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Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 22, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 22, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 22, 2011

2 Today’s Schedule  4:00 Proposal for next week  4:00-4:45 JILL DAVIS vs. Moo with response by Jesse Reese and Jessica Cinefro  DANIEL PATTE vs. Jewett with response by Ben Taylor and Michael Durham.  4:50- 5:00 Introduction to Paul: lecture focused on "reconciliation" in Romans 5:1-11 (& Gager Reinventing Paul,  MILADYS PÉREZ: respondents Zachary King, Sarah Jane, Erica Geurts sufferings, hope, and reconciliation with God and Byrne  5:10- 5:50 Lecture Christ as the New Adam (5:14- 21): Typology Adam/Christ; Typology in Paul >>> apocalyptic interpretation 

3 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday Feb 28  Following the form of the weekly exercises choose  a) two passages from the Letter to the Romans 1) one in Rom 8-16 with focus on one part of the passage as most significant for you, AND 2) to relate to it one passage chosen in Rom 1-7 (dealing with a related issue)  b) a theme (your choice; fitting these two passages)

4 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday Feb 28  PART A: Analyzing the two texts for what they say about your theme  a) In YOUR interpretation, which one of the several plausible views of the given theological or ethical THEME (see CDC) does Paul present in the assigned passage of Romans? Why not the others?  b) In YOUR interpretation what is the textual evidence (the most significant features of the two texts) that supports this particular view of the theme

5 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday Feb 28  PART B: Analyzing the contextual choices behind your reading of the text.  What kind of problem in the concrete life of believers do you think a teaching based on this theme would address? a) What aspects of the believers’ life do you think this teaching would address? (private life? Etc.) b) Give an example of the kind of concrete PROBLEMS in the believers’ life this teaching would address. c) What is the ROOT-PROBLEM in the believers’ life this teaching would address.

6 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday Feb 28  PART C: Formulate the main teaching of these passages of Romans regarding this theme that addresses these believers’ need in their life as Christians in the situation described in Part B.  Does it embody a specific role of scripture that will allow it to address the specific root-problem these believers need to address?  (Parts A, B, C = 65%)

7 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday Feb 28  Part D (35%): A paragraph explaining a) which of the three types of perspectives on Paul (the forensic/theological, pastoral/covenantal, apocalyptic/messianic) is closer to your interpretation (explain why); then  b) preliminary bibliography: identifying your companion scholar(s), and the diverging scholar(s) with whom you will compare your interpretations (see syllabus)

8 Romans chapter 4 (finishing)  JILL DAVIS vs. Moo with response by Jesse Reese and Jessica Cinefro  DANIEL PATTE vs. Jewett with response by Ben Taylor and Michael Durham.

9 Romans 5:1-5 (NRSV) Hope and Suffering  1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand; and we boast in our hope of sharing the glory of God. 3 And not only that, but we also boast in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, 4 and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, 5 and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.

10 Romans 5:6-11 Justified and reconciled  6 For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 Indeed, rarely will anyone die for a righteous person-- though perhaps for a good person someone might actually dare to die. 8 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us. 9 Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath [of God]. 10 For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more surely, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life. 11 But more than that, we even boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.

11 Miladys on Rom 5:1-11  Miladys ‘” Sufferings, hope, and reconciliation with God” vs. Byrne  respondents  Zachary  Sarah Jane  Erica

12 HOPE FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL  F/T: Object of hope: We hope to be at peace with God = justified, forgiven by God ; ultimately, being in heaven with God, at peace with God  F/T: Reason, the ground of hope: (I hope because of my) faith/knowledge that Christ died instead of us, that Jesus died on the cross for us, while we were sinners (5:8)  F/T: Goal of /end of hope: being myself at Peace with God and in God (and helping other be at peace with God); being in heaven with God, eternally at peace with God (in the loving arms of God)

13 HOPE NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL  NC/P: Object of hope: We hope for, and can boast in a) the glory of God (5:2), b) our sufferings (basis for our hope and situations in which God’s love is poured in our heart) (5:3); c) the reconciliation we have received “in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation” (5:11)  NC/P: Reason, the ground of hope: (we hope because of our) faith/trust that God and Christ are faithful to their covenant with us  NC/P: Goal of /end of hope: Boasting in God… and in this way (carrying our part of the covenant, our vocation, by) bringing people to glorify God; boasting that ALL of us “who, through the one man, Jesus Christ, receive the abundance of grace and of the free gift of justice exercise dominion (reign, rule) in life” (5:17), have together as a all-inclusive community a life that manifest the (interhuman) justice (a just life; a justified life, 5:18) that God wants for us all.

