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 Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez Create a Time Line Chart BC, AD, Century, Now Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY.

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Presentation on theme: " Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez Create a Time Line Chart BC, AD, Century, Now Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:

1  Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez Create a Time Line Chart BC, AD, Century, Now Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY

2  Set Up Time Line

3   The Ancient World  China (200 BC) Chung Ching stated that both organ pathologies & stressful psychological situations were causes of mental disorders.  Greece  Hippocrates (377-460 BC) believed mental illness was the result of natural, as opposed to supernatural, causes.  Galen (130-200 AD) divided the causes of mental disorders into physical and psychological explanations. Historical Perspectives on Abnormal behavior

4   Islamic countries- a. mental hospitals were established (792 AD)b. Persian doctor Sina wrote the Canon of Medicine(medications).  Europe –abnormal behavior was most frequently viewed as demonic possession. treatment entailed – prayer & exorcism. Middle Ages (500-1500 AD)

5   Spanish nun Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) established the conceptual framework that the mind can be sick.  Both Johann Weyer (1515-1588) of Germany and Scot (1538-1599) of England used scientific skepticism to refute the concept of demonic possession. The Renaissance AD

6   In France, Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) pioneered a compassionate medical model for the treatment of the mentally ill & established a hospital in Paris.  In England, William Tuke (1732-1822) introduced trained nurses for the mentally ill & helped to change public attitudes regarding their treatment.  In US, Benjamin rush (1745-1813) founder of American Psychiatry, encouraged humane treatment of the mentally ill & hospitals. Humanitarian Reforms (18 th -19 th century)

7   Development in technology such as MRI and PET scans have added to our knowledge of the biological bases of psychological disorder. MRI PET  Development in pscycho-pharmacology have provided effective treatment for many psychological disorder. Scientific Advances of the 20 th Century

8   Paraphrase on your own… Article – Nearly 500,000 -- mentally ill men and women are serving time in U.S. jails and prisons.

9  Abnormal Behaviors Perspectives & Diagnoses

10   The behavior that is disturbing (socially unacceptable), distressing, maladaptive (or self-defeating), and often the result of distorted thoughts (cognitions). Abnormal Behavior Definition

11   Definitions of Disorders-What does it mean?  Rosenhan’s Experiment-What did it entail?  Evolution of the DSM –What is it?  5 AXES – Write examples for each 1. Clinical Disorders 2. Intellectual Disabilities & Personality Disorders 3. Medical conditions and physical disorders 4. Social & Environmental Factors 5. The Global Assessment of Functioning Videos – Set up your notes

12   /flv/generic.html?s=frol02s496q73&continuous=1 /flv/generic.html?s=frol02s496q73&continuous=1 Frontline Documentary

13  Behavior Disorders Perspectives Create Chart on back of time-line

14   Perspective  Explanation  Treatment  Example  Illustration Create Perspective Chart

15   Explanation:  Focus on biological and physiological factors as causes of abnormal behavior. Treated as a disease, or mental illness, and is diagnosed through symptoms and cured through treatment.  Treatment: Hospitalization and drugs are often preferred methods of treatment rather than psychological investigation.  Example: Schizophrenia needs medication to quiet voices, hallucinations and level dopamine. Medical Perspective

16   Explanation: Evolved from Freudian psychoanalytic theory, which contends that psychological disorders are the consequence of anxiety produced by unresolved, unconscious conflicts(childhood).  Treatment: focuses on identification and resolution of the conflicts.  Example: Child neglected, no love will grow up to not love him/herself or others Psychodynamic Perspective

17   Explanation: Results from faulty or ineffective learning and conditioning.  Treatments are designed to reshape disordered behavior and, using traditional learning procedures, to teach new, more appropriate, and more adaptive responses.  For example, a behavioral analysis of a case of child abuse might suggest that a father abuses his children because he learned the abusive behavior from his father and must now learn more appropriate parenting tactics Behavioral/Learning Perspective

18   Explanation: People engage in abnormal behavior because of particular thoughts and behaviors that are often based upon their false assumptions. This is how the information is being decoded and retrieved (interpreted or memory issues).  Treatments are oriented toward helping the maladjusted individual develop new thought processes and new values.  Therapy is a process of unlearning maladaptive habits and replacing them with more useful ones.  Example: Anger issues from low road to high road Cognitive Perspective

19   Explain: Abnormal behavior is learned within a social context ranging from the family, to the community, to the culture.  Treatment: Introducing and teaching the individual about in abnormal behavior within the culture by comparing and contrasting.  Example: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are psychological disorders found mostly in Western cultures, which value the thin female body Social-Cultural Perspective

20   Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infections  Agrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders Biological Perspective

21   States Psychologists contend that ALL behavior, whether called normal or disordered arises from the interaction of nature and nurture.  The bio-psycho-social perspective is a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Bio-Psych-Social Perspective

