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Learning Teaching and Assessment Strategy

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1 Learning Teaching and Assessment Strategy
Presentation by Lynne Newall Northumbria University Based on original material by Alastair Irons and Dave Kemp

2 Strategy Aims balance between efficiency and learning experience
increase student participation opportunity for active and reflective learning ensure high standard, high quality internal moderation procedures summatively assess using coursework and/or examinations assess learning outcomes within the unit maintain balance between group and individual work

3 BSc Unit Learning and Teaching Strategies
unit learning, teaching and assessment strategies should be specified in each module guide independent learning material should be introduced to students learning styles vary between stages level 4 (Yr 1 BSc) level 5 (Yr 2 BSc) level 6 (Yr 3 BSc) strongly guided progressively independent

4 MSc Unit Learning and Teaching Strategies
unit learning, teaching and assessment strategies should be specified in each module guide independent learning material should be used learning styles appropriate to level level 7 (MSc) primarily independent

5 Learning Stages Level 4 : learning awareness and assessment honesty
Level 5 : real world learning and increasing individual responsibility Level 6 : predominantly independent learning level 7 : independent learning, performing highly-complex tasks and procedures

6 Level 4: Learning Awareness and Assessment Honesty
be aware of different ways of learning appreciate good and bad practice select most appropriate learning style for individual and group work understand and appreciate importance of collusion and plagiarism be able to reflect and self-assess

7 Level 5: Real World Learning and Increasing Individual Responsibility
develop level 4 skills in real world contexts develop new learning styles, particularly in negotiating learning techniques and outcomes monitor own progress through self and peer assessment

8 Level 6: Predominantly Independent Learning
predominantly involve students in independent, directed learning group and individual be able to appreciate learning approaches in which they are well practised expectation of wider reading and research breadth and depth of knowledge explored selection of best practice professional quality of presentation

9 Level 7: Independent Learning
encourage students to take responsibility for independent learning display a mastery of a complex and specialised area of knowledge and skills demonstrate expertise in highly specialised and advanced technical, professional and/or research skills accept accountability in related decision-making, including use of supervision

10 Levels 6 and 7 We now look at the requirements of levels 6 and 7 in more detail: from a student viewpoint from a lecturer viewpoint

11 Level 6 Learning Reflects the Ability to:
critically review, consolidate and extend a systematic and coherent body of knowledge, utilising specialised skills across an area of study critically evaluate new concepts and evidence from a range of sources transfer and apply diagnostic and creative skills and exercise significant judgement in a range of situations accept accountability for determining and achieving personal and/or group outcomes

12 What Does Level 6 Entail? From a student viewpoint: report writing
critical evaluation plagiarism referencing

13 Report Writing: Key Points
with all forms of writing keep audience, structure and purpose in mind factual accounts explain essential core at appropriate level peporting work - need to follow a standard pattern arguments need clear statements supported by clear facts

14 Generic Structure for a Paper or Report
abstract introduction main body conclusions reference list Depending on purpose of paper the detailed content of main body will change. General structure remains Standards for layout, references etc.

15 Abstract ABSTRACT Length: A brief description of the aims varies with
work A brief description of the aims of the paper, the work undertaken, and conclusions reached. Title of work Author ABSTRACT REST OF PAPER

16 Introduction First section of paper Describes background to the
work, giving a clear statement of the objectives, purpose of work, any limitations. Brief outline of rest of paper Often written last! Draft produced early

17 Main Body Structure depends on type of paper General Points: Plan work
Develop themes Introduce topics in a sensible logical order Consider use of diagrams, etc. Adopt a good style of writing Review work

18 Main Body in Project Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
Analysis - background to problem area/ topic; critical examination of methods and techniques that might be used to solve the problem & and constraints. Includes literature survey Evaluation - a critical review of the technical aspects of the work; strengths & weaknesses of methods & techniques Synthesis - a description of the work done; the results obtained; justification of these; design choices

19 Main Body - Review Paper
This is a form of literature survey Aim: 1. to determine the state of art in a particular area 2. to identify a set of useful techniques/ methods/ algorithms for future use. Give it structure / Develop Themes How not to do it: Do not simply list each book or paper you have read With a precis of it.

