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Doctrine of Man Lecture 5 Part 2: Temporal Origin When, where, and how did the human race come into being?

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1 Doctrine of Man Lecture 5 Part 2: Temporal Origin When, where, and how did the human race come into being?

2 Introduction: Temporal Origin Importance: Importance: The biblical message is embedded in the redemptive history of the human race. The biblical message is embedded in the redemptive history of the human race. The beginning of history is related to everything else. The beginning of history is related to everything else. Avoiding the origin of the race would be inexcusable. Avoiding the origin of the race would be inexcusable. Overview: Overview: Section 1: The Contemporary Debate Section 1: The Contemporary Debate Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Section 4: The Critical Discussion Section 4: The Critical Discussion

3 Section 1: The Contemporary Debate Four positions compete for the allegiance of evangelicals today. Four positions compete for the allegiance of evangelicals today. This debate developed over the last 2 centuries because of the scientific claims made by Darwinian evolution. This debate developed over the last 2 centuries because of the scientific claims made by Darwinian evolution. These four positions may be designated as follows: These four positions may be designated as follows: six-day creationism six-day creationism the day-age theory the day-age theory the literary framework hypothesis the literary framework hypothesis theistic evolutionary view. theistic evolutionary view. These views are best understood as a spectrum. These views are best understood as a spectrum.

4 Section 1: The Contemporary Debate Six-day Creationism Six-day Creationism holds that the Bible teaches that the world was created in six literal days holds that the Bible teaches that the world was created in six literal days emphasizes the origin of the world and mankind as specially created. emphasizes the origin of the world and mankind as specially created. Day-age Theory Day-age Theory agrees that the days of creation are in some sense literal and consecutive. agrees that the days of creation are in some sense literal and consecutive. argues that these days designate long ages of time argues that these days designate long ages of time accommodates the view of modern science that the world is billions of years old. accommodates the view of modern science that the world is billions of years old.

5 Section 1: The Contemporary Debate Literary Framework Hypothesis Literary Framework Hypothesis argues the 7-days of Gen 1:1 to 2:3 are a literary device. argues the 7-days of Gen 1:1 to 2:3 are a literary device. not intended to reveal anything about the chronology or manner in which God physically created the world. not intended to reveal anything about the chronology or manner in which God physically created the world. are careful often to say that Adam was specially created and that their view does not entail theistic evolution. are careful often to say that Adam was specially created and that their view does not entail theistic evolution. Theistic Evolution Theistic Evolution adopts a looser view of biblical authority adopts a looser view of biblical authority often adopts the literary framework hypothesis often adopts the literary framework hypothesis teaches evolution both of the universe and the human race teaches evolution both of the universe and the human race

6 Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine In the pre-modern era no significant debate on this issue divided the church. In the pre-modern era no significant debate on this issue divided the church. Six-day creationism attained confessional status in the culminating creed of the Reformation, the Westminster Confession. Six-day creationism attained confessional status in the culminating creed of the Reformation, the Westminster Confession. The 1689 Baptist Confession repeats in identical language the Westminster. The 1689 Baptist Confession repeats in identical language the Westminster. The key chapter (chapter 4 in both confessions) assumes a literal reading of the creation account. The key chapter (chapter 4 in both confessions) assumes a literal reading of the creation account.

7 Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine 1 In the beginning it pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness, to create or make the world, and all things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good. 1 In the beginning it pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness, to create or make the world, and all things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good.

8 Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine 2After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls, rendering them fit unto that life to God for which they were created; being made after the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness; having the law of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfil it, and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject to change. 2After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls, rendering them fit unto that life to God for which they were created; being made after the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness; having the law of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfil it, and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject to change.

9 Section 2: The Confessional Doctrine 3Besides the law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which whilst they kept, they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures. 3Besides the law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which whilst they kept, they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures.

