2Fremont County The bare facts One mileFremont CountyNThe bare factsIn 1882, Jewish pioneers came to farm in Cotopaxi, supported by the New York charity, HEAS, in a colony initially managed by a local businessman, Emanuel Saltiel
3One mileFremont CountyNPeopleMorris Tuska was a board member of HEAS, a New York Charity, established the year before to accommodate Jewish migrants from Russia.Emanuel Saltiel owned a mine and other property in Cotopaxi. He agreed with HEAS to establish the colony there and defrayed $5,000 of its unbudgeted expenses.Julius Schwarz was Tuska’s nephew, who served as the colony’s clerk for three months from May 1882 and its manager for ten weeks after August.George Kohn was a Denver Lawyer, who took up the colonists’ cause after January 1883 and negotiated their way out of their financial predicament.Eleazar Hart was Saltiel’s second cousin whose local store advanced the colonists $2,000 of goods on credit. His son, Meyer, wrote a rebuttal to Kohn.
4Fremont County Sequence N One mileFremont CountyNSequenceMay to July: Saltiel in charge. 8 May: Colonists arrive. End of June: Saltiel goes to New York to warn HEAS that colony is running out of money; gets a dusty answer.End of July: Tuska inspects and criticises Saltiel. Replaces him with colony’s clerk - his nephew, Schwarz. Asks HEAS for more money; also comes up dry.August to mid-October: Schwarz in charge. He too ends up in New York asking for more money. Gets nowhere.After October: HEAS breaks off contact with colony till January, when settlers wheel in their lawyer.
5Four places to bear in mind, with much to-ing and fro-ing. One mileFremont CountyCotopaxiNLocationsFour places to bear in mind, with much to-ing and fro-ing.Oak Grove CreekWet Mountain ValleyThird Division
6Fremont County Arrivals & departures N One mileFremont CountyNArrivals & departuresThe colony always had more than the intended number of twelve families.There were 14 from the outset, rising to 18 after five months.MinimumMaximum
7One mileFremont CountyNDebtsThe colonists turned up owing $10,000 to HEAS for supplies and transport and almost no personal cash.They bore losses immediately, losing an ox-team on arrival. They then had to rely upon local credit for store-bought food plus communal and religious necessaries.More settlers than intended arrived in summer, adding to expense - as did to-ing and fro-ing between tracts.The colony itself ran out of money In early August. Appeals to HEAS by Saltiel, Tuska and Schwarz all came up empty.Even so, local credit was found for cows and wire. After Schwarz’ October report fell on deaf ears in New York, all such credit ceased.This left the colonists decisively in debt and the colony busting its budget by 100%.
9Fremont County N All colonists rejected “bottom lands” at outset One mileFremont CountyNAll colonists rejected “bottom lands”at outsetNewmanM ShamesSchneiderKorpitskyFour colonists displaced by neighbours in June
10Fremont County N 98 days 196 days One mile Nudelman Zedek Minkovsky M ShuteranI Shames98 daysSchneiderNewmanTorplitskyKorpitsky196 days
11Oak Grove Creek - rejected on 11 May Third division - filed on One mileFremont CountyArrive 8 MayBack 11 MayDisplacedc20 JuneNOak Grove Creek - rejected on 11 MayWet Mountain Valley -filed on 11 JuneThird division - filed on19 November
13Unbudgeted expenditures One mileFremont CountyNnow to those myths…
14we should heed the time-honored stories One mileFremont CountyNwe should heed the time-honored stories
15they’re plain unreliable One mileFremont CountyNnot smartthey’re plain unreliable
16the most hair-raising author, Satt, never saw key sources… One mileFremont Countythe most hair-raising author, Satt, never saw key sources…NReport to HEAS from Morris TuskaLetter from EH SaltielReport to HEAS from Julius SchwarzLetter from Meyer HartLetter from HS Henry, HEAS…which demolish her bogus theories...
17…based on histrionics from the colony’s babies… One mileFremont CountyN…based on histrionics from the colony’s babies……some not yet born!
