3Historical Perspectives on Abnormal behavior The Ancient WorldChina (200 BC) Chung Ching stated that both organ pathologies & stressful psychological situations were causes of mental disorders.GreeceHippocrates ( BC) believed mental illness was the result of natural, as opposed to supernatural, causes.Galen ( AD) divided the causes of mental disorders into physical and psychological explanations.
4Middle Ages ( AD)Islamic countries- a. mental hospitals were established (792 AD)b. Persian doctor Sina wrote the Canon of Medicine(medications).Europe –abnormal behavior was most frequently viewed as demonic possession.treatment entailed – prayer & exorcism.
5The Renaissance ADSpanish nun Teresa of Avila ( ) established the conceptual framework that the mind can be sick.Both Johann Weyer ( ) of Germany and Scot ( ) of England used scientific skepticism to refute the concept of demonic possession.
6Humanitarian Reforms (18th-19th century) In France, Philippe Pinel ( ) pioneered a compassionate medical model for the treatment of the mentally ill & established a hospital in Paris.In England, William Tuke ( ) introduced trained nurses for the mentally ill & helped to change public attitudes regarding their treatment.In US, Benjamin rush ( ) founder of American Psychiatry, encouraged humane treatment of the mentally ill & hospitals.
7Scientific Advances of the 20th Century Development in technology such as MRI and PET scans have added to our knowledge of the biological bases of psychological disorder.MRI PETDevelopment in pscycho-pharmacology have provided effective treatment for many psychological disorder.
8Paraphrase on your own… Article – Nearly 500, mentally ill men and women are serving time in U.S. jails and prisons.Paraphrase on your own…
10Abnormal Behavior Definition The behavior that is disturbing (socially unacceptable), distressing, maladaptive (or self-defeating), and often the result of distorted thoughts (cognitions).
11Videos – Set up your notes Definitions of Disorders-What does it mean?Rosenhan’s Experiment-What did it entail?Evolution of the DSM –What is it?5 AXES – Write examples for each1. Clinical Disorders2. Intellectual Disabilities & Personality Disorders3. Medical conditions and physical disorders4. Social & Environmental Factors5. The Global Assessment of Functioning
15Medical Perspective Explanation: Focus on biological and physiological factors as causes of abnormal behavior .Treated as a disease, or mental illness, and is diagnosed through symptoms and cured through treatment.Treatment: Hospitalization and drugs are often preferred methods of treatment rather than psychological investigation.Example: Schizophrenia needs medication to quiet voices, hallucinations and level dopamine.
16Psychodynamic Perspective Explanation: Evolved from Freudian psychoanalytic theory, which contends that psychological disorders are the consequence of anxiety produced by unresolved, unconscious conflicts(childhood).Treatment: focuses on identification and resolution of the conflicts.Example: Child neglected, no love will grow up to not love him/herself or others
17Behavioral/Learning Perspective Explanation: Results from faulty or ineffective learning and conditioning.Treatments are designed to reshape disordered behavior and, using traditional learning procedures, to teach new, more appropriate, and more adaptive responses.For example, a behavioral analysis of a case of child abuse might suggest that a father abuses his children because he learned the abusive behavior from his father and must now learn more appropriate parenting tactics
18Cognitive Perspective Explanation: People engage in abnormal behavior because of particular thoughts and behaviors that are often based upon their false assumptions. This is how the information is being decoded and retrieved (interpreted or memory issues).Treatments are oriented toward helping the maladjusted individual develop new thought processes and new values.Therapy is a process of unlearning maladaptive habits and replacing them with more useful ones.Example: Anger issues from low road to high road
19Social-Cultural Perspective Explain: Abnormal behavior is learned within a social context ranging from the family, to the community, to the culture.Treatment: Introducing and teaching the individual about in abnormal behavior within the culture by comparing and contrasting.Example: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are psychological disorders found mostly in Western cultures, which value the thin female body
20Biological Perspective Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infectionsAgrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders
21Bio-Psych-Social Perspective States Psychologists contend that ALL behavior, whether called normal or disordered arises from the interaction of nature and nurture.The bio-psycho-social perspective is a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
23Abnormal Behavior Disorders – pairs of 3/computer lab Wednesday-Turn in outline/present Friday to peersWhat is the disorder?Explain the disorder.What causes it? (age)SymptomsTreatmentAn example of a case with someone having the disorderCommon or not?