10 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Prior to the modern era the church was practically unanimous in a literal reading of the early chapters of Genesis. Prior to the modern era the church was practically unanimous in a literal reading of the early chapters of Genesis. Is the debate today due simply to a sinister compromise with modern science? Possibly. Is the debate today due simply to a sinister compromise with modern science? Possibly. Our faith must be grounded solely in the teachings of Scripture and not modern science. Our faith must be grounded solely in the teachings of Scripture and not modern science. The books of nature & Scripture do not conflict. The books of nature & Scripture do not conflict. This does not mean that human interpretations of the book of nature cannot be wrong! This does not mean that human interpretations of the book of nature cannot be wrong!

11 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty But a simplistic approach to the current debate fails. But a simplistic approach to the current debate fails. The church’s interpretations of the book of Scripture are no more infallible than modern science’s. The church’s interpretations of the book of Scripture are no more infallible than modern science’s. Galileo & the Copernican revolution. Galileo & the Copernican revolution. Many Medieval theologians concluded that a geocentrism was taught by the Bible. Many Medieval theologians concluded that a geocentrism was taught by the Bible. A geocentric view of the solar system is now regarded as naively literalistic. A geocentric view of the solar system is now regarded as naively literalistic. Is this an illustration of modern science altering a view widely held in the church? Is this an illustration of modern science altering a view widely held in the church?

12 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Perhaps, but we must not conclude that science is normative in biblical interpretation. Why not? Perhaps, but we must not conclude that science is normative in biblical interpretation. Why not? This assumes science is infallible. This assumes science is infallible. Sola scriptura is indisputable. If science is normative in biblical interpretation, this destroys sola scriptura. Sola scriptura is indisputable. If science is normative in biblical interpretation, this destroys sola scriptura. The case of Galileo actually teaches the doctrine of a “second look” at our interpretations of the Bible. The case of Galileo actually teaches the doctrine of a “second look” at our interpretations of the Bible. Today’s debate is not just sinister compromise. Today’s debate is not just sinister compromise. It is also the necessary “second look.” It is also the necessary “second look.” But the “second look” must be based on sola scriptura. But the “second look” must be based on sola scriptura.

13 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Legitimate Question: Does a “second look” at Gen 1 confirm those days as literal days? Legitimate Question: Does a “second look” at Gen 1 confirm those days as literal days? Or is it scriptural to understand them figuratively? Or is it scriptural to understand them figuratively? The question is interpretive or hermeneutical. The question is interpretive or hermeneutical. Major Hermeneutical Issue: What is the literary genre? Major Hermeneutical Issue: What is the literary genre? Some passages are historical descriptions of actual events, while others are figurative. Some passages are historical descriptions of actual events, while others are figurative. The narrative portions of the historical books of the Bible are generally historical descriptions. The narrative portions of the historical books of the Bible are generally historical descriptions. The Psalms, Daniel, and Revelation contain large sections intended figuratively. The Psalms, Daniel, and Revelation contain large sections intended figuratively.

14 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty The most Bible-believing must confront the question of literary genre. The most Bible-believing must confront the question of literary genre. It is naïve to argue that: It is naïve to argue that: we must always interpret the Bible literally, or even we must always interpret the Bible literally, or even we must interpret the Bible literally wherever possible. we must interpret the Bible literally wherever possible. The proper rule is that we must interpret the Bible the way it intends to be interpreted—according to its literary genre. The proper rule is that we must interpret the Bible the way it intends to be interpreted—according to its literary genre.

15 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty A Dangerous Concession: A Dangerous Concession: Allowing modern science to control our decision about the literary genre of Scripture is fatal. Allowing modern science to control our decision about the literary genre of Scripture is fatal. The rule for determining the literary genre is the same as for determining the proper interpretation in general. The rule for determining the literary genre is the same as for determining the proper interpretation in general Baptist Confession 1:9: The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself; and therefore when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched by other places that speak more clearly Baptist Confession 1:9: The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself; and therefore when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched by other places that speak more clearly.

16 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Proper Practice: Proper Practice: First, the passage itself must be allowed to tell us its own genre. First, the passage itself must be allowed to tell us its own genre. Scripture bears clear insignia of its genre in the text. Scripture bears clear insignia of its genre in the text. The text is self-identifying. The text is self-identifying. Second, other relevant Scriptures must be given a decisive role in determining the genre of the passage in question. Second, other relevant Scriptures must be given a decisive role in determining the genre of the passage in question. These two rules must be followed to determine the genre of the early chapters of Genesis. These two rules must be followed to determine the genre of the early chapters of Genesis.

