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School Curriculum: Policy Mandate, Processes, Perspectives and Initiatives Ranjana Arora, Prof. and Head, RMSA Project Cell, NCERT.

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Presentation on theme: "School Curriculum: Policy Mandate, Processes, Perspectives and Initiatives Ranjana Arora, Prof. and Head, RMSA Project Cell, NCERT."— Presentation transcript:

1 School Curriculum: Policy Mandate, Processes, Perspectives and Initiatives
Ranjana Arora, Prof. and Head, RMSA Project Cell, NCERT

2 Role of a School Schools are institutional spaces for communities of learners, including both students and teachers. All school activities bring community together, giving it the character of a learning community.

3 Role of a School Strengthening the National System of Education emphasising Values enshrined in the Constitution of India Quality education for all

4 Activity For reflections: What role I play in this school?
Is this role different from the role of a teacher, which I played and still playing? How? What I need to know and understand for better functioning and leadership?

5 Role of school principal/headmaster
School Planning School Management School Administration & Academic leadership(mentoring and monitoring)

6 For providing academic leadership, one needs understanding of:
Curriculum reform processes Curricular and pedagogic vision Diverse needs of students Rationale, philosophy and implementation strategies of continuous and comprehensive evaluation Training needs of teachers Govt. Schemes and programmes implemented to address quality and equity aspects in school education

7 NCERT initiative for Curricular Reforms
Yash Pal Committee Report, ‘Learning Without Burden’ (1993) observes that learning has become a source of burden and stress on children and their parents. Considering these observations, Executive Committee of NCERT decided at its meeting of July 14, 2004, to revise the National Curriculum Framework. The process of development of NCF was initiated in November, 2004 by setting up various structures like National Steering Committee Chaired by Prof. Yash Pal and twenty-one National Focus Groups on themes of curricular areas, systemic reforms and national concerns.

8 Contd…… Wide ranging deliberations and inputs from multiple sources involving different levels of stakeholders helped in shaping the draft of NCF. The draft NCF was translated into 22 languages listed in the VIII Schedule of the Constitution. The translated versions were widely disseminated and consultations with stakeholders at district and local level helped in developing the final draft. The NCF was approved by Central Advisory Board on Education in September, 2005.

9 “When I was a child I had the freedom to make my own toys out of trifles and create my own games from imagination. In my happiness my playmates had their full share; in fact the complete enjoyment of my games depended upon their taking part in them. One day, in this paradise of our childhood, entered a temptation from the market world of the adult. A toy bought from and English shop was given to one of our companions; it was perfect, big and wonderfully life-like. He became proud of the toy and less mindful of the games; he kept that expensive thing carefully away from us, glorying in his exclusive possession of it, feeling himself superior to his playmates whose toys were cheap. I am sure if he could have used the modern language of history he would have said that he was more civilised than ourselves to the extent of his owning that ridiculously perfect toy. One thing he failed to realise in his excitement- a fact which at the moment seemed to him insignificant- that this temptation obscured something a great deal more perfect than his toy, the revelation of the perfect child. The toy merely expressed his wealth, but not the child’s creative spirit, not the child’s generous joy in his play, his open invitation to all who were his compeers to his play-world.” From Civilisation and Progress by Rabindranath Tagore

10 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Vision and Perspectives
In the context of multicultural nature of our society, the cultural diversity to be treasured as our special attribute Recognizes the social context of education- hierarchies of caste and class, and gender relations Makes efforts towards strengthening of a National System of Education with the focus on Values enshrined in the Constitution of India Reduction of curriculum load Quality education for all Systemic changes

11 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Aims of Education
Independence of thought and action Sensitivity to others’ well being and feelings Learning to respond to new situations in flexible and creative manner Predisposition towards participation in democratic processes, and Ability to work towards and contribute to economic processes and social change

12 NCF – 2005: Guiding Principles:
Connecting knowledge to life outside the school Ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods Enriching the curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather than remain textbook centric Making examinations more flexible, non- threatening and integrated into classroom life Nurturing an over-riding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country

13 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Empowers stakeholders
to move beyond subject boundaries to ensure primacy of the active learner Learners’ experiences Their voices, questions Their thinking, reflection, creativity Construction knowledge Developing critical perspective

14 Formulation of meaningful contexts for language acquisition
National Curriculum Framework-2005: Suggests significant changes in subject areas Formulation of meaningful contexts for language acquisition Mother tongue as best medium to build foundation including tribal language Three language formula Multilingual character of our society as resource

15 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Features that matters
Teaching of Mathematics to focus on child’s resources to think and reason, to visualize abstractions and to solve problems Teaching of science to focus on methods and processes that will nurture thinking process, curiosity and creativity

16 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Features that matters
Social sciences to be considered from disciplinary perspective with rooms for: Integrated approach in the treatment of significant themes Enabling pedagogic practices for promoting thinking process, decision making and critical reflection The Arts, heritage crafts and health and physical education to form integral components of school curriculum

17 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Systemic Reform
Professional planning and significant expression of early childhood care and education Teaching is a professional activity Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities for improved teacher performance Locally planned, flexible school calendars and time tables

18 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Systemic Reform
Reconceptualisation of textbooks, teachers’ handbooks, and other material based on new perspectives and access to interactive technologies Strengthening the Panchayati Raj Institutions and encouraging community participation for enhancing quality and accountability

19 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Systemic Reform
Teacher education programmes to be recast to reflect professionalism in the process of training and teaching Productive work as pedagogic medium in school curriculum from pre-primary to senior secondary stages Vocational education and training to be conceived and implemented in a mission mode Partnerships between the school system and other civil society groups –NGOs and teacher organisations, etc.

