Women were supposed to be: It’s the natural function of women to bear children and to feed them at infancy. In the old days, the role of married women was to assist their husbands and bring up children //to wait upon their husbands and parents-in-law //to cook for the family //to do all the housework.
Women were traditionally encouraged to develop tender thoughts and sentimental feelings //to rely on intuition and instinct to arrive at decisions //to be modest and obedient. Women were discouraged from developing rationality and reasoning.
Lead-in questions Use your head and list some adj. that you would like to use to define a typical girl/ female or boy/ male in your eyes. When you were very young, what kind of toys and games did you have? Were there some thing you want to buy or do but you parents did not think proper for your gender?
Lead-in questions What different roles are man and woman expected to play respectively in the family? What do you know are the major differences between males and females? How did you come to such a conclusion? Did you believe in these differences or you were taught to accept them?
Lead-in questions What helps shape the gender distinctions?
After a long, bitter struggle, women now enjoy the right to vote //have the same educational opportunities as men in most parts of the world. There are no laws preventing women in many countries from voting //from being elected //from pursuing a career //from becoming a professional. Women at present:
On the surface, women in most countries have the free choice to either stay at home or enter a profession. Prejudice against women still exists. Even in the most progressive societies, women continue to be regarded as second-rate citizens. It may be personally fulfilling and socially valuable for women to take care of home and family. The same holds true for men. Compared with their colleagues, career women have to shoulder more responsibilities in society. It’s very difficult to be wife, mother and successful career woman at the same time.
A woman’s position within a family, in a way, depends on her economic status. A woman who has to rely on her husband economically won’t be treated equally. Some women are quite content with the way things are //have no desire for change //have little confidence in themselves //have no ambition for top-level posts.
Ask yourself Are you sure that certain natural differences that exist between man and woman are relevant to the distinctions between male and female excellence and a different expectation of their social qualities?
Ask yourself Is there any reason why a boy should be barred from needles and thread? Do girls have no head for mechanical things?
Text-related questions If you can choose, would you like to study in a single sex school or a mixed sexes school? Why?
Text-related questions How is this argumentation organized?
Structural analysis of the text Part One (1 -2) Part Two (3-4) Part Three (5)
Structural analysis of the text Main idea of each part: Part One (1 -2) ---the gender stereotypes are mentioned and logically rejected. Part Two (3-4) --- The writer argues against the single sex school and then argues for coeducation. Part Three 5--- The writer concludes the essay by repeating his opinion of coeducation and by putting forward his definition of a gender free society.
Text-related questions What is the aim of education? Can the single sex school realize the aim of education? What is the most desirable form of education? How does the writer define and explain coeducation?
Part I (paras. 1-2) What are the existing gender stereotypes mentioned in the first paragraph? What does the writer think of such concepts as “gender appropriate” and “stereotyped sex roles”? What conclusion does the writer reach?
>>(“The idea of single sex schools is groundless”)
Structural analysis of part I In the first paragraph, the writer states the existing stereotypes. Then in the second paragraph, he rejected the social sex norms on the ground that they are invented by and imposed on man, but rest their logic nowhere.
Structural analysis of part I He logically negates the artificially created gender norms by means of logic reasoning, thus naturally rejecting the idea of single sex school.
Part I/ Detailed reading Key words and expressions Sentence highlights Language appreciation
masculine: having qualities typical of men 区分 male and man ---Men tend to do such masculine tasks as car maintenance and yard work. ---She looks rather masculine in that horse racing suit.
feminine 区分 female and woman ---The tomboy daughter never wears feminine clothes, such as high-heel shoes and skirts. ---He has a very feminine voice. 他的声音 很娘娘腔.
be divided into … divide…into … separate … into/ from … ---division dividend dividing line
unwavering: firm, unmoved, not hesitating ---That man is unwavering in his support for feminism.
considerable 区分 considerable, considerate, considering, take … into consideration … take considerable effort to keep this division. (What does it imply?)
---It implies that the so-called masculine and feminine world division is artificial, not natural.
stereotype: n. belief or idea of what a particular type of person or thing is like. ---Xiaohong fits the stereotype people have of Asian girls as quiet and hard-working. ---The characters in the film are just stereotypes with no individuality. ---vt. There is a tendency to stereotype childless women as being tough and career-orientated. ---adj. stereotyped
portray: depict or describe in words; represent pictorially or make a picture of; represent dramatically, as on the stage. ---n. portrayal: the act of portraying He called his book “A Portrait of Europe”. 生动的文字描绘 ; 人像 A Portrait of a Lady Be portrayed as …
Conform to: agree with or comply with She refuses to conform to the normal social conventions. （遵守） The building does not conform to safety regulations. The design conforms with the regulations. （符合）
Conformity to society’s customs is advisable if you want a happy life. Every man must live in conformity with his own beliefs. ---adj. conformable: obedient
boisterous (of people or behaviour) noisy, lively and cheerful 喧闹的, 狂欢的 ; (of weather, the sea or wind) wild, stormy and rough 狂暴的
disruptive: bringing or throwing into disorder ---A few disruptive students can easily ruin a class.