17 Section 3: The Crucial Difficulty Approaches to the Biblical Teaching on Creation Approaches to the Biblical Teaching on Creation Six-Day Creationism Six-Day Creationism V V Day-Age Theory Day-Age Theory V V Framework Hypothesis Framework Hypothesis V V Theistic Evolution Theistic Evolution

18 Section 4: The Critical Disscussion The Treatment Method: The Treatment Method: We will deal with each of the 3 modern views. We will deal with each of the 3 modern views. Beginning with the most extreme: “theistic evolution.” Beginning with the most extreme: “theistic evolution.” Much said here will also apply to the “framework hypothesis” and “day-age theory.” Much said here will also apply to the “framework hypothesis” and “day-age theory.” The Decisive Question: What kind of literature do we have in the early chapters of Genesis? The Decisive Question: What kind of literature do we have in the early chapters of Genesis? Theistic evolution takes a figurative view of Genesis 1-11 in its entirety. Theistic evolution takes a figurative view of Genesis 1-11 in its entirety. The other views need hold only that Genesis 1:1-2:3 is not intended as an historical account of creation. The other views need hold only that Genesis 1:1-2:3 is not intended as an historical account of creation.

19 Section 4: The Critical Disscussion The Treatment Method: The Treatment Method: We will deal with each of the 3 modern views. We will deal with each of the 3 modern views. Beginning with the most extreme: “theistic evolution.” Beginning with the most extreme: “theistic evolution.” Much said here will also apply to the “framework hypothesis” and “day-age theory.” Much said here will also apply to the “framework hypothesis” and “day-age theory.” The Decisive Question: What kind of literature do we have in the early chapters of Genesis? The Decisive Question: What kind of literature do we have in the early chapters of Genesis? Theistic evolution takes a figurative view of Genesis 1-11 in its entirety. Theistic evolution takes a figurative view of Genesis 1-11 in its entirety. The other views need hold only that Genesis 1:1-2:3 is not intended as an historical account of creation. The other views need hold only that Genesis 1:1-2:3 is not intended as an historical account of creation.

20 I.Theistic Evolution A.Described A.Described Howard J. Van Till’s The Fourth Day provides an “evangelical” presentation of theistic evolution. Howard J. Van Till’s The Fourth Day provides an “evangelical” presentation of theistic evolution. insists that the entirety of Gen 1-11 is not historical in its genre. insists that the entirety of Gen 1-11 is not historical in its genre. insists that portions of Scripture are merely packing material in which the real message of Scripture (pictured as a beautiful vase) is preserved for us. insists that portions of Scripture are merely packing material in which the real message of Scripture (pictured as a beautiful vase) is preserved for us. This is no different from Neo-orthodoxy with its denial of infallibility and inerrancy. This is no different from Neo-orthodoxy with its denial of infallibility and inerrancy.

21 I.Theistic Evolution B.Defeated B.Defeated 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative Gen 1-11 bears the marks of historical narrative. Gen 1-11 bears the marks of historical narrative. If we take Gen 12ff as historical narrative, then undoubtedly Gen is also intended as such. If we take Gen 12ff as historical narrative, then undoubtedly Gen is also intended as such. The genealogies of Gen conclude with the family background of Abraham. The genealogies of Gen conclude with the family background of Abraham. The genealogy of Gen 11:10-32 is identical to that of Gen 5 which begins with Adam and Seth. The genealogy of Gen 11:10-32 is identical to that of Gen 5 which begins with Adam and Seth. A seamless structure ties Abraham to Adam—If Gen 1-11 is a different genre than Gen 12ff, the transition is imperceptible. A seamless structure ties Abraham to Adam—If Gen 1-11 is a different genre than Gen 12ff, the transition is imperceptible.

