Benefits and Problems Benefits: Problems: companion, helper disease (rabies or hydrophobia), attack, noise, pissing and dropping
Read the following letters and tell the class your opinions.
P.1 linger stay somewhere a little longer 你经常下课后还待在教室不走吗？ Do you often linger in the classroom after the class? They lingered over coffee and missed the last bus. Mike couldn’t help letting his eyes linger on her face.
Analyze this sentence: what is refusing parallel to? Flint grows increasingly listless, withdrawing from the troop — despite his siblings’ efforts to bring him back and refusing food.
P3 Here are some words of ape ( 猿 ) orangutan 猩猩 gorilla 大猩猩 chimpanzee 黑猩猩 gibbon ：长臂猿
Do you know other words in the sense of beast? animal creature living thing being
Learn this word suspicion n. suspect v. sus(sub)+spect: look under What are other words for 怀疑？ doubt disbelief distrust skepticism hesitation uncertainty
the nation’s 61 million pet owners need no convincing at all that pet dogs and cats can feel angry need doing=need to be done The room needs cleaning. 这台电脑得更新了。 The computer needs updating.
Who respects whom? case study in scientific parlance — has now achieved some respectability among researchers Researchers respect case study. Researchers accept the results of case studies.
What does it mean? The plural of anecdote is data Many anecdotes make up data, which prove the belief.
P4. Analyze the structure of the sentence the idea of animals feeling emotions remains controversial among many scientists.
controversial contro- (contra-) + verse (vertere [ to turn ]): turn to the opposite a controversial question 引起争论的问题 controversy controvert
Researchers’ skepticism is fueled in part by their professional aversion to anthropomorphism aversion ab-[ 避开 ] + vertere[ 转 ] She has an aversion to pets. 她讨厌宠物。 Big dogs are an aversion of little girls'. 高大的狗是小女孩们讨厌的东西。
anthropomorphism: 拟人说；人格化 anthro: human morph: 变种, 变体 What can these softwares do?
manipulate She manipulated the lights to get just the effect she wanted. 她熟练地操作着灯光，以达到她想要的 效果 He manipulated public opinion in his favor. 他巧妙地使公众舆论倒向他 mani- (hand) + pulate (pulus: 不定意义的 ) manual manufacture
What does the sentence mean? amid mounting evidence to the contrary, “the tide is turning radically and rapidly,” says Bekoff, Though there are many evidences that prove the idea is wrong, people change their opinions and accept the idea rapidly.
Essential to escape predators and other dangers, fear — and its predictable flight, fight, or freeze responses — seems to be hard-wired into many species. predator prey hard-wired inborn innate
How does the writer prove that fear is hard- wired in animals? Young geese and shape of a predator
P 6. those that entail mental processing is difficult to demonstrate. entail: need Writing a history book entails a lot of work. 写一本历史书需要下很大功夫。 The job entails precision. 这件事需要精确性。 Producing a series TV play entails a lot of work. 拍摄一部电视连续剧需要做大量的工作。
Sum up the paragraph into a sentence: Other emotions in animals can only be deduced by observing their behaviors.
P7. Within his field, Panksepp is a rare exception, who believes that similarities between the brains of humans and other animals suggest that at least some creatures have true feelings. What does “a rare exception” imply? Most scientists do not believe that animals have emotions. Explain the ground on which Panksepp based his belief.
P11 When a goose, which mates for life, loses its partner, the bird’s head and body droop dejectedly. deject: 使沮丧, 使气馁 The news dejects me. 这个消息使我沮丧。 de- (down) +ject (throw) project: 投射 reject ：拒绝
Paragraphs 14 to 17 discuss the physiological and neurochemical findings of emotions. Sum up this part by complete the following table. Physiological Bases For Emotions emotionbasisproof fear pleasure sexual activity amygdala when it is damaged, animals seem unable to fear dopamine when it is blocked, pleasure ends oxytocin when it is blocked, interest is lost
P19 but you can’t prove what it’s feeling, if anything if anything ： perhaps If anything, you ought to apologize 你或许应该道歉。 If anything, we have too much food rather than too little. 说起食品，我们吃得太多，而不是太少。 What, if anything, is a computer? 电脑究竟是什么？
the question of feelings boils down to whether or not animals are conscious. boils down to: 等于；归结为 The whole matter boils down to the fact that you two don't like each other. 这件事除去枝节不管，可以归结为你们俩谁也不喜欢谁。 Most of the crimes may boil down to a question of money. 大多数犯罪归结起来可以说都是金钱问题。 His speech boiled down to a plea for more money. 他的演说归根结底就是呼吁给更多的钱。 Your choices boil down to three 你的选择最终归纳成三点。
though animals “may have snapshots of self-awareness,” he says, “the movie we call consciousness is not there. snapshot : movie simple:complex
ascribe （常与 to 连用）归于，归因于 She ascribed difficulties to overspending. 她把困难归因于费用超支太大。 He ascribed his failure to bad luck. 他把失败归咎于运气不好。 No one knows who wrote that play, but it is often ascribed to me. 没人知道那个剧本是谁写的，但一般都认为是 我写的。
anecdote entail elicit elate dejected wake hormone legitimize predator controversial 1. An early morning rise in blood pressure, heart rate, and the concentration of heart stimulating ________, plus a reduction of blood flow to the heart, may all contribute to the higher incidence of heart attacks between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. 2. The unfair reputation of sharks for being fierce _________ on large sea animals is leading to a world wide slaughter and the extinction of many coastal shark species. 3. Mrs. O’kelly was ______ that she won first prize in the essay competition. hormones predators elated
anecdote entail elicit elate dejected wake hormone legitimize predator controversial 4. After much questioning of the people concerned, the headmaster at last ______ the truth about the incident. 5. To get the ship back into full working order would ______ spending huge amounts of money and effort. 6. Vincent tried livening up the speech by using _________ that illustrated the point he was making. elicited entail anecdotes
anecdote entail elicit elate dejected wake hormone legitimize predator controversial 7. The decision to use the bomb remains that most ____________ of the Second World War. 8. The Helsinki agreement was supposed to __________ the Soviet Union’s control over Eastern Europe. 9. So far as I remember, our tiny boat was caught in the broad white __________ of the huge ship before the accident. controversial legitimize wake
anecdote entail elicit elate dejected wake hormone legitimize predator controversial 10. When she told him he’d failed again, he walked, __________ hands in pockets, back to his room to cry. dejectedly
Translation Mounting evidence shows that animals also have emotions. Because feelings are intangible and tough to study scientifically, it is hard for scientists to bear out the possibility of complex animal feelings that entail mental processing. But some scientists believe there are similarities in the brain anatomy and chemistry of humans and animals. For example, scientists studying the biology of emotions have found that emotions seem to rise from parts of the brain locating below the cortex, the regions that have been conserved across many species throughout evolution; behavioral neuroscientists have found in the experiments that rats’ brains release copious amounts of dopamine, a neurochemical associating with pleasure and excitement. All suggests that at least some creatures have true feelings.