20 Main Body of the Project Report in more depth
the introduction should be followed by a clear and orderly presentation of the work you have done. it will be divided into a number of chapters. the main body of the report will contain an Analysis of the problem, the Synthesis of a solution to the problem and an Evaluation of the work.

21 Analysis the analysis should include the 'Background' to the problem area, a discussion of the wider issues, critically examine the methods that might be used in solving the problem and any constraints which apply. beware of presenting a shallow treatment of the subject which might be obtained from standard texts; you are expected to support your argument by exploring academic literature which is seminal and up to date.

22 Synthesise justify in detail the method(s) you chose to synthesise a solution to the problem. discuss how your reading of the literature guided you in your work. you will wish to make reference to supporting documentation in your discussion of the solution; these will be held in Appendices to the Report.

23 Evaluation you should present a critical evaluation of the work you have done from a technical point of view. in this section you should attempt to identify any weaknesses of your work and possible alternative technical approaches. beware of the 'anecdotal' evaluation - you are expected to take a critical view and justify your argument.

24 Evaluation (cont) in addition, the evaluation should address the way in which you undertook the project (the process); actual progress made during the project should be related to the Project Plan expressed in the Terms of Reference document. the emphasis should be on the learning process. A discussion of alternative approaches to the way you undertook the work should, if possible be presented.

25 Evaluation (cont) How do you conduct an evaluation?
list features, attributes, performance etc. rate these obtain feedback from users – objective feedback! think about alternative solutions to the problem. think about better/alternative ways of producing product. think about different tools that could be used to produce the product

26 provides summary of previous
Conclusion should relate to introduction bring together the many points made earlier in the paper repeats previous points if a report draws on evaluation indicates future work if a review paper provides summary of previous points may indicate future developments

27 The use of references is the standard
It is very important that you acknowledge any work of others that you use or adapt in your own work, or that provides the essential background or context to your work The use of references is the standard way to do this

28 Standards for References
Styles in Text Romero (1982) identified three stake holders ... In [4] the three stake holders in the process are ... Romero [ROME82] identified three stake holders ... PREFERRED Date a Web reference

29 Example List of References
[BRAD89] Bradley IM Notes on Algebraic Specifications Information and Software Technology 31(7) Sept 1989, [SOMM96] Sommerville I Software Engineering 5th ed Addison-Wesley alphabetical ordering

30 Avoid Long Complex Sentences
problem of dialect Sentence should “sound right” Be consistent with tense mixing past with present be consistent Passive voice The computer was turned on Active voice I turned the computer on

31 Write Sentences that are Concise
Watch for phrases that can be shortened to one word: along the lines of like due to the fact that because at some future point later Use a few words to convey message Watch for redundancy “the great majority” “the majority”

32 Write Sentences that are Precise
Say what you mean Avoid ambiguity and vagueness Rather a lot of students passed the first year vague Use technical terms to avoid ambiguity and vagueness

33 Putting it Together To make writing flow you need a Flow
structure that allows the logical development of the material a key Paragraphs group related sentences start of paragraph should coincide with change of emphasis first sentence in each paragraph should be a signpost - topic of paragraph

34 Doing what you are Asked to do
Criticize saying how convincing you find something Define giving precise meaning of something Illustrate explain using examples or diagrams Describe give a detailed account of .. Explain give reasons for; interpret and account for Discuss looking at a subject from different points of view; pros and cons

35 General Points Hunt for key words in a question ; quote them in what you write Target your writing to exactly what is asked of you Support points of view with factual information Remember word limits are there to help you Stick to the word limit: may be penalized if exceeded Show mathematical calculations Use sources for ideas Read around the subject Write at an appropriate technical level - as reflected by your sources Do Not Copy

36 Plan Essential Report Structure introduction Work timetable topic 1
sources resources topic 1 topic 2 topic 3 topic 4 conclusion

37 Check Your work Kept to topic title? Introduction clarify purpose?
Purpose of each section / paragraph clear? Conclusion shows how arguments advanced? Logical flow okay? Sentences okay - don’t ramble / repeat? Written too much / not enough? Does report satisfy aim?