20 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Systemic Reform
Examination reforms highlight: Shift from content based testing to problem solving and competency based assessment Examinations of shorter duration Flexible time limit Change in typology of questions No public examination till class VIII Class X board exam to be made optional (in long term)

21 National Curriculum Framework-2005: Systemic Reform
Teacher Education Reforms emphasise on preparation of teacher to 1. View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and knowledge generation at a continuously evolving process of reflective learning. 2. View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks, but as constructed in the shared context of teaching-learning and personal experience.

22 Activity Make a list of actions that you can take in your school at your own level for the betterment of the school and students

23 Don’t delay, take initiatives for change so that your students learn more and perform better.

24 Transformation of ideas into Syllabi and Textbooks
NCF Initiatives Transformation of ideas into Syllabi and Textbooks Dissemination of the NCF-2005 About 35,000 teachers and 6, teacher educators across the states were oriented using Educational Satellite on NCF and NCERT textbooks 5,000 teachers oriented through face to face mode

25 Development of Support Material
Moving Ahead Development of Support Material Audio/video programmes on NCF-2005 and textbooks Sourcebook on learning assessment Exemplar problems in Science and Mathematics Science and Mathematics kits Teachers’ handbooks and manuals. Teacher Training Packages.

26 Moving Ahead Developed syllabi and textbooks in new areas such as Heritage Craft, Media Studies, Art Education, Health and Physical Education, etc. Taken various initiatives in the area of ECCE, Gender, Inclusive Education, Peace, Vocational Education, Guidance and Counseling, ICT, etc.

27 Syllabus development: Guidelines
Resonance of the values enshrined in the Constitution of India Sensitivity to gender, caste and class parity, peace, health and needs of children with disabilities Infusion of environment related knowledge and work related attitude in all subjects and at all levels Linkages between school knowledge in different subjects and children’s everyday experiences Appropriateness of topics and themes for relevant stages of children’s development and continuity from one level to the next Inter-disciplinary and thematic linkages between topics listed for different school subjects, which fall under discrete disciplinary areas Nurturing aesthetic sensibility and values by integrating the arts and India’s heritage of crafts in every aspect of the curriculum NCERT formulated guidelines for syllabus development, including … read text


29 Warli art Chakai ke chakdum – in warli style

30 Introduction to data handling through making tables using different categories – the colours of flowers or the number of petals

31 Exercises for making tables with the idea of frequency

32 Geography – Class VI The Earth: Our Habitat Salient features
Simple language, age group specific Minimising density of concepts/ information Making textbook learner friendly; enhancing visual appeal.

33 Natural and human features: analysing photos

34 Communicating: from verbal to visual

35 Communicating: from visual to verbal

36 Promoting exploratory activities and exercises beyond the textbook


38 From the teachers pages:
Introductory box that provides a glimpse into the contents of the chapter Large visual to enable the child to conjecture what the chapter seeks to get across In-text questions, discussion boxes or exercises End-text questions to encourage student to understand rather than blindly memorise

39 Different types of questions – to recall main ideas and to answer based on their own experiences
Questions to imagine a situation Use of photos and visuals for student to describe what they see Use of narratives – fiction and non fiction to encourage introspection and discussion Other sources: cartoons, Letters to the editor


41 People are different in many ways
People are different in many ways. Not only do they look different, but they also belong to different regional, cultural or religious backgrounds. These differences enrich our lives in many ways. Text provides scope for children to draw… understand that each individual has a unique style.

42 ‘The Lights Changed’ Poile Sengupta A story to understand diversity

43 Discussion and exercises:
Diverse cultural and religious backgrounds Inequality – economic and social What does diversity add to our lives? Eat different foods Celebrate different festivals Try out different clothes Speak/learn different languages

44 Different ways in which:
People pray People get married Get dressed Greet each other Cook rice

45 Historical and geographical
factors that influence the diversity of regions Kerala and Ladakh


47 India’s diversity has been a source of its strength.
Unity in diversity: India’s freedom movement had thousands of people of different backgrounds. They worked together to decide joint actions, they went to jail together, and they found different ways to oppose the British.

48 India’s national anthem, composed by Rabindranath Tagore is another expression of the unity of India.

49 Supporting Curriculum Reform in States/UTs
Moving Ahead Supporting Curriculum Reform in States/UTs Academic and Financial support to all 35 states and UTs for review of syllabi and textbooks Curriculum Study in states Classroom Process Study Capacity Building of State Curriculum Developers

50 Moving Ahead Syllabus and textbook review is only one component of the curricular reform process. The reforms in examinations, teacher education and school environment also require serious efforts. The Council has been supporting states/UTs on this at all levels.

51 Thanks!

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