18mean old Saltiel “shrugged” at the colonists’ distress One mileFremont CountyNmean old Saltiel “shrugged” at the colonists’ distress
19he cabled their woes to HEAS within days… One mileFremont CountyNfar from ithe cabled their woes to HEAS within days…… and after eight weeks took the train to New York to plead their cause personallyunknown to the colonists themselves
20scheming Saltiel planned the colony’s failure to get cheap miners One mileFremont CountyNscheming Saltiel planned the colony’s failure to get cheap miners
21…some chose the railroad; six out of 23 men chose the mine… One mileFremont CountyNbunkum!all attempts to get cash out of New York had failed, so the settlers needed work……some chose the railroad; six out of 23 men chose the mine……with four of them recorded as unable to claim lands as minors, multiple claimers or late arrivals
22unscrupulous Saltiel denied the colonists “rebates” One mileFremont CountyNunscrupulous Saltiel denied the colonists “rebates”
23Fremont County are you kidding? One mileFremont CountyNare you kidding?in fact the colonists were most worried about the money they owed all round$10,000 to HEAS$7,000 in Cotopaxi
24One mileFremont CountyNand that’swhat it’s all about
25the colonists needed to get out from under One mileFremont CountyNthe colonists needed to get out from underso they dipped into their $1,000 war-chest and brought in a sharp lawyerAttorney Kohn
26Fremont County Attorney Kohn’s job One mileFremont CountyNAttorney Kohn’s jobto persuade HEAS to eat losses of some $17,000,just when it was overwhelmed by Russian refugees.
27Fremont County his insight One mileFremont CountyNhis insightHe would succeed by working on the charity's remorse for neglecting Cotopaxi over the winter and opening the door to apply costs to Saltiel.
28Fremont County his argument One mileFremont CountyNhis argument“Never mind my clients breaking their word; just feel their pain and blame the bad guy.”
29Fremont County the title gambit N One mileFremont CountyNthe title gambitNudelmanfirst, he tried for yardage with complaints about titles in Cotopaxi, but these were for houses - executed or to be “had for the asking”.His play masked problems for tracts on government lands, where one claim was made in the name of a settler not yet in Cotopaxi; andS ChoroskyS ChuteranS ChoroskyA N OtherS ChrovskyZedekfour families with good titles gave them uptwo families had occupied tracts without titles(locations approximated)MinkovskyM ShuteranS ChueranM ShamesI ShamesM ShuteranNewmanM ShamesSchneiderKorpitskythree settlers definitively made duplicate claims, clouding titleS ChuteranI ShamesSchneiderNewmanKorpitskySchneiderNewmanmultiple occupancies by namesakes risked similar challenges.LautersteinTorplitsky
30Fremont County the house gambit $280 $100 N One mileFremont Countythe house gambitNthen he revisited the summer complaints, turning them to argue that houses were overpricedthis mistook six 10x12 cabins built to satisfy the Homestead Act…$100each…with twelve 16x20 houses built to accommodate families$280eachNothing shows that HEAS took Kohn’s charges seriously.But seventy years later, Satt revived them to salt the mine for her “sweated labour” fallacy.
31Fremont County Attorney Kohn knew his stuff One mileFremont CountyAttorney Kohn knew his stuffhe whipped up a campaign inCotopaxi and New York, plus the local and “Russian-Jewish” pressN
32Fremont County and he succeeded handsomely One mileFremont CountyNand he succeededhandsomelyhe got the colonists off their debts…plus a grubstakethey moved on to make their way elsewherehis tactics sullying Saltiel to this day
33Fremont County so who was Saltiel? N no evil genius Romantic One mileFremont Countyso who was Saltiel?Nno evil geniusRomanticHe came from London to New Orleans as a teenager.He bought into the agricultural utopianism of his times.PrincipledHe started in the West by blowing the whistle on his drunken thief of a Cavalry COHe hastened to tell HEAS when things went wrong.GenerousHe was a founding donor of Denver’s National Jewish Hospital.This very episode was a tragic failure of philanthropy.ResourcefulHe went from nothing but the clothes on his back to a Rocky Mountain businessman.No quitter, still litigating left and right at the time of his early death.
34Fremont County and who were the settlers? N no babes in the wood One mileFremont Countyand who were the settlers?Nno babes in the woodRomanticThey too bought into agricultural utopianism.They travelled 5,500 miles to make new lives.PrincipledThey strained themselves to keep kosher from the outset.Within weeks of arriving at Cotopaxi, they built a synagogue.GenerousThey saved communally for mutual support, including for those moving on.ResourcefulThey enlisted a lawyer to grab HEAS’ attention after a winter of neglect.They went on to success throughout the West.