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Chapter 11: In the Beginning Stages of Development

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1 Chapter 11: In the Beginning Stages of Development
The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy Irvin Yalom, Ph.D

2 Stages of Development What type of stages \ development do you think occur in a group? How would it affect you as a leader to know that such stages exist? What would each one entail? Do you handle each stage the same?

3 FORMATIVE STAGES 1. Each person begins to manifest themselves interpersonally, each creating their own social microcosm. 2. This along with maladaptive personality styles lead to a great variance in how the course of group will unfold. Yet some crude but useful schemas of developmental stages can be extracted from a few empirical studies

4 FORMATIVE STAGES 1. Initial stage -in vs out
orientation & search for structure & goals, dependency on leader and concern for group boundaries 2.Conflict & Dominance - top vs bottom 3. Intermember Harmony- near vs far -submerging diff -later more cohesive & interpersonal investigation

5 INITIAL STAGE Tasks A. How to achieve primary goal
B. Pts must attend to social relations in group in order create niche for themselves -This will provide comfort to achieve primary task -The pleasure of group membership in vs out

6 INITIAL STAGE MEMBERS -confused by the use of Group Therapy =silence
-seek roles & size each other up -fear of rejection -tentative conversations -group norms=shared beliefs about behaviors -social forces lead to allot of energy spent of get approval

7 INITIAL STAGE they focus on who-leader.
-Yalom = human need for a omnipresent & omniscient figure -Hidden Agenda -Early conflict can= less cohesiveness -Communication Style= social cocktail hour (?) -look for similarities= cohesiveness -Advice giving = not functional except for increased cohesiveness

8 LEADER -Self vs Group Focus -Here & Now Focus VS There & Then
-Trust VS Mistrust= self disclosure -Modeling w Co leader & Group -Increase Trust --attend & listen =nonverbal =empathy =self disclosure =respect

9 Group norms= shared beliefs about behaviors For example: you can self disclose but retain privacy you discuss problems but don’t have to have a cathartic experience your therapeutic work is not to be judged

10 There are Explicit & Implicit norms
Implicit norms are modeled by the leaders Explicit norms are for instance: attendance, punctuality be self disclosing be open to feedback focus on here and now bring concerns they are willing to discuss provide support to others look at themselves to attend to others Division of Responsibility too high undermine members to low poor role model (i.e. I'm responsible for me you for you) Degree of Structure reduce unnecessary floundering and maximizing full participation

11 Division of Responsibility:
too high undermine members to low poor role model (i.e. I'm responsible for me you for you) Degree of Structure: reduce unnecessary floundering and maximizing full participation

12 Opening session: generally it is to warm when you open instead of jumping right in e.g. a check in process have member review previous week any unresolved feeling from the previous session have new members introduce themselves or have vets reflect on what they have learned.

13 Guidelines for closing:
summarize have members summarize homework assign a question ask for topics they would like to explore have members give each other feedback

14 Second stage: Conflict dominance rebellion
NOTE-forming storming norming performing search meaning top vs bottom near vs far feel free to judge hostility to therapist =inevitable resistance=above in part due to their expectations

15 -trouble sharing therapist & more time for me
-expectations unreal - p298 -primal-horde -attack therapists can have 2 reactions -put neck out & aloof if p301

16 Third Stage Group Cohesiveness
increase morale trust & self disclosure reveal real reason intimacy & closeness sense of togetherness this typically comes after addressing some conflict or issue together invite to be active

17 share the leadership conflicts are inevitable and may facilitate cohesiveness if handled properly do not categorize yourself PROBLEMS 308

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