Presentation on theme: "Learning Teaching and Assessment Strategy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning Teaching and Assessment Strategy Presentation byLynne NewallNorthumbria UniversityBased on original material by Alastair Irons and Dave Kemp
2 Strategy Aims balance between efficiency and learning experience increase student participationopportunity for active and reflective learningensure high standard, high quality internal moderation proceduressummatively assess using coursework and/or examinationsassess learning outcomes within the unitmaintain balance between group and individual work
3 BSc Unit Learning and Teaching Strategies unit learning, teaching and assessment strategies should be specified in each module guideindependent learning material should be introduced to studentslearning styles vary between stageslevel 4(Yr 1 BSc)level 5(Yr 2 BSc)level 6(Yr 3 BSc)strongly guidedprogressively independent
4 MSc Unit Learning and Teaching Strategies unit learning, teaching and assessment strategies should be specified in each module guideindependent learning material should be usedlearning styles appropriate to levellevel 7(MSc)primarily independent
5 Learning Stages Level 4 : learning awareness and assessment honesty Level 5 : real world learning and increasing individual responsibilityLevel 6 : predominantly independent learninglevel 7 : independent learning, performing highly-complex tasks and procedures
6 Level 4: Learning Awareness and Assessment Honesty be aware of different ways of learningappreciate good and bad practiceselect most appropriate learning style for individual and group workunderstand and appreciate importance of collusion and plagiarismbe able to reflect and self-assess
7 Level 5: Real World Learning and Increasing Individual Responsibility develop level 4 skills in real world contextsdevelop new learning styles, particularly in negotiating learning techniques and outcomesmonitor own progress through self and peer assessment
8 Level 6: Predominantly Independent Learning predominantly involve students in independent, directed learninggroup and individualbe able to appreciate learning approaches in which they are well practisedexpectation of wider reading and researchbreadth and depth of knowledge exploredselection of best practiceprofessional quality of presentation
9 Level 7: Independent Learning encourage students to take responsibility for independent learningdisplay a mastery of a complex and specialised area of knowledge and skillsdemonstrate expertise in highly specialised and advanced technical, professional and/or research skillsaccept accountability in related decision-making, including use of supervision
10 Levels 6 and 7We now look at the requirements of levels 6 and 7 in more detail:from a student viewpointfrom a lecturer viewpoint
11 Level 6 Learning Reflects the Ability to: critically review, consolidate and extend a systematic and coherent body of knowledge, utilising specialised skills across an area of studycritically evaluate new concepts and evidence from a range of sourcestransfer and apply diagnostic and creative skills and exercise significant judgement in a range of situationsaccept accountability for determining and achieving personal and/or group outcomes
12 What Does Level 6 Entail? From a student viewpoint: report writing critical evaluationplagiarismreferencing
13 Report Writing: Key Points with all forms of writing keep audience, structure and purpose in mindfactual accounts explain essential core at appropriate levelpeporting work - need to follow a standard patternarguments need clear statements supported by clear facts
14 Generic Structure for a Paper or Report abstractintroductionmain bodyconclusionsreference listDepending on purpose ofpaper the detailed contentof main body will change.General structure remainsStandards for layout,references etc.
15 Abstract ABSTRACT Length: A brief description of the aims varies with workA brief description of the aimsof the paper, the work undertaken,and conclusions reached.Title of workAuthorABSTRACTREST OF PAPER
16 Introduction First section of paper Describes background to the work, giving a clear statementof the objectives, purpose ofwork, any limitations.Brief outline of rest of paperOften writtenlast!Draft producedearly
17 Main Body Structure depends on type of paper General Points: Plan work Develop themesIntroduce topics in a sensible logical orderConsider use of diagrams, etc.Adopt a good style of writingReview work
18 Main Body in Project Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation Analysis - background to problem area/ topic; criticalexamination of methods and techniques that might beused to solve the problem & and constraints.Includes literature surveyEvaluation - a criticalreview of thetechnical aspects ofthe work; strengths& weaknesses ofmethods & techniquesSynthesis - a description ofthe work done; the resultsobtained; justification ofthese; design choices
19 Main Body - Review Paper This is a form of literature surveyAim:1. to determine the state of art in a particular area2. to identify a set of useful techniques/ methods/algorithms for future use.Give it structure / Develop ThemesHow not to do it:Do not simply list each book or paper you have readWith a precis of it.