38 Pictorial Diagrams Check List
reference in text? figure 1. Generic PC Monitor Keyboard System Box title for picture? labels on diagram? size & scale? simplified / stylised?

39 Relationship Diagrams
Non-pictorial Representation of structural / organisational features of a situation Many types used in computing flow charts structure diagrams data flow diagrams state diagrams entity relationship diagrams

40 Using Diagrams in your Work
decide on appropriate type based on what you are trying to show keep simple if part of a methodology stick to standards make sure the diagram makes sense give diagrams a title, refer to in text label diagram clearly

41 Collusion and Plagiarism
this is where one or more people work together on an individual piece of work. ONLY work together when the assignment rubric tells you it is a piece of group work plagiarism this is where work is copied from:- a text without appropriate referencing another student’s work lecture handouts “ghosting” PENALTY loss of marks, much heartache and poor reference

42 Plagiarism The actual quote from page 211:
Software Project Management, Cotterell and Hughes, 2002 The actual quote from page 211: “People with practical experience of projects invariably identify the handling of people as an important aspect of project management.” If in your submitted work we find ….. PLAGIARISM!!! AN EXACT COPY WITH NO REFERENCE

43 What can you do? Cotterell [Cott2002] states that “People with practical experience of projects invariably identify the handling of people as an important aspect of project management.” OR From his research Cotterell [Cott2002] established that experienced project managers recognise the importance of good man-management skills to ensure successful projects.

44 What Does Level 6 Entail? From a lecturer viewpoint:
modes of learning and teaching implementing the strategy lectures, seminars, workshops, guided learning assessment, marking, moderation personal development planning

45 Level 6: Modes of Learning and Teaching
lectures supported by slides, not ‘talk and chalk’ seminars apply knowledge imparted in lectures, enable students to practise, question, reflect workshops skills in practical subjects-programming, database guided learning guidance as to self-study requirements All the above supported by e-learning (use of Blackboard or equivalent)

46 Implementing the Strategy at Level 6
study skills support adopt independent learning introduce complex learning situations expect students to apply greater problem solving abilities where appropriate use open or flexible learning use full range of assessments, including open book exams

47 Efficiency vs Learning Experience
Single 10-credit module: 12 weeks per semester mix of lectures/seminars/workshops and guided learning up to 6 single modules studied per semester time for assessment/revision/individual study and social activities each module c2 hours/week

48 Lectures (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002)
make the structure of the lecture explicit use the introduction to list key points “first I am going to describe….then I shall discuss…. I shall say a few words about…. and finally I will….” use “listing markers” such as firstly, my next point is, I’ll move on to my main argument, the last point is… use “cause and effect markers” to show the relationship between points: “therefore, with the result that, consequently”

49 Lectures (cont.) (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002)
use “example markers” to indicate you are going to illustrate your ideas by giving examples: “for instance, an example of this is…” use “emphasis markers” to indicate the relative importance of a point: “it is worth noting that, it is really interesting/crucial that…” clarify technical terms/complex ideas use “semantic markers” to highlight you are re-phrasing what you have just said: “in other words, let me put it this way…”

50 Lectures (cont.) support lectures with handouts/copies of slides used
place on Blackboard so students can get off-line access to them (in advance where possible) give references to source materials where appropriate give references to additional articles to encourage independent research/learning (Ian Bradley’s example module)

51 Seminars (Elizabeth Porter, Feb 2002)
consider the way you design discussion tasks (give out discussion materials in advance, cut down long articles into sub-texts to increase speed of comprehension) encourage students to seek clarification encourage/teach students to question, criticise, offer opinion help students to understand that direct quotations are no substitute for their own thoughts

52 Seminars (cont.) put discussion material on Blackboard in advance, to enable students to prepare use a mixture of individual/group work use student presentations where appropriate use seminars to identify areas of student difficulty, and to give formative feedback

53 Workshops gain practical skills individual/group activities
copying/collusion supervised/unsupervised additional support/help facilities workbooks mini-assessments

54 Exercise 1 In groups of 2 or 3, use the module descriptor for the Advanced Database module and determine an appropriate Learning and Teaching Strategy. Produce a 12-week unit guide, including lecture/seminar/workshop sessions and topics, along with justifications. Present your group’s guide to the others for discussion.

