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TRANSFORMATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY AND NATIONALLY: FORCES OF CHANGE THE CHANGING HE ENVIRONMENT DR. SOMARIE HOLTZHAUSEN SHES: 1 AUGUST.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSFORMATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY AND NATIONALLY: FORCES OF CHANGE THE CHANGING HE ENVIRONMENT DR. SOMARIE HOLTZHAUSEN SHES: 1 AUGUST."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSFORMATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY AND NATIONALLY: FORCES OF CHANGE THE CHANGING HE ENVIRONMENT DR. SOMARIE HOLTZHAUSEN SHES: 1 AUGUST

2 CHANGE AND TRANSFORMATION: AN OVERVIEW Worldwide issues. Common to all higher and further education institutions. Highly competitive institutions emerge as a result. Responsible for change in the nature and structure of higher and further education. The working environment for academics is changed drastically. But is transformation necessary in higher education? Please motivate. 2

3 CONCEPTUALISATION: CHANGE VERSUS TRANSFORMATION What is transformation? Is it the same as change? Any consensus about what it means? Is transformation necessary? In higher education in general? And in H.E. in South Africa? What are the different forces compelling transformation? What are the different actors? 3

4 ACTIVITY 1 DEBATE:  DIVIDE INTO TWO GROUPS, ONE GROUP DEFINES CHANGE AND THE OTHER GROUP DEFINES TRANSFORMATION.  THEN STATE/HIGHLIGHT THE DIFFERENCES/SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE CONCEPTS. 4

5 A WORKING DEFINITION Why is a working definition important? Transformation entails the following: Altering the culture of an institution by changing underlying assumptions, values, behaviours, attitudes, processes and products It is deep and pervasive, affecting the entire institution It is intentional It occurs over time (Eckel, Hill & Green 1998) 5

6 WHAT DOES CHANGING THE INSTITUTIONAL CULTURE ENTAIL? Note that institutional culture is not monolithic but it is often a composite of many different sub-cultures. Includes the organisation’s artifacts, espoused values and underlying assumptions. Artifacts: are the concrete representations of culture (can you name the different artifacts we have at the UFS? Or at your institution?). Espoused values: are what we say & promote, beliefs about what is “good”, what “works”, and what is “right” (not always what we do) (Examples?). 6

7 WHAT DOES CHANGING THE INSTITUTIONAL CULTURE ENTAIL? Underlying assumptions: form the innermost core of a culture; are ingrained in beliefs and are rarely questioned. Difficult to identify (can you think of examples in higher education?) N.B. -Transformational change challenges/involves altering the espoused values and underlying assumptions -Underlying assumptions need to be congruent with the desired changes -Changes that challenge the core values are often restricted to part of the institution 7

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9 TRANSFORMATION IS DEEP AND PERVASIVE It affects behaviour and alters structures It implies a shift in values and assumptions underlying the normal/usual way of doing things It requires people to think and act differently Pervasive change is far-reaching 9

10 DEPTH AdjustmentIsolated Far-reaching Change Transformational Change 10 Pervasiveness Low High

11 TRANSFORMATION IS INTENTIONAL It leads to purposeful desirable outcomes It does not happen by chance Driven by a conscious decision Has a direction N.B. Intentionality is usually rare in higher education, since there is often a need to respond to environmental changes and pressures 11

12 TRANSFORMATION OCCURS OVER TIME Not a big bang Evolutionary Transformational change = change in processes, values, rewards and structures throughout a system/at at all levels of the system (hence it cannot happen overnight) 12

13 ACTIVITY 2: CRITICALLY REFLECT ON THE FOLLOWING: A TRANSFORMED HE IN SA – A POSSIBILITY OR A DREAM? (SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENTS) 13

14 ACCESS AS FORCE OF CHANGE/TRANSFORMATION 14 Diverse definition of access (e.g. by politicians, academics, public, etc.) AND consist of multiple intertwined dimensions (e.g. academic, financial, gender, disability, physical facilities, Geographic, Cultural, etc. Hall (1991:9) … equality through inclusiveness and opportunity for all people regardless of background. Riley (1994:13) “appends a notion of equality of opportunity” which involves leveling the playing field … In SAHE (DEPT. OF EDUCATION & UNIVERSITIES) looking for a way to taking into account social background and full range of characteristics. Thus minimising the barriers with the ultimate aim of “ACCESS WITH SUCCESS”. EXAMPLE (NECESSITY OF CPP – WHY?)