14 HOPE APOCALYPTIC/MESSIANIC  A/M: Object of hope: We hope for redemption = to be freed from the power of sin (and other evil powers) which makes us to be enemies of God because we conceive of it as “the wrath of God” (although as 1:18- 32; shows that it is simply our own self-destructive behavior), and thus to be made “just” = manifestations of the justice of God, because we are “children of God”  A/M: Reason, the ground of hope: (we hope because of our) faith = vision that Christ lives (and did not remain under the power of death) and that the power of God (of the Spirit, and of the resurrected Christ) is at work in front of us, making people righteous and alive, transforming people, reconciling people with God (5:11) people standing in God’s grace (powerful intervention in our lives), and sharing the glory of God (5:2)  A/M: Goal of /end of hope: justification and life for all (5:18); the many made just/righteous (=made manifestations of God ’ s justice — of God establishing a just

15 Romans 5:6-11 Justified and reconciled  6 For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 Indeed, rarely will anyone die for a righteous person-- though perhaps for a good person someone might actually dare to die. 8 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us. 9 Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath [of God]. 10 For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more surely, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life. 11 But more than that, we even boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.

16 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 reconciled  18 All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation; 19 that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting the message of reconciliation to us. 20 So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. 21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

17 Romans 5:9 we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath [[of God.]]  F/T: justified = ?  NC/P: justified = ?  A/M: justified = ?

18 Justification : Forensic  F/T: setting the “guilty” right before the righteous judge = being forgiven.  Problem solved: God’s wrath is appeased, God’s honor is satisfied; the sinners’ debts are paid  Reconciled: = justified; + being at peace with God= outcome of justification for believers who respond to justification

19 What is being “justified”? = being set in a right relationship with God?  New Covenant/Pastoral : people (Jews and Gentiles) have been “called” to be the chosen people of God … instead of remaining separated from God … called in a covenant with God: being “set right with God” in this Covenant involves: 1. God chose/called them = election 2. For something = a vocation 3. Carrying out this vocation: 1 Thess 1:3 “your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope”

20 Justification: New Covenantal/Pastoral  Justification = the way in which the Just God relates to the world with justice.  Justification = establishment of a New Covenant : people (both Jews and Gentiles) have been “called” to be the chosen people of God … instead of remaining separated from God;  Reconciliation of people to God is the first step

21 Justification: New Covenantal/Pastoral  Justification = receiving the call of God, and the vocation it entails; Carrying out this vocation = being just; being “set right with God” in order to convey association with God in order to manifest God’s justice and call for justice in society  Problem solved: People’s rejection of God; people not glorifying God, but glorifying self (‘boasting” of self) and bring about division in society, tensions, injustice

22 Justification: Apocalyptic/Messianic  Justification/Justice = the way in which God relates to the world  Justified = Being freed by God’s intervention from bondage-slavery to sin, evil, idols, death;  Problem addressed: the “dominion” of sin, evil, idols, death;  Result: Justified = being in bondage- slavery to Christ; God, under the dominion of Christ.