20 Main Body of the Project Report in more depth the introduction should be followed by a clear and orderly presentation of the work you have done.it will be divided into a number of chapters.the main body of the report will contain an Analysis of the problem, the Synthesis of a solution to the problem and an Evaluation of the work.
21 Analysisthe analysis should include the 'Background' to the problem area, a discussion of the wider issues, critically examine the methods that might be used in solving the problem and any constraints which apply.beware of presenting a shallow treatment of the subject which might be obtained from standard texts; you are expected to support your argument by exploring academic literature which is seminal and up to date.
22 Synthesisejustify in detail the method(s) you chose to synthesise a solution to the problem.discuss how your reading of the literature guided you in your work.you will wish to make reference to supporting documentation in your discussion of the solution; these will be held in Appendices to the Report.
23 Evaluationyou should present a critical evaluation of the work you have done from a technical point of view.in this section you should attempt to identify any weaknesses of your work and possible alternative technical approaches.beware of the 'anecdotal' evaluation - you are expected to take a critical view and justify your argument.
24 Evaluation (cont)in addition, the evaluation should address the way in which you undertook the project (the process); actual progress made during the project should be related to the Project Plan expressed in the Terms of Reference document.the emphasis should be on the learning process. A discussion of alternative approaches to the way you undertook the work should, if possible be presented.
25 Evaluation (cont) How do you conduct an evaluation? list features, attributes, performance etc.rate theseobtain feedback from users – objective feedback!think about alternative solutions to the problem.think about better/alternative ways of producing product.think about different tools that could be used to produce the product
26 provides summary of previous Conclusionshould relate tointroductionbring together themany points madeearlier in the paperrepeats previouspointsif a reportdraws on evaluationindicates future workif a review paperprovides summary of previouspointsmay indicate futuredevelopments
27 The use of references is the standard It is very important that you acknowledgeany work of others that you use or adaptin your own work, or that provides theessential background or context to yourworkThe use of references is the standardway to do this
28 Standards for References Styles in TextRomero (1982) identified three stake holders ...In  the three stake holders in the process are ...Romero [ROME82] identified three stake holders ...PREFERREDDate a Web reference
29 Example List of References [BRAD89] Bradley IM Notes on Algebraic SpecificationsInformation and Software Technology 31(7)Sept 1989,[SOMM96] Sommerville I Software Engineering 5th edAddison-Wesleyalphabetical ordering
30 Avoid Long Complex Sentences problem ofdialectSentence should “sound right”Be consistent with tensemixing past with presentbe consistentPassive voiceThe computer was turned onActive voiceI turned the computer on
31 Write Sentences that are Concise Watch for phrases thatcan be shortened to oneword:along the lines oflikedue to the fact thatbecauseat some future pointlaterUse a few wordsto convey messageWatch for redundancy“the great majority”“the majority”
32 Write Sentences that are Precise Say what youmeanAvoid ambiguity and vaguenessRather a lot of students passed the first yearvagueUse technical terms to avoid ambiguity andvagueness
33 Putting it Together To make writing flow you need a Flow structure that allows the logicaldevelopment of the materiala keyParagraphsgroup related sentencesstart of paragraph should coincide with change ofemphasisfirst sentence in each paragraph should be asignpost - topic of paragraph
34 Doing what you are Asked to do Criticizesaying how convincing you find somethingDefinegiving precise meaning of somethingIllustrateexplain using examples or diagramsDescribegive a detailed account of ..Explaingive reasons for; interpret and account forDiscusslooking at a subject from different points of view; pros and cons
35 General PointsHunt for key words in a question ; quote them in what you writeTarget your writing to exactly what is asked of youSupport points of view with factual informationRemember word limits are there to help youStick to the word limit: may be penalized if exceededShow mathematical calculationsUse sources for ideasRead around the subjectWrite at an appropriate technical level - as reflected by your sourcesDo Not Copy
36 Plan Essential Report Structure introduction Work timetable topic 1 sourcesresourcestopic 1topic 2topic 3topic 4conclusion
37 Check Your work Kept to topic title? Introduction clarify purpose? Purpose of each section / paragraph clear?Conclusion shows how arguments advanced?Logical flow okay?Sentences okay - don’t ramble / repeat?Written too much / not enough?Does report satisfy aim?
