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Rethinking the Design of Overheads: Moving from Verbal to Visual Russell L. Kahn, Ph.D. Director, MS in Information Design and Technology (going online.

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Presentation on theme: "Rethinking the Design of Overheads: Moving from Verbal to Visual Russell L. Kahn, Ph.D. Director, MS in Information Design and Technology (going online."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rethinking the Design of Overheads: Moving from Verbal to Visual Russell L. Kahn, Ph.D. Director, MS in Information Design and Technology (going online in the fall) Program Information: "Copyright Russell Kahn, 2008 This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author."

2 Verbal to Visual2 Presentation will move from analysis of presentation styles to applications 1. Weaknesses of title/list format 2. Description, illustration, analysis of the assertion/visual evidence format 3. Empirical testing of this approach; copyright issues

3 Verbal to Visual3 Overview 1.Weaknesses of title/list 2. Description, illustration, analysis of the assertion/visual evidence format 3. Empirical testing of this approach; copyright issues Centered phrase List of topics Power corrupts, PowerPoint corrupts absolutely” Tufte

4 Verbal to Visual4 Traditional layouts of phrase headlines and lists simply mimic the notes of the presenter… Decorative art reduces audience recall Students race to write down what’s on the screen

5 Verbal to Visual5 Four Variables in Design Artwork - The Point Display Text - Lead to by line Body Text - Follow line Signature/Closure - Call to action PowerPoint’s design defaults tend toward reductionism because it oversimplifies and fragments…

6 Re-worked slide using new format Body text Display text Artwork Signature 1. Sentence assertion 2. Visual evidence

7 Verbal to Visual7 Information designers prepare information for efficiency and effectiveness Clear assertion leading to discussion Visual evidence supporting assertion and for discussion

8 Use sans serif, < 30 point for the sentence assertion, point for subheadings, flush left alignment, and sentence capitalization

9 Keep lists to 1-3 lines; be generous with white space.

10 Verbal to Visual10 Traditional text based design leads to information overload

11 Verbal to Visual11 Reworked text-based slide: Verbs should take an action; find the action and make it the verb. To be (weak verb) 1a It seems to be unwise to represent oneself in court. 1b One should not represent oneself in court. Sentence assertion Visual evidence

12 Use Powerpoint’s “Presenters Tools” to provide needed notes for this format

13 Use Keynote’s preferences to provide needed notes for this format

14 Verbal to Visual14 Use of assertion/visual evidence presentations enhances online classes Grammar podcast

15 Verbal to Visual15 Using the assertion/visual evidence technique improved online discussions Type AverageLowHigh Traditional Assertion/ visual evidence

16 Verbal to Visual16 The assertion/visual evidence format moves teaching from teacher-centered to student-centered learning The five premises of student-centered learning from Bhaerman and Selden “Instructional Technology and the Teaching Profession” Teachers College Record

17 Verbal to Visual17 Premise 1. Is knowledge something that can be transmitted from one human being to another, or is knowledge the result of one’s unique and personal experiences?

18 Verbal to Visual18 Premise 2. Is the goal of teaching the mastery of factual information by means of demonstrations and recitations or is teaching a process of arousing personal response in the learner?

19 Verbal to Visual19 Premise 3. Is the learner conceived as a sensory receiver to be manipulated or is he or she an active and experiencing person?

20 Verbal to Visual20 Premise 4. Is the teacher conceived as a demonstrator and mental disciplinarian or is she provocateur and instigator of activity—mental, emotional, and social?

21 Verbal to Visual21 (Alley, 2005) A study of 800 students found that test scores improved when using the assertion/visual evidence format

22 Using this format scores improved on 7 of 15 questions Shows ratio of scores: visual/traditional (Alley, 2005)

23 How one slide was changed from traditional to assertion/visual Traditional slide format Assertion/visual evidence format

24 Verbal to Visual24 How visual are we? Consider the success of YouTube… 1.Hosts over 6 million videos 2.Takes 45 terabytes of storage — about 5,000 hard drives. 3.Spent 9,305 years watching YouTube in 2006 Wall Street Journal

25 Verbal to Visual25 Visual resources for use as visual evidence are all over the web

26 Verbal to Visual26 Assertion/Visual evidence meets the four tests of fair use 1.Purpose and Character 2.Nature of the copyrighted work 3.Amount and substantiality 4.Effect on the market

27 Verbal to Visual27 Key drawback to new design format is that it breaks with tradition 1. PowerPoint templates support old methods 2. It’s difficult to write succinct assertions and find visual evidence 3. Students are used to the traditional format.

28 Verbal to Visual28 Conclusion - The value of the assertion/visual evidence format 1.Headings and bulleted lists discourage critical thinking Teacher-centered 2. Assertion followed by evidence improves orientation, retention, and persuasion Student-centered

29 Verbal to Visual29 Questions? Russell L. Kahn SUNYIT References and other resources on my teaching tools wiki: Article in Journal of Educational Technology Volume 36, Number 2 /

30 Visuals give you something to think about and discuss “Making design decisions”

31 Assertion/visual evidence paradigm is better at orienting the audience, is more memorable, and is more persuasive… Newseum.com

32 Verbal to Visual32 Copyright law covers “original works of authorship” Madonna - HollywoodBourdin - CineFilms Is this Madonna MTV video (left) a violation of Bourdin’s copyright?

33 Verbal to Visual33 Parody is covered under fair use

34 Two features distinguish the new design: 1. Sentence assertion 2. Visual evidence

35 Verbal to Visual35 Now use three straight lines to connect circles (don’t remove pen from paper) Use four straight lines to connect circles (don’t remove pen from paper)

36 Verbal to Visual36 Use three straight lines to connect (don’t remove pen from paper) Now use one straight line to connect circles (don’t remove pen from paper)

37 Verbal to Visual37 Successive losses of the French Army in the Russian campaign of 1812

38 Verbal to Visual38 Closeup of map


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