55 Guided Learning At level 6, students should be able to determine what additional work they need to do - what additional reading/practical exercises, revision etc. BUT, you can help by: giving out references to other sources suggesting alternative authors/texts encouraging wider reading to use as examples in assignments/exams showing relationship between subject areas suggesting practical supporting work

56 Guided Learning (cont.)
The individual project plays a major role in both guided and independent learning: individual supervisor one-to-one communication/guidance on a weekly basis encouragement to research topics independently students gain in confidence and self-motivation

57 Assessment use in-course assessment and/or examinations for summative assessment avoid over-assessment of students (only assess each learning outcome once) ensure adequate formative assessment and feedback is available to students innovate where appropriate, particularly in support of independent learning approaches

58 Types of Assessed Work coursework examinations
individual and group assignments class tests orals / presentations self and peer assessment examinations open book closed book open note

59 Marking All assessments must have:
detailed marking scheme indicating how each set of marks is to be awarded definitive solution where appropriate recognition of valid alternatives

60 Exercise 2 Include the Assessment strategy for the Advanced Database module, along with a justification for your choice of assessment type(s). Present your group’s solution to the others for discussion.

61 What Does Level 7 Entail? From a student viewpoint:
exploration of boundaries, whereas preceding levels focused on knowledge and skills within them performing more highly complex tasks and procedures accepting accountability in decision-making processes responsibility for initiating supervisory and peer support contacts

62 What Does Level 7 Entail? From a lecturer viewpoint:
modes of learning and teaching implementing the strategy lectures, seminars, workshops, encouraging independent learning, supervision assessment, marking, moderation personal development planning

63 Supervision Separate session on projects gives detailed information on requirements.

64 Franchise College Flexibility
You will be provided with a module guide for each module you are teaching, but have the flexibility to: give additional lectures/seminars/workshops as appropriate for your students give extra guidance/references to additional materials make recommendations to the module tutor at Northumbria for changes to the delivery/assessment of the module contribute towards the assessments via the Northumbria module tutor ensure that your students are prepared for the assessments set

65 Moderation The total assessment for a module should assess all the stated learning outcomes. Moderation should also check for: standards level correctness fairness

66 Moderation Process Evidence of Assessment: internal and external
pre-assessment checking for standards, correctness, level, fairness post-assessment checking (next slide) provides audit trail

67 Moderation Process (Cont.)
post-assessment checking mark according to marking scheme – e.g. 2/3 where max. of 3 marks to be awarded for that topic include zero marks – e.g. 0/3 where student has not given any relevant answer to a topic an indication that each page has been read/considered second-mark sample of scripts best, worst, borderline check addition of marks awarded by marker indication that all marks have been ratified if disagreement, recommendation as to resolution (not just average disputed marks) with justification

68 Guidance Tutoring Each student is allocated a guidance tutor, who helps with: personal development planning academic problems personal difficulties Not as a professional counsellor – but to direct to appropriate professional contact.

69 Personal Development Planning
Progress files: consider work and life experiences – development at university with regard to career planning and future employment reflect on the process of learning - learn to learn lifelong learning skills – transferred to the workplace plan/reflect/review progress (including a record of academic results)

70 Progress Files will Normally Contain:
written guidance and support material review of learning prior to joining Northumbria University semester by semester planning and review sections framework for career planning and the development of a C.V. reflection on work and "life" experiences. reflections on key skills development transcript recording academic achievement

71 Exercise 3 What material could your students include in their progress file from what already exists, without having to produce extra written work? Present your suggestions to the others for discussion.

72 Summary LTA strategy lectures/seminars/workshops assessments
moderation guided/independent learning guidance tutoring/progress files

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