38 Pictorial Diagrams Check List reference in text?figure 1. Generic PCMonitorKeyboardSystem Boxtitle for picture?labels on diagram?size & scale?simplified / stylised?
39 Relationship Diagrams Non-pictorialRepresentation of structural / organisational features of a situationMany types used in computingflow chartsstructure diagramsdata flow diagramsstate diagramsentity relationship diagrams
40 Using Diagrams in your Work decide on appropriate type based on what you are trying to showkeep simpleif part of a methodologystick to standardsmake sure the diagram makes sensegive diagrams a title, refer to in textlabel diagram clearly
41 Collusion and Plagiarism http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite this is where one or more people work together on an individual piece of work.ONLY work together when the assignment rubric tells you it is a piece of group workplagiarismthis is where work is copied from:-a text without appropriate referencinganother student’s worklecture handouts“ghosting”PENALTYloss of marks, much heartache and poor reference
42 Plagiarism The actual quote from page 211: Software Project Management, Cotterell and Hughes, 2002The actual quote from page 211:“People with practical experience of projects invariably identify the handling of people as an important aspect of project management.”If in your submitted work we find …..PLAGIARISM!!! AN EXACT COPY WITH NO REFERENCE
43 What can you do?Cotterell [Cott2002] states that “People with practical experience of projects invariably identify the handling of people as an important aspect of project management.”ORFrom his research Cotterell [Cott2002] established that experienced project managers recognise the importance of good man-management skills to ensure successful projects.
44 What Does Level 6 Entail? From a lecturer viewpoint: modes of learning and teachingimplementing the strategylectures, seminars, workshops, guided learningassessment, marking, moderationpersonal development planning
45 Level 6: Modes of Learning and Teaching lecturessupported by slides, not ‘talk and chalk’seminarsapply knowledge imparted in lectures, enable students to practise, question, reflectworkshopsskills in practical subjects-programming, databaseguided learningguidance as to self-study requirementsAll the above supported by e-learning (use of Blackboard or equivalent)
46 Implementing the Strategy at Level 6 study skills supportadopt independent learningintroduce complex learning situationsexpect students to apply greater problem solving abilitieswhere appropriate use open or flexible learninguse full range of assessments, including open book exams
47 Efficiency vs Learning Experience Single 10-credit module:12 weeks per semestermix of lectures/seminars/workshops and guided learningup to 6 single modules studied per semestertime for assessment/revision/individual study and social activitieseach module c2 hours/week
48 Lectures (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002) make the structure of the lecture explicituse the introduction to list key points “first I am going to describe….then I shall discuss…. I shall say a few words about…. and finally I will….”use “listing markers” such as firstly, my next point is, I’ll move on to my main argument, the last point is…use “cause and effect markers” to show the relationship between points: “therefore, with the result that, consequently”
49 Lectures (cont.) (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002) use “example markers” to indicate you are going to illustrate your ideas by giving examples: “for instance, an example of this is…”use “emphasis markers” to indicate the relative importance of a point: “it is worth noting that, it is really interesting/crucial that…”clarify technical terms/complex ideasuse “semantic markers” to highlight you are re-phrasing what you have just said: “in other words, let me put it this way…”
50 Lectures (cont.) support lectures with handouts/copies of slides used place on Blackboard so students can get off-line access to them (in advance where possible)give references to source materials where appropriategive references to additional articles to encourage independent research/learning(Ian Bradley’s example module)
51 Seminars (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002) consider the way you design discussion tasks (give out discussion materials in advance, cut down long articles into sub-texts to increase speed of comprehension)encourage students to seek clarificationencourage/teach students to question, criticise, offer opinionhelp students to understand that direct quotations are no substitute for their own thoughts
52 Seminars (cont.)put discussion material on Blackboard in advance, to enable students to prepareuse a mixture of individual/group workuse student presentations where appropriateuse seminars to identify areas of student difficulty, and to give formative feedback
53 Workshops gain practical skills individual/group activities copying/collusionsupervised/unsupervisedadditional support/help facilitiesworkbooksmini-assessments
54 Exercise 1In groups of 2 or 3, use the module descriptor for the Advanced Database module and determine an appropriate Learning and Teaching Strategy.Produce a 12-week unit guide, including lecture/seminar/workshop sessions and topics, along with justifications.Present your group’s guide to the others for discussion.