22 I.Theistic Evolution B.Defeated B.Defeated 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative If Gen 1-11 is not literal, the constant impression of historicity is baffling. If Gen 1-11 is not literal, the constant impression of historicity is baffling. The precise location of the Eden is given in detail (Gen 2:8-17). The precise location of the Eden is given in detail (Gen 2:8-17). The genealogy of Cain is given with numerous specific names and no perceptible difference between it and others throughout the OT. The genealogy of Cain is given with numerous specific names and no perceptible difference between it and others throughout the OT. The genealogies of Seth (Gen 5) and Noah (Gen 11) are provided. The genealogies of Seth (Gen 5) and Noah (Gen 11) are provided. They are treated as historical in 1 Chr 1:1ff and Luke 3: They are treated as historical in 1 Chr 1:1ff and Luke 3: The precise chronology of the flood and the precise dimensions of the ark are given. The precise chronology of the flood and the precise dimensions of the ark are given.

23 I.Theistic Evolution B.Defeated B.Defeated 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative 1.Genesis 1-11 as Figurative The account of the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth in Gen 10 provides the historical backgrounds of the nations that surrounded Israel in the Middle East. The account of the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth in Gen 10 provides the historical backgrounds of the nations that surrounded Israel in the Middle East. These are literal nations in the OT historical narratives. These are literal nations in the OT historical narratives. Gen 10:32: "Out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.” Gen 10:32: "Out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.” If such language is not literal, it is impossible to know what the Bible means and biblical authority is vitiated. If such language is not literal, it is impossible to know what the Bible means and biblical authority is vitiated.

24 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” a.Contrary to the Inerrancy of Scripture a.Contrary to the Inerrancy of Scripture The NT doctrine of Scripture does not allow for the possibility that parts of the OT may be packing material. The NT doctrine of Scripture does not allow for the possibility that parts of the OT may be packing material. John 10:35: The Scripture cannot be broken. John 10:35: The Scripture cannot be broken. Matt 4:4, 7, 10: It is written. Matt 4:4, 7, 10: It is written. Such language is incompatible with part of Scripture being only packing material. Such language is incompatible with part of Scripture being only packing material.

25 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture The packing material says the week of Gen. 1:1-2:3 is merely the literary framework of the "real message." The packing material says the week of Gen. 1:1-2:3 is merely the literary framework of the "real message." One expects it to fade into insignificance. One expects it to fade into insignificance. Instead, the creation week continues to be signifcant. Instead, the creation week continues to be signifcant. Jehovah (!) in the 10 Commandments (!) attributes significance to the creation week (Exod 20:8-11). Jehovah (!) in the 10 Commandments (!) attributes significance to the creation week (Exod 20:8-11). In 6 days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, … and rested the 7 th day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. In 6 days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, … and rested the 7 th day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.

26 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture If the 7-day structure is merely framework, why does Jehovah attribute such significance to it? If the 7-day structure is merely framework, why does Jehovah attribute such significance to it? Jehovah says the 7 th day is the sabbath day. Jehovah says the 7 th day is the sabbath day. Verse 11b is a quotation or paraphrase and, thus, an interpretation of Gen. 2:3a. Verse 11b is a quotation or paraphrase and, thus, an interpretation of Gen. 2:3a. Jehovah calls the 7 th day of Gen 2:3 "a sabbath day." Jehovah calls the 7 th day of Gen 2:3 "a sabbath day." The sabbath day in this passage is a literal day. The sabbath day in this passage is a literal day.

27 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture Worship on the 7th day said that Israel worshipped the God who made the world in 6 days and rested the 7 th. Worship on the 7th day said that Israel worshipped the God who made the world in 6 days and rested the 7 th. Exod 31:15-17: "For six days work may be done, but on the seventh day there is a sabbath of complete rest, holy to the LORD; whoever does any work on the sabbath day shall surely be put to death. So the sons of Israel shall observe the sabbath, to celebrate the sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between Me and the sons of Israel forever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, but on the seventh day he ceased from labor..." Exod 31:15-17: "For six days work may be done, but on the seventh day there is a sabbath of complete rest, holy to the LORD; whoever does any work on the sabbath day shall surely be put to death. So the sons of Israel shall observe the sabbath, to celebrate the sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between Me and the sons of Israel forever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, but on the seventh day he ceased from labor..."

