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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez
Create a Time Line Chart BC, AD, Century, Now

2 Set Up Time Line

3 Historical Perspectives on Abnormal behavior
The Ancient World China (200 BC) Chung Ching stated that both organ pathologies & stressful psychological situations were causes of mental disorders. Greece Hippocrates ( BC) believed mental illness was the result of natural, as opposed to supernatural, causes. Galen ( AD) divided the causes of mental disorders into physical and psychological explanations.

4 Middle Ages ( AD) Islamic countries- a. mental hospitals were established (792 AD)b. Persian doctor Sina wrote the Canon of Medicine(medications). Europe –abnormal behavior was most frequently viewed as demonic possession. treatment entailed – prayer & exorcism.

5 The Renaissance AD Spanish nun Teresa of Avila ( ) established the conceptual framework that the mind can be sick. Both Johann Weyer ( ) of Germany and Scot ( ) of England used scientific skepticism to refute the concept of demonic possession.

6 Humanitarian Reforms (18th-19th century)
In France, Philippe Pinel ( ) pioneered a compassionate medical model for the treatment of the mentally ill & established a hospital in Paris. In England, William Tuke ( ) introduced trained nurses for the mentally ill & helped to change public attitudes regarding their treatment. In US, Benjamin rush ( ) founder of American Psychiatry, encouraged humane treatment of the mentally ill & hospitals.

7 Scientific Advances of the 20th Century
Development in technology such as MRI and PET scans have added to our knowledge of the biological bases of psychological disorder. MRI PET Development in pscycho-pharmacology have provided effective treatment for many psychological disorder.

8 Paraphrase on your own…
Article – Nearly 500, mentally ill men and women are serving time in U.S. jails and prisons. Paraphrase on your own…

9 Abnormal Behaviors Perspectives & Diagnoses

10 Abnormal Behavior Definition
The behavior that is disturbing (socially unacceptable), distressing, maladaptive (or self-defeating), and often the result of distorted thoughts (cognitions).

11 Videos – Set up your notes
Definitions of Disorders-What does it mean? Rosenhan’s Experiment-What did it entail? Evolution of the DSM –What is it? 5 AXES – Write examples for each 1. Clinical Disorders 2. Intellectual Disabilities & Personality Disorders 3. Medical conditions and physical disorders 4. Social & Environmental Factors 5. The Global Assessment of Functioning

12 Frontline Documentary

13 Behavior Disorders Perspectives
Create Chart on back of time-line

14 Create Perspective Chart
Explanation Treatment Example Illustration

15 Medical Perspective Explanation:
Focus on biological and physiological factors as causes of abnormal behavior . Treated as a disease, or mental illness, and is diagnosed through symptoms and cured through treatment. Treatment: Hospitalization and drugs are often preferred methods of treatment rather than psychological investigation. Example: Schizophrenia needs medication to quiet voices, hallucinations and level dopamine.

16 Psychodynamic Perspective
Explanation: Evolved from Freudian psychoanalytic theory, which contends that psychological disorders are the consequence of anxiety produced by unresolved, unconscious conflicts(childhood). Treatment: focuses on identification and resolution of the conflicts. Example: Child neglected, no love will grow up to not love him/herself or others

17 Behavioral/Learning Perspective
Explanation: Results from faulty or ineffective learning and conditioning. Treatments are designed to reshape disordered behavior and, using traditional learning procedures, to teach new, more appropriate, and more adaptive responses. For example, a behavioral analysis of a case of child abuse might suggest that a father abuses his children because he learned the abusive behavior from his father and must now learn more appropriate parenting tactics

18 Cognitive Perspective
Explanation: People engage in abnormal behavior because of particular thoughts and behaviors that are often based upon their false assumptions. This is how the information is being decoded and retrieved (interpreted or memory issues). Treatments are oriented toward helping the maladjusted individual develop new thought processes and new values. Therapy is a process of unlearning maladaptive habits and replacing them with more useful ones. Example: Anger issues from low road to high road

19 Social-Cultural Perspective
Explain: Abnormal behavior is learned within a social context ranging from the family, to the community, to the culture. Treatment: Introducing and teaching the individual about in abnormal behavior within the culture by comparing and contrasting. Example: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are psychological disorders found mostly in Western cultures, which value the thin female body

20 Biological Perspective
Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infections Agrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders

21 Bio-Psych-Social Perspective
States Psychologists contend that ALL behavior, whether called normal or disordered arises from the interaction of nature and nurture. The bio-psycho-social perspective is a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.