55 Guided LearningAt level 6, students should be able to determine what additional work they need to do - what additional reading/practical exercises, revision etc. BUT, you can help by:giving out references to other sourcessuggesting alternative authors/textsencouraging wider reading to use as examples in assignments/examsshowing relationship between subject areassuggesting practical supporting work
56 Guided Learning (cont.) The individual project plays a major role in both guided and independent learning:individual supervisorone-to-one communication/guidance on a weekly basisencouragement to research topics independentlystudents gain in confidence and self-motivation
57 Assessmentuse in-course assessment and/or examinations for summative assessmentavoid over-assessment of students (only assess each learning outcome once)ensure adequate formative assessment and feedback is available to studentsinnovate where appropriate, particularly in support of independent learning approaches
58 Types of Assessed Work coursework examinations individual and group assignmentsclass testsorals / presentationsself and peer assessmentexaminationsopen bookclosed bookopen note
59 Marking All assessments must have: detailed marking scheme indicating how each set of marks is to be awardeddefinitive solution where appropriaterecognition of valid alternatives
60 Exercise 2Include the Assessment strategy for the Advanced Database module, along with a justification for your choice of assessment type(s).Present your group’s solution to the others for discussion.
61 What Does Level 7 Entail? From a student viewpoint: exploration of boundaries, whereas preceding levels focused on knowledge and skills within themperforming more highly complex tasks and proceduresaccepting accountability in decision-making processesresponsibility for initiating supervisory and peer support contacts
62 What Does Level 7 Entail? From a lecturer viewpoint: modes of learning and teachingimplementing the strategylectures, seminars, workshops, encouraging independent learning, supervisionassessment, marking, moderationpersonal development planning
63 SupervisionSeparate session on projects gives detailed information on requirements.
64 Franchise College Flexibility You will be provided with a module guide for each module you are teaching, but have the flexibility to:give additional lectures/seminars/workshops as appropriate for your studentsgive extra guidance/references to additional materialsmake recommendations to the module tutor at Northumbria for changes to the delivery/assessment of the modulecontribute towards the assessments via the Northumbria module tutorensure that your students are prepared for the assessments set
65 ModerationThe total assessment for a module should assess all the stated learning outcomes. Moderation should also check for:standardslevelcorrectnessfairness
66 Moderation Process Evidence of Assessment: internal and external pre-assessment checkingfor standards, correctness, level, fairnesspost-assessment checking (next slide)provides audit trail
67 Moderation Process (Cont.) post-assessment checkingmarkaccording to marking scheme – e.g. 2/3 where max. of 3 marks to be awarded for that topicinclude zero marks – e.g. 0/3 where student has not given any relevant answer to a topican indication that each page has been read/consideredsecond-mark sample of scriptsbest, worst, borderlinecheck addition of marks awarded by markerindication that all marks have been ratifiedif disagreement, recommendation as to resolution (not just average disputed marks) with justification
68 Guidance TutoringEach student is allocated a guidance tutor, who helps with:personal development planningacademic problemspersonal difficultiesNot as a professional counsellor – but to direct to appropriate professional contact.
69 Personal Development Planning Progress files:consider work and life experiences – development at university with regard to career planning and future employmentreflect on the process of learning - learn to learnlifelong learning skills – transferred to the workplaceplan/reflect/review progress (including a record of academic results)
70 Progress Files will Normally Contain: written guidance and support materialreview of learning prior to joining Northumbria Universitysemester by semester planning and review sectionsframework for career planning and the development of a C.V.reflection on work and "life" experiences.reflections on key skills developmenttranscript recording academic achievement
71 Exercise 3What material could your students include in their progress file from what already exists, without having to produce extra written work?Present your suggestions to the others for discussion.
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