28 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture A devastating argument against the packing material view is the that the people and events of Gen 1-11 in the NT (Matt. 19:4-6; 24:37-39; Mark 2:27, 28; Mark 10:6; Luke 3:23-38; 17:26ff.; John 8:44; Rom. 5:12-19; 1 Cor. 11:7-12; 15:21, 22, 44-49; Eph. 2:3; 5:31; 1 Tim. 2:13, 14; Heb. 11:3-7; James 3:9; 1 Pet. 3:20; 2 Pet. 2:5; 3:5, 6; 1 John 3:8, 12; Jude 14, 15). A devastating argument against the packing material view is the that the people and events of Gen 1-11 in the NT (Matt. 19:4-6; 24:37-39; Mark 2:27, 28; Mark 10:6; Luke 3:23-38; 17:26ff.; John 8:44; Rom. 5:12-19; 1 Cor. 11:7-12; 15:21, 22, 44-49; Eph. 2:3; 5:31; 1 Tim. 2:13, 14; Heb. 11:3-7; James 3:9; 1 Pet. 3:20; 2 Pet. 2:5; 3:5, 6; 1 John 3:8, 12; Jude 14, 15).

29 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture b.Contrary to the Use of Gen 1-11 by Scripture One cannot neatly remove Gen 1-11 from the biblical organism. One cannot neatly remove Gen 1-11 from the biblical organism. It is not like removing scaffolding. It is not like removing scaffolding. It is like wrenching the head from a living animal. It is like wrenching the head from a living animal. Gen 1-11 cannot be wrung from the Bible without wasting biblical religion. Gen 1-11 cannot be wrung from the Bible without wasting biblical religion.

30 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism The "packing material" view subtly adopts the uniformitarianism of evolution. The "packing material" view subtly adopts the uniformitarianism of evolution. Uniformitarianism = the uniformity of natural causes never disrupted by the supernatural. Uniformitarianism = the uniformity of natural causes never disrupted by the supernatural. The miraculous is, thus, impossible. The miraculous is, thus, impossible. With this comes scorn for the concept of "apparent age.“ With this comes scorn for the concept of "apparent age.“

31 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism Two things make such perspectives scripturally impermissible. Two things make such perspectives scripturally impermissible. The Bible explicitly repudiates the concept of a world in which natural causes are uniform and explicitly affirms the concept of a world history punctuated by events which transcend the processes and laws of the world as it was created by God. The Bible explicitly repudiates the concept of a world in which natural causes are uniform and explicitly affirms the concept of a world history punctuated by events which transcend the processes and laws of the world as it was created by God.

32 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism c.Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism The key passage is 2 Pet. 3:1-13. The key passage is 2 Pet. 3:1-13. Uniformitarianism is described in v. 4. Uniformitarianism is described in v. 4. It logically requires the denial of the Second Coming of Christ and is attributed to mockers. It logically requires the denial of the Second Coming of Christ and is attributed to mockers. Verse 5 characterizes it as ignorance. Verse 5 characterizes it as ignorance. A world history punctuated by acts of God transcending normal processes is affirmed. A world history punctuated by acts of God transcending normal processes is affirmed. Verses 5-7 says that not such processes, but the Word of God is ultimate in world history Verses 5-7 says that not such processes, but the Word of God is ultimate in world history

33 I.Theistic Evolution 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” 2.Genesis 1-11 as “Packing Material” c. Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism c. Contrary to the Biblical Rejection of Uniformitarianism Apparent age? Apparent age? Gen 2:6ff. records the creation of man. Gen 2:6ff. records the creation of man. When Adam was created, how old would they have looked? When Adam was created, how old would they have looked? John 2:1-11 records how Jesus made wine out of water. John 2:1-11 records how Jesus made wine out of water. What would the wine expert have said about its age? What would the wine expert have said about its age? Such indications of age were merely apparent. Such indications of age were merely apparent. The idea of the miraculous requires the idea of apparent age. The idea of the miraculous requires the idea of apparent age. Scorn for apparent age is scorn for the miraculous. Scorn for apparent age is scorn for the miraculous. Apparent age solves problems posed by evolutionary science. Apparent age solves problems posed by evolutionary science.


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