2World War I Begins Section 1 As World War I intensifies, the United States is forced to abandon its neutrality.
3Causes of World War INationalism—devotion to interests, culture of one’s nation, nationalism leads to competition, antagonism between nationsImperialism-competition to build empires, acquire colonies overseasMilitarism—development of armed forces, their use in diplomacy, stockpiling weaponsAlliance SystemTriple Entente or Allies—France, Britain, RussiaGermany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire are Central PowersAlliances give security; nations unwilling to tip balance of power
6An Assassination Leads to War Alliances Complicate ConflictArchduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria shot by Serbian nationalist in BosniaAustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, expects short warAlliance system pulls one nation after another into war, would have been a local/regional conflict without alliances
9Germany’s Schlieffen Plan: hold Russia, defeat France by driving quickly to Paris, then Russia 1st active battles of the war, German troops sweep through Belgium, cause major refugee crisisNo man’s land”—barren expanse of mud between opposing trenchesArmies fight to gain only yards of ground in bloody trench warfare-opposing forces attack from systems of fortified ditchesEarly Battles
10NeutralityNaturalized citizens concerned about effect on country of birthMany feel ties to British ancestry, language, democracy, legal systemU.S. has stronger economic ties with Allies than with Central Powers3 years of neutrality for the US
12The British BlockadeBritish blockade, mine North Sea, stop war supplies reaching Germany, also stop food, fertilizerU. S. merchant ships seldom reach GermanyGermany has difficulty importing food, fertilizer; by 1917, famine, widespread starvation
13German U-Boat Response Germany sets up U-boat counterblockade of BritainU-boat sinks British liner Lusitania; 128 Americans among the deadU.S. public opinion turns against GermanyPresident Wilson protests, but Germany continues to sink shipsGermany asks U.S. to get Britain to end food blockadeOtherwise will renew unrestricted submarine war
14The United States Declares War Kaiser announces U-boats will sink all ships in British watersZimmerman note—proposes alliance of Germany, Mexico against U.S.Four unarmed American merchant ships sunk, unrestricted submarine warfare main reason for US entry into warRussian monarchy replaced with representative governmentWilson calls for war to make world “safe for democracy”
15The Zimmerman Telegram We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace. Signed, Zimmermann
16American Power Tips the Balance Section 2American Power Tips the BalanceThe United States mobilize a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory.
17America Mobilizes Over There by George M Cohen Selective Service Act—men are required to register, randomly chosen for serviceAfrican Americans in segregated units, excluded from navy, marinesWomen in army, navy, marines as nurses secretaries, phone operators
19America Turns the TideAfter 2 1/2 years fighting, Allied forces are exhausted, demoralizedAmerican troops bring numbers, freshness, enthusiasmGeneral John J. Pershing leads American Expeditionary ForceBy 1917, British learn to use tanks to clear path for infantryEarly planes flimsy, only do scouting; later ones stronger, faster
20Allies Stop German Advance Russia pulls out of war 1917; Germans shift armies to western frontAmericans help stop German advance, turn tide against Central PowersNovember 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrenders to AlliesGerman sailors, soldiers rebel; socialists establish German republic, kaiser gives up throneGermans exhausted; armistice, or truce, signed November 11, 1918
21The Final Toll World War I bloodiest war in history to date more than half of 22 million dead are civilians20 million more are wounded10 million people become refugees
22Section 3The War at HomeWorld War I spurs social, political, and economic change in the United States.
23Congress Gives Power to Wilson War Industries Board is main regulatory body, urges mass-production, standardizing productsConservation measures adopted by public, nation, including daylight savings timeFood Administration under Herbert Hoover works to produce, save foodEncourages public conservation, increase of farm production
26Selling the War1/3 paid through taxes, 2/3 borrowed through sale of war bondsPropaganda—biased communication designed to influence peopleFormer muckraker George Creel heads Committee on Public InformationCreel produces visual works, printed matter to promote warGets volunteers to speak about war, distribute materials
27Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase Attacks against immigrants, especially from Germany, Austria-HungarySuppression of German culture—music, language, literatureEspionage and Sedition Acts—person can be fined, imprisoned for interfering with war effort, speaking against governmentAllowed govt. to silence those who challenged authorityLabor leaders, advocating for workers’ issues were specific targets
28The War Encourages Social Change Du Bois urges support for war to strengthen call for racial justiceMost African Americans support warSome think victims of racism should not support racist governmentGreat Migration—large-scale movement of Southern blacks to North- escape racial discrimination- take up new job opportunities
29Women in the WarMany women take jobs in heavy industry previously held by menMany do volunteer work for war effortSome active in peace movement; Women’s Peace Party founded 1915Women’s effort bolsters support for suffrage; 19th Amendment passes
30Wilson Fights for Peace Section 4Wilson Fights for PeaceEuropean leaders oppose most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate fails to ratify the peace treaty.
31Wilson Presents His Plan Wilson’s plan for world peace known as Fourteen PointsPoints 1–5 propose measures to prevent another war6–13 address how ethnic groups can form own nations or join others14 calls for international organization or League of Nations
32The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Big Four ConferenceFrance-Georges ClemenceauBritain-David Lloyd GeorgeItaly-Vittorio OrlandoUS-Woodrow WilsonConference excludes Central Powers and Russia
33Provisions of the Treaty Treaty of Versailles creates 9 new nations, British, French mandatesPlaces various conditions on Germany:cannot have an armyAlsace-Lorraine returned to Francepay reparations, or war damages
34The Treaty’s Weaknesses War-guilt clause—Germany must accept sole responsibility for warGermany cannot pay $33 billion in reparations that Allies wantRussia loses more land than Germany; territorial claims ignoredColonized people’s claims for self-determination ignored
35Debate over the League of Nations Some think League threatens U.S. foreign policy of isolation, Senators believe the League ties us to European conflictsSenators like Henry Cabot Lodge mistrust provision for joint action
36Wilson Refuses to Compromise Goes on speaking tour to convince nation to support League, has stroke, is temporarily disabledU.S., Germany sign separate treaty; U.S. never joins League
37Consequences of the War In U.S., war strengthens military, increases power of governmentAccelerates social change for African Americans, womenTreaty of Versailles does not settle conflicts in Europe and treats losing nations unjustly