15 ACCESS Worldwide pressure for greater access to HE – pressure from various sources Remains on of the divisive challenges due to financial and educational hurdles of disadvantaged students Access regulated de facto by funding, support provided by state & expected contributions of students (function as regulator of enrollment) Define access and provide examples in own institution 15

16 WHAT ARE THE OVERALL GOALS OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE H.E. SYSTEM According to the National Plan (2001), these include: Providing increased access to H.E. regardless of race, gender, age, class, disability & creed Producing graduates with skills & competencies to meet the HR needs of the country Promoting equity of access and to redress past inequities (student and staff profiles) to reflect demographic realities of society (see NPHE for more) Also see (White Paper 3: A programme for higher education transformation 1997) Goal-setting is imperative at all levels of the HE system. What are the goals at institutional level? (Own institution) 16

17 EXAMPLES OF FORCES FOR CHANGE AND TRANSFORMATION Access and massification Demands for quality and relevance Increased accountability Dwindling resources Funding Emerging societal problems Policy and legislation Globalisation Internationalisation of HE Response to new demands of technology New modes of delivery and materials New modes of research - shift from Mode 1 to Mode 2 17

18 QUALITY AS FORCE OF CHANGE/TRANSFORMATION  QUALITY IS THE MOST ELUSIVE NOTION – WHY?  VARIOUS DEFINITION OF QUALITY =  TRANSFORMATION  ZERO DEFECT  VALUE FOR MONEY  FITNESS FOR PURPOSE  APPLICATION  PHILOSPOHY VERSUS MEASUREMENT  HEQC PHASE 18

19 ACCOUNTABILITY Define: Accountability Increase demand for HE to become publically accountable – reasons? Conflict between autonomy versus accountability Thin line: accountability versus interference in educational policy & academic freedom 19

20 FUNDING  DIVERSIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FUNDING THE ANSWER ? (EFFORT EXAMPLES)  QUESTIONS: ECONOMIES & EFFICIENCY  VAN VUGHTS (1994:5): “… TEACHING FUNCTION WILL BEAR THE FULL BURDEN OF FUTURE REDUCTIONS IN PUBLIC HE FUNDING, AS IT HAS DONE IN THE RECENT PAST. COMBINED WITH THE INCREASED PARTICIPATION, THIS WILL LEAD TO CATASTROPHIC EFFECTS IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE: NO ADEQUATE EDUC. DUE TO LACK OF FUNDS, AS WELL AS BEING INSUFFICIENT TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENT INFRASTRUCTURE TO STAFF, SUPPORT SERVICES AND TEACHER-RELATED DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH.”  WHO PAYS FOR HE?  ACCESS & FUNDING = CENTRAL FOR HE FUTURE 20

21 TECHNOLOGY  IMPACT OF NEW TECHNOLOGY ON STRUCTURE OF HE, THE THREE FUNCTIONS, STAFF & STUDENTS (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE)  HOW TO IMPROVE ACCESS VIA TECHNOLOGY (EXAMPLES)  HOW IT IMPACT ON THE INSTRUCTION MODE  REQUIRE INVESTMENT 21

22 INTERNATIONALISATION & GLOBALISATION  DEFINE THESE CONCEPTS  INTERNATIONAL KNOWLEDGE IS FUNDAMENTAL FOR HE SUCCESS: PROMISE OF DISCOVERY, SEEDS OF COMPETITIVENESS AND CHALLENGE OF LEADERSHIP.  IMPACT/CHALLENGES OF THESE CONCEPTS 22

23 NEW MODES OF DELIVERY  NEW MODES OF LEARNING  EXAMPLES: RBL, FLEXIBLE LEARNING, BRAIN-BASED LEARNING, ETC.  IMPACT ON HE INSTITUTION, STAFF AND STUDENTS 23

24 ACTIVITY 3 Question to the group: What kind of things/issues do you think HAVE/HAVE NOT truly transformed at the UFS/your institution? What kind of things/issues do you think HAVE/HAVE NOT truly transformed at the UFS? 24

25 ACTIVITY 4 Identify and describe the implications of change and transformation of the S.A. H.E. on: Government (Group 1) The public (Group 2) Governance and management structures (Group 3) Academic staff (Group 4) Students (Group 5) 25

26 CONCLUSION Change and transformation are imperatives in higher education worldwide. All stakeholders must embrace and support change and transformation. All stakeholders should contribute meaningfully to change and transformation. Transformation in HE involves a process of new knowledge production, reflexive action, which means seeing new problems and imagining new ways of approaching old problems and, deconstruction and reconstruction or constant exploring beneath surface appearances to respond to a future that cannot be imagined (Esterhuyse 1996:79) 26


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