23 Having been reconciled to God and having been justified  FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL READING? Being justified is first; being reconciled with God is the outcome with emphasis on peace with God. We put ourselves to the benefit of the cross  NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL READING? Being reconciled with God is first (overcoming sin as rebelling against God and against God’s beloved because of a wrong vision of God, as partial, (favoring others, and not us); as a consequence one discovers oneself as “justified” = called, to be part of the chosen people, and to manifest the “justice” of God

24 Having been reconciled to God and having been justified  FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL READING? Being justified is first; being reconciled with God is the outcome with emphasis on peace with God We put ourselves to the benefit of the cross  NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL READING? Being reconciled with God is first (overcoming sin as rebelling against God and against God’s beloved because of a wrong vision of God, as partial, favoring others, and not us) ; as a consequence one discovers oneself as “justified” = called, to be part of the chosen people, and to manifest the “justice” of God  APOCALYPTIC/MESSIANIC READING? Being reconciled is identical with being justified = being freed from the power of sin a.k.a our idols a) which makes of us enemies of God and b) which makes us unjust (destroying others, and destroying ourselves) Being reconciled: = freed from our enmity toward God Being justified/made just, practicing justice = reestablished in right relationship with others

25 “Adam and Christ”. 5:12ff  FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL READING? All (including the nonhuman creation) are subjected to God’s punishment as the result of Adam’ sin. Cranfield, 416.  NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL READING? The great equalizer = Adam (brings death to everybody, no distinction) against the tendency to claim cultural superiority 2) Adam's act determines the behavior of his descendants. A social theory of sin seems implied here; the actions of forbearers determine those of their descendants. (Jewett)

26 “Adam and Christ”. 5:12ff  FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL READING? All (including the nonhuman creation) is subjected to God’s punishment as the result of Adam’ sin. Cranfield, 416.  NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL READING? The great equalizer = Adam (brings death to everybody, no distinction) against the tendency to claim cultural superiority 2) Adam's act determines the behavior of his descendents. A social theory of sin seems implied here; the actions of forbearers determine those of their descendents. Jewett  APOCALYPTIC/MESSIANIC READING? Typology “The profoundly apocalyptic argument of the text which sets Christ and Adam in 5:12ff in the contrast and contradiction of the old and new aeons.” (Käsemann, 282) two spheres of power under Adam – under Christ

27 Shifting back and forth between NC/P Metaphorical Frames NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL Frame: 1. God = a God who wants a covenant with ALL people, so that with God’s help God’s people will establish God’s kingdom, i.e. a society/world that will a) glorify God and b) be characterized by God’s justice = just interhuman relationship 2. Humans = sinners, reject God, need to be reconciled to God (and to each other) 3. Jesus Christ died for sinners = to reconcile us with God; covenantal sacrifice = expiation, expunging our sins, appeasing our anger against God by showing God’s faithfulness toward us 4. Jesus’ faithfulness calls humans to faithfulness

28 J.Gager Reinventing Paul on Galatians (79-80) From Paul the Pharisee to Paul the Apostle  Why was the circumcision (berith) the key issue in the dispute between Paul and the Galatians?  Knowing that the same Hebrew word berith refers to both “covenant” and to “circumcision” (the ritual for entrance in the covenant), one can recognize that the key issue revolved around 2 questions:  Who could be deemed justified or saved?  Or, in Jewish terms (of Paul the Jew, the Jewish- Christian church, and Gentiles who adopted a Jewish proclamation, regarding Jesus Christ was the Messiah) who belonged to the people of God—the people of the covenant with God? For Paul’s opponents (Gentiles who claimed the authority of James, and possibly Peter) this meant “only those who belonged to the people of Israel were deemed justified or saved” (79-80).

29 Human Predicament F/T vs. NC/P vs A/M Which One did YOU Choose?  F/T Individuals under God’s condemnation; God is angry against human (God’s wrath); God views humans as God’s enemies,  NC/P Being jealous of God’s people and Enemy of God; angry against God; suspicious of God (“God is unjust”; God is partial; God prefers & favors others) and jealous of God’s people  A/M In bondage to the power of sin, power of evil; since humans serve evil, they are enemies of God and of God’s people;

30 F/T vs. NC/P vs A/M Sin. Which One did YOU Choose?  F/T Willingly not doing God’s Will; Willingly doing evil  NC/P Rebelling against God and against God’s beloved; participating in systemic sin  A/M Serving an idol and/or a power which is not God, because it has power over them; being slave to death. Lack of control  Does it matter which one we choose? Contextual consequences!

