Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND POWER Lecture 1 ERT 244 / 4 ENERGY AND POWER IN BIOSYSTEMS NOOR SHAZLIANA AIZEE BT ABIDIN."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND POWER Lecture 1 ERT 244 / 4 ENERGY AND POWER IN BIOSYSTEMS NOOR SHAZLIANA AIZEE BT ABIDIN
EVALUATION CONTRIBUTION Final examination: 50% Course work: 50% Test 1: 10% Test 2: 10% Lab report: 20% Design project / Assignment: 10%
TEXTBOOK GREEN ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY AYHAN DEMIRBAS, SPRINGER-VERLAG LONDON Ltd, 2009 READ EACH CHAPTER BEFORE THE LECTURE/DISCUSSION PERIOD REFFERENCE BOOK BIOFUELS ENGINEERING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY CAYE M. DRAPCHO, NGHIEM PHU NHUAN, TERRY H. WALKER, THE MCGRAW HILL Co, 2008
IDEALLY, A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE IS ONE THAT IS NOT SUBSTANTIALLY DEPLETED BY CONTINUED USE, DOES NOT ENTAIL SIGNIFICANT POLLUTANT EMISSIONS OR OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, AND DOES NOT INVOLVE THE PERPETUATION OF SUBSTANTIAL HEALTH HAZARDS OR SOCIAL INJUSTICIES.
Energy sources classification Fossile - mineral fuels – hydrocarbons - petroleum, coal, bitumens, natural gas, oil shales, and tar sands (nonrenewable) Renewable - biomass, hydro, wind, solar (both thermal and photovoltaic), geothermal, and marine energy sources Nuclear (Fissile) - uranium and thorium
Fossil Fuels Petroleum - broad range of hydrocarbons found as gases, liquids, or solids. Color ranges from pale yellow – red – brown - black or greenish, while by reflected light - green hue. Formed - remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago, and sank to the bottom of the oceans. This organic mixture was subjected to enormous hydraulic pressure and geothermal heat. Over time, the mixture changed, breaking down into compounds made of hydrocarbons by reduction reactions. This resulted in the formation of oil-saturated rocks. The oil rises and is trapped under non-porous rocks that are sealed with salt or clay layers.
Properties of petroleum and crude oil refining Crude oil - complex mixture of 50%-95% hc by weight Distillation – Natural gas Petroleum ether Ligroin (light naphtha) Gasoline Jet fuel Kerosene No. 2 diesel fuel Fuel oils Lubricating oils Asphalt or petroleum coke
An important non-fuel use of petroleum is to produce chemical raw materials. The two main classes of petrochemical raw materials are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene and xylene isomers) Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains the solid hydrocarbon wax kerogen in tightly packed limy mud and clay. Tar sands are oil traps not deep enough in the Earth to allow for geological conversion into the conventional oil. OPEC is the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries and its current members are Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador and Gabon. OPEC members try to set production levels for petroleum to maximize their revenue. According to supply/demand economics, the less oil they produce, the higher the price of oil on the world market, and the more oil they produce, the lower the price.
Petroleum is the most important energy source, as 35% of the world’s primary energy needs is met by crude oil, 25% by coal, and 21% by natural gas The transport sector (i.e., automobiles, ships, and aircrafts) relies to well over 90% on crude oil. In fact, the economy and lifestyle of industrialized nations relies heavily upon a sufficient supply of crude oil at low cost. 1973 and 2005 fuel shares of total primary energy supply (TPES) (excludes electricity and heat trade)
Global oil production scenarios based on today’s production Source: Demirbas, 2008
Natural gas (NG) - Natural gas is a mixture of lightweight alkanes. Natural gas contains methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), butane and isobutane (C 4 H 10 ), and pentanes (C 5 H 12 ). Natural gas -consist mainly of the lower paraffins, with varying quantities of CO 2, CO, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, in some cases also hydrogen sulfur and possibly ammonia Cleaner fuel than oil or coal and not as controversial as nuclear power
Production and consumption trends of natural gas in the world
Coal - Coal can be defined as a sedimentary rock that burns. It was formed by the decomposition of plant matter, and it is a complex substance that can be found in many forms. Divided into four classes: Anthracite Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite
FOSSIL FUELS AND CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM – CLIMATE CHANGE CAUSED BY EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION GREENHOUSE GASES – WATER VAPOR, CARBON DIOXIDE, METHANE ATMOSPHERE KEEPS EARTH TEMPERATURE AT 15 O C – OTHERWISE TEMP WOULD BE – 18 O C WHAT ABOUT POPULATION GROWTH
CLIMATE CHANGE ANTHROPOGENIC (HUMAN-INDUCED) EMISSIONS CAUSED A 0.6 o C INCREASE IN GLOBAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE.
RENEWABLE ENERGY DEFINITIONS: Types of energy that are readily renewed. Renewable energy sources (RES) – can be readily renewed in a short time period. RES - alternative sources of energy that use domestic resource and have the potential to provide energy service with zero or almost zero emission of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
Examples RES – Biomass Hydro power Solar Wind Geothermal Wave Tidal Biogas Ocean thermal energy
Derived from – Natural, mechanical, thermal and growth processes that repeat themselves within our lifetime and may be relied upon to produce predictable quantities of energy when required. Main renewable energy sources and their usage forms Energy sourceEnergy conversion and usage options HydropowerPower generation Modern biomassHeat and power generation, pyrolysis, gasification, digestion GeothermalUrban heating, power generation, hydrothermal, hot dry rock SolarSolar home system, solar dryers, solar cookers Direct solarPhotovoltaic, thermal power generation, water heaters WindPower generation, wind generators, windmills, water pumps WaveNumerous designs TidalBarrage, tidal stream
Non-combustible Renewable Energy Sources Hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, wave, tidal, and ocean thermal energy sources The potential of sustainable small hydro (<10 MW) power, Photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind energy, Geothermal and solar thermal sources will be more significant as energy sources in future. PV will then be the largest renewable electricity source with a production of 25.1% of global power generation in 2040.
Other non-combustible RES Wave energy Tidal energy Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
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