From the time ……sweet and docile. Explain --From the time a child is born, he or she is demanded to satisfy fixed sets of conventions --- boys are described as lively and noisy and troublesome; girls live up to the expectations when they are gentle, meek, quiet and submissive.
attribute: n. quality regarded as a natural or typical part of sth. or sb. ---Patience is one of the most important attributes in a mother. ---Physically short and slightly built, Marx possessed remarkable attributes. ---v. I attribute my success partly to self-discipline, partly to hard work, and partly to good luck.
Their social roles and identify are predetermined by their permanent identifying attribute “sex”. Explain: The different parts played by men and women and their distinctions existing in the society are fixed by their different sexes long before they enter it.
Explain --- Their social roles and identify have already been fixed unchangeably from the very beginning by their eternal natural quality which shows their sex category as a man or woman.
be capable of —be able to Napoleon was one of the most capable generals in history. She is capable of taking care of herself. I think my new secretary has great capabilities.
Males are producers of cool reasoning and … Explain ---Males are capable of thinking calmly and carefully and making a sound and sensible judgement based on logical reasoning so that they possess the capability of becoming leaders.
The first para. is developed by means of the deductive method. The first sentence, which is the topic sentence, is supported by the existing general stereotypes.
be relevant to I don’t think his remarks are relevant to our discussion. Any relevant information should be given to the police. Political news is often related to economic and social problem.
distinction: difference or separation; 卓 越 ; 殊荣 ---The university enrols students without distinction of races. ---Alexander emerges as a composer of distinction and sensitivity --- These are the highest distinctions that have been given by our government.
No one feels sure that A (that 定从 )is relevant to B1 and B2 Explain---Nevertheless, no one is certain the biological differences between man and woman have anything to do with differences between excellent man and woman, or related to people’s different expectations of social characteristics of man and woman.
denote denote: vt. indicate, refer to, or mean sth.; represent or be a sign of sth. ---denotation : n.
norm: generally accepted standards of social behaviour or patterns that is typical of a group. --- You must adapt to the norms of the society you live in. Normal/ abnormal
impose on : to force the acceptance of sth. usu. difficult or unwanted ---Economic sanctions have been imposed on the small nation. ---Military spending imposes a huge strain on the economy. ---We could ask to stay the night, but I don’t want to impose on them. ---n. imposition
Such uncertainty denotes … nowhere. Explain --- This kind of uncertainty indicates people’s refusal to accept such ideas as “gender appropriate” and “stereotyped sex roles”. They are only socially accepted standards made by man; human beings are forced to accept and comply with these artificially established norms; and they are not reasonable at all.
Grounds: reasons; facts or conditions that provide a basis for an action. They have objected to me on personal grounds. You have no grounds for constant complaining. They cut the grounds from under my feet by printing a story on the same subject the week before mine. ( 使失败， 破坏其计划 ) Her claim was disallowed on the grounds that she had not paid her premium.
Hold/ stand one’s ground Shift/ change one’s ground Prepare the ground for Gain ground Ground rule On shaky ground The accusation is groundless and can not be backed up by facts.
The grounds on which the idea of single sex schools might be defended are cut from under our feet. Explain: ---The foundation on which the idea of single sex school is based and might be protected is undermined or destroyed.
Explain: The argument that single sex schools might be defended is groundless. ---Note the use of metaphorical device here. It is vivid and emphatic.
Part II (paras. 3-4) What is the aim of education according to your perception? Why does the single sex school fail to achieve the aim of education? Sum up the defects and disadvantages of the single sex schools. Sum up the advantages or benefits of coeducation.
Structural analysis of part II The writer argues against the single sex school (para. 3) and then argues for coeducation (para. 40).
Impulse: n. a motivation or reason for a specific activity impulsive: adj. ---He bought the car on an impulse. ---The government took new measures to give an impulse to industrial expansion. ---impulse buying 即兴购物
The aim of education … keep alive various interests. --- Education aims to give an impetus to the educated, to encourage them to think freely and boldly, and to help them develop and keep active their various interests.
---Note the use of the parallel structure here. It helps to clarify the aim of education. Boldness: being confident and brave; daring; enterprising; //being easily visible
Prescribe: state officially what sb. can and cannot do, or what he should do in a particular situation. prescription : n. ---Ask the doctor to prescribe sth. for you ---She took twice the prescribed dose of sleeping pills/ tablets. ---(formal) Traffic regulations prescribe that the passers-by must can’t cross the road until the traffic light turns green.
