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Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-1 Edited by Elizabeth.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-1 Edited by Elizabeth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-1 Edited by Elizabeth Rieger Images, Figures and Tables Chapter 7 Abnormal Psychology Leading Researcher Perspectives

2 A 2010 research report documents 367 people died and approximately people were hospitalised during the year of the study as a result of the drinking of others (e.g., as victims of alcohol-related interpersonal violence or drinking and driving). Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-2 iStock

3 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-3

4 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-4

5 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-6 Figure 1 The dopaminergic reward pathway in the brain, through which messages from the dopamine-rich ventral tegmental area (VTA) are sent to the nucleus accumbens and on to the prefrontal cortex

6 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. Public education campaigns on the harms associated with smoking tobacco have been effective at reducing the prevalence of smoking. © Newspix/News LTD 7-6

7 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-7 Figure 2 According to the Stages of Change Model, people move through a series of stages in changing an addictive behaviour

8 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-8

9 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-9 Standard multi-reel poker machines Courtesy A. Blaszczynski

10 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-10

11 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al Figure 3 The complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors in the aetiology of pathological gambling

12 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-12

13 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al Figure 4 The Integrated Pathways Model of pathological gambling in which individuals are theorised to follow one of three different pathways in the development of pathological gambling

14 Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. Gamblers Anonymous emphasises shared common experiences provided by mutually supportive peers in a group setting. It espouses that compulsive gambling is an illness that cannot be cured and that abstinence is the only valid treatment goal Manchan/Getty Images

15 Proposed changes for addictive behaviours in DSM-V Disorders of substance dependence and substance abuse are to be combined into a single disorder and be referred to as substance-use disorder. Substance-use disorder should have a grading severity (moderate or severe) depending on how many symptoms the individual experiences. Pathological gambling is to be redefined, away from the concept of an impulse control to an addictive disorder, and be re-classified as a ‘behavioural addiction’ within the tentatively renamed ‘Addictions and Related Disorders’ category (previously ‘Substance Related Disorders’). For pathological gambling, the criterion related to the commission of criminal offences is to be deleted, since this item is the least endorsed and fails to improve diagnostic accuracy. The requisite number of criteria items to satisfy a diagnosis will be reduced from the current five out of 10, to four out of nine Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al.

16 Chapter 7 Summary Both substance-use disorders and pathological gambling entail persistent engagement in the behaviour despite the multiple and severe problems the individual encounters as a result. Numerous substance-use disorders are recognised in the DSM-IV-TR, including alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, cannabis, hallucinogen, inhalant, nicotine, opioid and sedative abuse and dependence. The comorbid medical and psychological disorders, as well as elevated mortality among those with a substance-use disorder, highlight the importance of research on these conditions. Substance-use disorders predominantly affect young men and occur due to a wide variety of factors, including genes, neurobiological processes, learned behaviours, personality factors, cognitive processes, family/peer influences and cultural norms. There is a range of effective treatments that draw on psychological approaches (such as motivational enhancement therapy, brief interventions and skills training) and pharmacological options. Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-16

17 Chapter 7 Summary (continued) Approximately 1% of the adult population meets DSM-IV-TR criteria for pathological gambling, with a higher rate of 5% exhibited by adolescents. In addition to financial problems, this group suffers high rates of depression, substance-use disorders, employment difficulties, and criminal offences motivated by a drive to maintain their gambling. Multiple factors are involved in the aetiology of pathological gambling. Most aetiological models of gambling focus on one component but recognise that complex interactions exist between biological, personality, cognitive, behavioural and environmental variables. The Integrated Pathways Model is a conceptual model that integrates the multitude of aetiological factors into a coherent framework that recognises different subtypes among those with pathological gambling, and guides treatment interventions. To date, cognitive behaviour therapy has received the strongest support in the management of pathological gambling, with success rates in the vicinity of 75%. Copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Abnormal Psychology: Leading Researcher Perspectives 2e by Rieger et al. 7-17


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