22 Frontline Documentary Part 2 & 3

23 Abnormal Behavior Disorders – pairs of 3/computer lab Wednesday-Turn in outline/present Friday to peers What is the disorder? Explain the disorder. What causes it? (age) Symptoms Treatment An example of a case with someone having the disorder Common or not?

24 Mood Disorders-Bipolar
PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings Depressed state Manic state

25 Anxiety Disorders PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention

26 Psychological Disorders- Etiology
DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders Hand out

27 Take out disorder sheet
add Borderline Personality disorder

28 Mental disorders

29 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia literal translation “split mind”
a group of severe disorders characterized by: disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions inappropriate emotions and actions

30 Schizophrenia Delusions
false beliefs, often of torture or greatness, that may accompany psychotic disorders Hallucinations false sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus

31 A few more points to consider… for the
Test next class period A few more points to consider… for the

32 Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations Disorganized: Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion Catatonic: Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements Undifferentiated Schizophrenia symptoms without fitting one of the or residual: above types

33 Schizophrenia 40 30 Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia 20
for relatives of a schizophrenic 40 30 20 10 General population Siblings Children Fraternal twin of two victims Identical

34 Psychological Disorders- Etiology
Neurotic disorder (term seldom used now) usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety Psychotic disorder person loses contact with reality experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

35 Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Phobia persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation

36 Anxiety Disorders Common and uncommon fears Percentage of people
Afraid of it Bothers slightly Not at all afraid of it Being closed in, in a small place alone In a house at night Percentage of people surveyed 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Snakes in high, exposed places Mice Flying on an airplane Spiders and insects Thunder lightning Dogs Driving a car In a crowd Cats

37 Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder
characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) Panic Disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation

38 Anxiety Disorders Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among
People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Thought or Behavior Percentage* Reporting Symptom Obsessions (repetitive thoughts) Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness) Symmetry order, or exactness Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, or grooming Compulsions (repetitive behaviors) Repeating rituals (in/out of a door, up/down from a chair) Checking doors, locks, appliances, car brake, homework

39 Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder
characterized by emotional extremes Major Depressive Disorder a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

40 Mood Disorders Manic Episode Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania formerly called manic-depressive disorder

41 Mood Disorders-Depression
Percentage of population aged 18-84 experiencing major depression at some point In life 20 15 10 5 USA Edmonton Puerto Paris West Florence Beirut Taiwan Korea New Rico Germany Zealand Around the world women are more susceptible to

42 Mood Disorders-Depression
Age in Years 10% 8 6 4 2 Percentage depressed Females Males

43 Mood Disorders- Suicide
Suicides per 100,000 people 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Males Females The higher suicide rate among men greatly increases in late adulthood

44 Mood Disorders-Suicide
Increasing rates of teen suicide Year 12% 10 8 6 4 2 Suicide rate, ages 15 to 19 (per 100,000)

45 Mood Disorders-Depression
Altering any one component of the chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter the others Brain chemistry Cognition Mood

46 Mood Disorders-Depression
Negative Positive behaviors behaviors Self-ratings 35% 30 25 20 15 Percentage of observations A happy or depressed mood strongly influences people’s ratings of their own behavior

47 Mood Disorders-Depression
The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point 1 Stressful experiences 4 Cognitive and behavioral changes 2 Negative explanatory style 3 Depressed mood

48 Dissociative Disorders
conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings Dissociative Identity Disorder rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder

49 Personality Disorders
disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

50 Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

51 Personality Disorders
PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortex Normal Murderer

52 Personality Disorders
Percentage of criminal offenders 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Total crime Thievery Violence Childhood poverty Obstetrical complications Both poverty and obstetrical

53 Rates of Psychological Disorders
Percentage of Americans Who Have Ever Experienced Psychological Disorders Disorder White Black Hispanic Men Women Totals Ethnicity Gender Alcohol abuse or dependence % % % % % % Generalized anxiety Phobia Obsessive-compulsive disorder Mood disorder Schizophrenic disorder Antisocial personality disorder


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