But the single sex school … does nothing but this. ---But this single sex school just follows the simple identical structure and offers different curriculum for males and females. Therefore, it does not achieve this aim at all.
accessible: easy to obtain The new airport will be accessible from all directions. The books are easily accessible as all the shelves are open. Only a few people have access to the full facts of this case. Students have access to the library during the vacation. There is no access to the house from the main road.
interfere with: prevent sth. from succeeding or from happening in the way that was planned The noise is interfering with my sleep. He did not want to interfere with any plans she might have in view. We have no right to interfere in the internal affairs of Iraq. He hated interference especially with his work.
entail: involve sth. as a necessary part or result ---I didn’t want to take on a job that would entail a lot of travelling. ---Editing a dictionary entails plenty of hard work and creative effort. Entailment: n.
bar from: officially prevent sb. from entering a place or from doing sth. ---She was barred from entering the competition because of her age.
I see no reason why … = I don’t think there is the need that …
---The reason that I didn’t tell you was that I wanted to surprise you. ---I have no idea about the reason why he is absent today.
Deviance: behavior that is sharply different from the norm = disobedience
stature : a person’s natural height; status ---He was by no means short in stature, but next to Yao this man felt like a dwarf.
But at a very early stage, … develop into full statue. --- But at a very early stage, a single sex school deprives a strong, active and energetic youth of his or her likelihood to develop fully.
enclose: surround with a fence or wall so as to shut in ---The garden is enclosed by bushes. ---The monk lived an enclosed life.
They become two parallels, always apart, never meet. ---Figuratively, it means that both groups are separated from and never come in direct contact with each other. They are compared to two parallel lines.
---Note the use of a vivid metaphorical sentence.
Such sexual polarization … isolating people into two gender groups. --- suck an act of causing boys and girls to form into two groups is hazardous in a way that it cuts off/ breaks off a sense of community by dividing people into two sex categories.
in a (some) sense---in a way In a sense you are right in refusing to join the club, The election was in no sense fair.
With the full spectrum of experience offered, life is an open possibility for man as well as woman. Explain: Life, which consists of rich, colourful experiences, offers equal opportunities to everyone, both man and woman.
Everyone is anxious to let their minds flower into full blossom. flower into full blossom: develop fully; mature in the best state ---Explain: Men and women are all eager to live up to their expectations.
As society moves ahead, the gender category becomes blurred. ---Explain: With the development of the society, the gender difference is getting more and more indistinct.
May I venture to suggest that … a productive category only, but no longer central to … I will call that … May I take the risk to suggest that one day when male and female are only biologically differentiated, but no longer play an important part in establishing our identity and in understanding ourselves and others. I will call that a society without distinction of sex, a wholesome society.
Translation exercises 1) Quite a lot of teachers tend to hold stereotyped opinions about naughty pupils. 2) Being gentle, thoughtful, friendly, and generous is characteristic of her. 3) It is wrong to impose one’s own opinions on others. 4) He gave up drinking and smoking, on the grounds that they would do harm to health. 5) This collection of new books has only recently been made accessible to the public.
6)The baby will claw at you with his little hands if you interfere with what he wants. 7)That scientists has scored a new achievement of international stature through many years of hard work. 8)My friend and I frequently communicate ideas, feelings, and information to each other through mobile phone. 9)Coeducation is the most desirable form of education, because boys and girls are given the opportunity to know each other, to learn from each other and to compete with each other. 10)There is a wide spectrum of opinions on the question of translation criteria.
Dictation: Agnes Miller as one of the earliest leaders of the Women’s Liberation Movement in the United States. When she was at college, she first became aware that women were not treated as equals. She didn’t like being treated unequally but she tried not to notice it. After graduating from college she tried to get a job in her major field--- physics. She soon found it was almost impossible for a woman. Agnes spent a full year looking for a job. Finally she gave up in anger. She began writing letters of protest to various newspapers. An editor in New York liked her ideas very much. He especially liked her style. He asked her to do a series of stories on the difficulties women had in finding a job.
Exercises 1. Students are divided into groups to ask each other if they enjoy coeducation and why. 2. Students are required to describe a perfect school in their eyes.
Arguments for or against the view that women face unequal treatment in getting promoted Many women seem to have little confidence in their own abilities. They seem to be persuaded that they are inferior to their male colleagues and have no ambition to become executive tops. Perhaps they would like to stay in a less demanding job, which makes it easier for them to maintain a balance between their career and their family. I don’t think there is a glass ceiling above them as some people have imagined. I don’t think I can agree with the opinions just expressed. As far as promotion is concerned, women and men do not have equal opportunities. It’s true that Women have an inferiority complex and have no ambition to get promoted to top positions. But if we stop to consider what has caused women to think like that, we will know how unfair it is. Ours is largely a male-dominated society.
For centuries women have been taught to be modest, passive, and obedient. Therefore, many women lack confidence in themselves and believe they are only fit for lesser jobs. If they are persuaded to think along those lines, they obviously stand no chance to get promoted to top positions. But some women do overcome this inferiority complex and go all out to compete with their male colleagues. The trouble with them is they have to face a mostly male selective body, and chances are they will not get promoted unless they are extremely outstanding. There are so many men of average capability promoted to high executive positions, for the mere fact that they are men. Can we say there is equal treatment for both men and women where promotion is concerned?