31 Forensic/Theological Sinner (individual sin)

32 NC/P Sinful Oppressive || Social Chaos social system || Banality of social evil: economic system || Nazi sing-along Auschwitz

33 Apocalyptic/Messianic Sin = Idolatry Idols?

34 How Are You Today?  Did you have a good weekend?  Did you enjoy this great weather?  Did you have a good week?  What were the high points of your week? The good things which happened to you this week?  Were you able to organize your time as you wished? To have a good balance between studies and social life, and may be religious life?  When problems arose were you able to master them, to regain control of your life?  For me it was a depressing week; depressed.

35 All was well in your world?  Did you have good meals, at home, at Rand, or in a restaurant?  Did you make good food choices?  Making sure that it was not overloaded with fat?  Making sure it was a well balanced diet?

36 All was NOT well in their hungry world

37 All is not well in God's creation  Every 2 seconds  A child dies of malnutrition and preventable diseases  40 children under five die every minute of every day, somewhere in the world (in 2003)  TradeRelated/Poverty.asp

38 All is not well in God's creation  Half the world — nearly three billion people — live on less than two dollars a day. … No control on life  The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s countries) No control on their economy  is less than the wealth of the world’s three richest people combined

39 All is not well in God's creation  1 billion children live in poverty (1 in 2 children in the world).  640 million children live without adequate shelter,

40 All is not well in God's creation 1 ½ Billion people live in Squatter Camps

41 All is not well in God's creation in Darfur, in Congo,… in Many places  Starvation.  Rapes.  Massive displacements. Entire villages burned to the ground.  Parents forced to watch their children being murdered.  No control on their lives, helpless  Daily occurrences in the Darfur region of Sudan, Congo, etc.

42 All is not well in God's creation Forensic/Theological vs. NC/P vs A/M  Forensic/Theological response: Who sinned? Let us identify the greedy who hoard resources for themselves. The corrupt. Positively: Let us make sure that we are generous. That we share our resources with those who do not have anything. Let us TEACH people to be righteous, what is good and what is evil/bad. And make sure they WILL WANT to do it. That they will repent from their greedy, corrupt ways Good individuals will make a difference & resolve the situation  For me, depressed in a depressing week... Sorry but this is unrealistic… way too optimistic

43 All is not well in God's creation F/T vs. New Covenant/Pastoral vs A/M  New Covenant/Pastoral response: Is it not clear that the problem is one of people vs people? First world vs. 2/3 world Oppressor, colonizer, imperialist vs. oppressed, colonized, people without culture Positively develop a community which embodies the justice of God; which shows that we depend on others; we are interdependent; and implement in life this; “Ten Thousand Villages.” Fair trade. Being communities which embody the justice of God.

44 All is not well in God's creation F/T vs. NC/P vs Apocalyptic/Messanic  Apocalyptic/Messianic response:  Acknowledging that we most people would want to take action, but feel totally helpless with such a massive evil … even as the poor are powerless  Acknowledging that we do the evil we hate by contributing to the problem, rather than solving it “For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do” (Rom 7:16)  “No Exit”. No control … even as the poor have no control over their lives  Acknowledging the powers of evil in our lives  No human solution … only a divine intervention

45 Miserable one that I am! Who will rescue me from this mortal body? Apocalyptic/Messanic  Acknowledging the powers of evil in our lives  No human solution … only a divine intervention  Looking for the solution  solution NOT in what we are trying to do as individuals – and it is important and good to do it  solution NOT in what we are trying to do as communities – and it is important and good that we promote such communities manifesting the justice of God in the world  BUT solution in Others through whom God is at work today, as God was at work in Christ Others beyond the Law ….. whom we would neither identify as “good” individuals nor as members of “good’ communities

46 F/T vs. NC/P vs A/M (see Handout) Jesus’ death  F/T willingly doing God’s will: dying instead of us;  NC/P The cost of being absolutely faithful to God in a world where people are in rebellion against God and against God’s beloved. The cost of being absolutely faithful to God’s children in a world where God’s children define themselves against each other  A/M Jesus’ powerlessness under the power of death; his being crushed by the powers of death and other evil powers (incarnation)


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