Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE MIND IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS. Beyond Words Eye contact & Body language: 55% of impact Voice (tone/rate/volume): 35% of impact Pheromones."— Presentation transcript:
A Shopping List… Gain trust Adopt non-emotional stance
Mature prefrontal processing is not complete until >20 yrs old xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
The case of Phineas Gage: Damage to prefrontal cortex led to excessive recklessness
‘ Intellectual manifestations feeble, being exceedingly capricious and childish… impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires.... A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations,.... His mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was ‘no longer Gage.’
The Consequences of Symbolic Thinking Words, images, and behaviours can stand for something, especially a self That self can be have status, ie relate to others The self can have a past and a future, ie a life story In a life story, actions have irreversible consequences (unlike the computer screen) Consequences entail ‘meaning’ over time and free us up from the sensory press of the present
(I) INVERSE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BMI AND PREFRONTAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY IN HEALTHY ADULTS. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K. Obesity (2009) 17 pp 60-65.
(II) DECISION-MAKING IN OBESITY: A STUDY USING THE GAMBLING Pignatti R, Bertella L, Albani G, Mauro A, Molinari E, Semenza C. Eat Weight Disord. (2006) 11 pp126-132.
2 Basic Modes for the Human Brain? Prefrontal under-function? Prefrontal under-function? Strong feelings Strong feelings Sensory Sensory Here-and-now Here-and-now External environment dominates External environment dominates Little ‘meaning’ Little ‘meaning’ Reduced sense of self Reduced sense of self No time-space No time-space Infants and children Infants and children More More Prefrontal activation? Prefrontal activation? Thinking dominates Thinking dominates Cognitive Cognitive Past / present / fantasy Past / present / fantasy Internal perceptions dominate Internal perceptions dominate Personalised ‘meaning’ Personalised ‘meaning’ Strong sense of self Strong sense of self Clear time-space reference Clear time-space reference Older children and adults Older children and adults Less Less
ElectrophysiologyfMRI Linking the macroscopic and the microscopic? Linking the macroscopic and the microscopic? How might we monitor the inhibitory effects of dopamine on prefrontal cortex on the rest of the brain?
Neuronal assemblies formed/disbanded in less than a second Grinvald et al., 1994
Introducing the Concept of: Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec) video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq
Introducing the Concept of: Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec) video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq Enriched Control 2 mm Effects of an ‘Enriched’ Environment on neuronal assemblies
STATES ASSOCIATED WITH A SMALL ASSEMBLY Childhood: modest connectivity Dreaming: weak sensory stimulus Schizophrenia: abnormal modulation Fast paced sports: competing assemblies Raves: drug action; no cognitive content
The Neuroscience of Creativity Premium on de-constructing to abstract sensations Unusual and idiosyncratic associations BUT ALSO These new associations activate more extensive connections (‘have a meaning’) in self/others