22  Frontline Documentary Part 2 & 3

23  1.What is the disorder? 2.Explain the disorder. 1.What causes it? (age) 2.Symptoms 3.Treatment 4.An example of a case with someone having the disorder 5.Common or not? Abnormal Behavior Disorders – pairs of 3/computer lab Wednesday-Turn in outline/present Friday to peers

24   PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings Mood Disorders-Bipolar Depressed stateManic stateDepressed state

25   PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder  High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention Anxiety Disorders

26   DSM-IV  American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)  a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders  Hand out Psychological Disorders- Etiology

27   add Borderline Personality disorder Take out disorder sheet

28  Mental disorders

29   Schizophrenia  literal translation “split mind”  a group of severe disorders characterized by:  disorganized and delusional thinking  disturbed perceptions  inappropriate emotions and actions Schizophrenia

30   Delusions  false beliefs, often of torture or greatness, that may accompany psychotic disorders  Hallucinations  false sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus Schizophrenia

31  Test next class period A few more points to consider… for the

32  Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations Disorganized: Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion Catatonic: Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements Undifferentiated Schizophrenia symptoms without fitting one of the or residual: above types

33  Schizophrenia Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia for relatives of a schizophrenic 40 30 20 10 0 General population SiblingsChildrenFraternal twin Children of two schizophrenia victims Identical twin

34   Neurotic disorder (term seldom used now)  usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially  Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety  Psychotic disorder  person loses contact with reality  experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions Psychological Disorders- Etiology

35   Anxiety Disorders  distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety  Generalized Anxiety Disorder  person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal  Phobia  persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation Anxiety Disorders

36   Common and uncommon fears Anxiety Disorders Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of it Being closed in, in a small place Being alone In a house at night Percentage of people surveyed 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 SnakesBeing in high, exposed places MiceFlying on an airplane Spiders and insects Thunder and lightning DogsDriving a car Being In a crowd of people Cats

37   Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)  Panic Disorder  marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation Anxiety Disorders

38  Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Thought or BehaviorPercentage* Reporting Symptom Obsessions (repetitive thoughts) Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins 40 Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness) 40 Symmetry order, or exactness 24 Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, 85 or grooming Compulsions (repetitive behaviors) Repeating rituals (in/out of a door, 51 up/down from a chair) Checking doors, locks, appliances, 46 car brake, homework

39   Mood Disorders  characterized by emotional extremes  Major Depressive Disorder  a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities Mood Disorders

40   Manic Episode  a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state  Bipolar Disorder  a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania  formerly called manic-depressive disorder Mood Disorders

41  Mood Disorders- Depression Percentage of population aged 18-84 experiencing major depression at some point In life 20 15 10 5 0 USA Edmonton Puerto Paris West Florence Beirut Taiwan Korea New Rico Germany Zealand Around the world women are more susceptible to depression

42  Mood Disorders- Depression 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Age in Years 10% 8 6 4 2 0 Percentage depressed Females Males

43  Mood Disorders- Suicide 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-44 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Suicides per 100,000 people 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Males Females The higher suicide rate among men greatly increases in late adulthood

44   Increasing rates of teen suicide Mood Disorders-Suicide 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 12% 10 8 6 4 2 0 Suicide rate, ages 15 to 19 (per 100,000)

45   Altering any one component of the chemistry-cognition- mood circuit can alter the others Mood Disorders- Depression Brain chemistry Cognition Mood

46   A happy or depressed mood strongly influences people’s ratings of their own behavior Mood Disorders- Depression Negative Positive behaviors Self-ratings 35% 30 25 20 15 Percentage of observations

47   The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point Mood Disorders- Depression 1 Stressful experiences 4 Cognitive and behavioral changes 2 Negative explanatory style 3 Depressed mood

48   Dissociative Disorders  conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings  Dissociative Identity Disorder  rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities  formerly called multiple personality disorder Dissociative Disorders

49   Personality Disorders  disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning  usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions Personality Disorders

50   Antisocial Personality Disorder  disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members  may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist Personality Disorders

51   PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortex Personality Disorders Normal Murderer

52  Personality Disorders Percentage of criminal offenders 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Total crimeThieveryViolence Childhood poverty Obstetrical complications Both poverty and obstetrical complications

53  Rates of Psychological Disorders Percentage of Americans Who Have Ever Experienced Psychological Disorders Disorder White Black Hispanic Men Women Totals Ethnicity Gender Alcohol abuse or dependence 13.6% 13.8% 16.7% 23.8% 4.6% 13.8% Generalized anxiety 3.4 6.1 3.7 2.4 5.0 3.8 Phobia 9.7 23.4 12.2 10.4 17.7 14.3 Obsessive-compulsive disorder 2.6 2.3 1.8 2.0 3.0 2.6 Mood disorder 8.0 6.3 7.8 5.2 10.2 7.8 Schizophrenic disorder 1.4 2.1 0.8 1.2 1.7 1.5 Antisocial personality disorder 2.6 2.3 3.4 4.5 0.8 2.6

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