press of the senses? A common factor: The press of the senses?

40 Arousal Addiction Reward

41 2 Basic Modes for the Human Brain? Prefrontal under-function? Prefrontal under-function? Strong feelings Strong feelings Sensory Sensory Here-and-now Here-and-now External environment dominates External environment dominates Little ‘meaning’ Little ‘meaning’ Reduced sense of self Reduced sense of self No time-space No time-space Infants and children Infants and children More More Prefrontal activation? Prefrontal activation? Thinking dominates Thinking dominates Cognitive Cognitive Past / present / fantasy Past / present / fantasy Internal perceptions dominate Internal perceptions dominate Personalised ‘meaning’ Personalised ‘meaning’ Strong sense of self Strong sense of self Clear time-space reference Clear time-space reference Older children and adults Older children and adults Less Less

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43 ElectrophysiologyfMRI Linking the macroscopic and the microscopic? Linking the macroscopic and the microscopic? How might we monitor the inhibitory effects of dopamine on prefrontal cortex on the rest of the brain?

44 Neuronal assemblies formed/disbanded in less than a second Grinvald et al., 1994

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46 1 mm Effect of anaesthetic depth on assembly dynamics Deeper anaesthesia 20 ms after stimulus depolarisationhyperpolarisation

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48 Introducing the Concept of: Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec) video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq

49 Introducing the Concept of: Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec) video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq Enriched Control 2 mm Effects of an ‘Enriched’ Environment on neuronal assemblies

50 STATES ASSOCIATED WITH A SMALL ASSEMBLY Childhood: modest connectivity Dreaming: weak sensory stimulus Schizophrenia: abnormal modulation Fast paced sports: competing assemblies Raves: drug action; no cognitive content

51 A ‘SMALL ASSEMBLY’ CONSCIOUSNESS

52 FACTORS INFLUENCING FORMATION OF NEURONAL ASSEMBLY  Intensity of senses: Degree of neuronal activity  ‘Significance’: Extent of pre-existing associations  Arousal: Availability of modulators (eg dopamine)  Predisposition / mood: Availability of other modulating chemicals  Distraction: Formation of competing assemblies  Narrative: Input from prefrontal cortex

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54 A Shopping List… Gain trust Adopt ‘logical’ stance Shift to a new perspective

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57 The Neuroscience of Creativity Premium on de-constructing to abstract sensations Unusual and idiosyncratic associations BUT ALSO These new associations activate more extensive connections (‘have a meaning’) in self/others

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59 A Shopping List… Gain trust Adopt ‘logical’ stance Shift to a new perspective Identification of a shared need/value

60 UNDERSTANDING THE MIND IN PEACE NEGOTIATION Preparation of optimal mind-set Avoid ‘small assembly’ mode Active prefrontal cortex Novel but non- arousing environment


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