24Mood Disorders-Bipolar PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swingsDepressed stateManic state
25Anxiety DisordersPET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorderHigh metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
26Psychological Disorders- Etiology DSM-IVAmerican Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)a widely used system for classifying psychological disordersHand out
27Take out disorder sheet add Borderline Personality disorder
29Schizophrenia Schizophrenia literal translation “split mind” a group of severe disorders characterized by:disorganized and delusional thinkingdisturbed perceptionsinappropriate emotions and actions
30Schizophrenia Delusions false beliefs, often of torture or greatness, that may accompany psychotic disordersHallucinationsfalse sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus
31A few more points to consider… for the Test next class periodA few more points to consider… for the
32Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinationsDisorganized: Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriateemotionCatatonic: Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement),extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating ofanother’s speech or movementsUndifferentiated Schizophrenia symptoms without fitting one of theor residual: above types
33Schizophrenia 40 30 Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia 20 for relatives ofa schizophrenic40302010GeneralpopulationSiblingsChildrenFraternaltwinof twovictimsIdentical
34Psychological Disorders- Etiology Neurotic disorder (term seldom used now)usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function sociallyFreud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxietyPsychotic disorderperson loses contact with realityexperiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
35Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxietyGeneralized Anxiety Disorderperson is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousalPhobiapersistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
36Anxiety Disorders Common and uncommon fears Percentage of people Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of itBeingclosed in,in asmallplacealoneIn a houseat nightPercentageof peoplesurveyed100908070605040302010Snakesin high,exposedplacesMiceFlyingon anairplaneSpidersandinsectsThunderlightningDogsDrivinga carIn acrowdCats
37Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)Panic Disordermarked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation
38Anxiety Disorders Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderThought or BehaviorPercentage*Reporting SymptomObsessions (repetitive thoughts)Concern with dirt, germs, or toxinsSomething terrible happening (fire, death, illness)Symmetry order, or exactnessExcessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing,or groomingCompulsions (repetitive behaviors)Repeating rituals (in/out of a door,up/down from a chair)Checking doors, locks, appliances,car brake, homework
39Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder characterized by emotional extremesMajor Depressive Disordera mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
40Mood Disorders Manic Episode Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic stateBipolar Disordera mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of maniaformerly called manic-depressive disorder
41Mood Disorders-Depression Percentageof populationaged 18-84experiencingmajordepressionat somepoint In life2015105USA Edmonton Puerto Paris West Florence Beirut Taiwan Korea NewRico Germany ZealandAround the worldwomen are moresusceptible to
42Mood Disorders-Depression Age in Years10%8642PercentagedepressedFemalesMales
43Mood Disorders- Suicide Suicides per100,000 people70605040302010MalesFemalesThe higher suicide rateamong men greatlyincreases in lateadulthood
44Mood Disorders-Suicide Increasing rates of teen suicideYear12%108642Suicide rate,ages 15 to 19(per 100,000)
45Mood Disorders-Depression Altering any one component of the chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter the othersBrainchemistryCognitionMood
46Mood Disorders-Depression Negative Positivebehaviors behaviorsSelf-ratings35%30252015Percentage ofobservationsA happy or depressed mood strongly influences people’s ratings of their own behavior
47Mood Disorders-Depression The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point1Stressfulexperiences4Cognitive andbehavioral changes2Negativeexplanatory style3Depressedmood
48Dissociative Disorders conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelingsDissociative Identity Disorderrare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalitiesformerly called multiple personality disorder
49Personality Disorders disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioningusually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
50Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorderdisorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family membersmay be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
51Personality Disorders PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortexNormalMurderer
53Rates of Psychological Disorders Percentage of Americans Who Have Ever Experienced Psychological DisordersDisorder White Black Hispanic Men Women TotalsEthnicity GenderAlcohol abuseor dependence % % % % % %Generalized anxietyPhobiaObsessive-compulsivedisorderMood disorderSchizophrenicdisorderAntisocial personalitydisorder