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Nordic gender regime(s) Lilja Mósesdóttir University of Iceland 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Nordic gender regime(s) Lilja Mósesdóttir University of Iceland 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nordic gender regime(s) Lilja Mósesdóttir University of Iceland 1

2 Gender regimes zRegulation of gender relation (regulatory mechanisms/input) : yPolitical institutions and processes (power relations) ySocial/cultural institutions and processes (values/beliefs) yEconomic institutions and processes (market forces) zMeaning of gender equality (principle/goal) yCaptures the desirable structure of gender relations zGender equality (structure/outcome) : yPatterns of gender relations 2

3 Gender equality in the Nordic countries zNordic countries - similar in terms of: yHow gender equality has been promoted/achieved (input) xNordic countries pursued gender equality through parental leave and childcare policies encouraging women to take up paid employment yLevel of gender equality (output) zSimilarities conceal path-dependency or the influences of national specific : yPolitical and social relations yInstitutional arrangements yMutual learning processes taking place across the Nordic countries 3

4 4 Source: World Economic Forum 2007

5 Gender Gap Index 2007 Gender Gap Index DenmarkFinlandIcelandNorwaySweden Overall score Participation & oppor (0.577) Educational attainm (0.916) Health and survival (0.958) Political empowerm (0.142)

6 The meaning of gender equality zNo common meaning within and across the Nordic countries (Magnusson 1999, Mósesdóttir 2001) yAccumulated understanding of what constitute gender equality (historical) yChanges in gender relations alters our understanding (non- static) yActors struggle for a certain meaning of gender equality (power struggle) yInstitutions interpret and apply gender equality in accordance with the dominant reference framework (regulation) 6

7 Political institutions & processes zDifferent coalition building influenced the development of the Nordic welfare states (Kangas and Palme 2005:27; Ellingæter, Emerek, Haataja, Mósesdóttir, Nyberg (forthcoming) yDenmark and Iceland - a strong liberal tradition xMore restricted rights to paid leave (Denmark) and low flat rate welfare benefits(Iceland) ySweden, and (Norway) - social democracy since the 1930s xextensive and generous leave rights yFinland (until 1960) and Norway- agrarian/religious conservatism xchild home care allowance zDifferent coalition building influenced women’s political participation in the Nordic welfare states yShare of women in parliament 2007 (World Economic Forum 2007) xDenmark: 37%, Iceland: 33% xSweden: 47%, Norway: 38%, Finland: 42% 7

8 Social/cultural institutions and processes zGender equality (Plantenga, Remery & Rubery 2007; Mósesdóttir 2001, Pincus 1998) : yMeasures to enable women to become economically independent from men in their roles as mothers and workers xparental leave schemes and child care provisions yMeasures to change traditional division of work xIncrease women’s educational attainments and the professional status of female dominated occupations xTackle attitudes hindering women and men to lesser extent to enter non- traditional occupations. xEncourage and then force men to spend time with their young children (paternity leave, Daddy’s quotas) yGender mainstreaming – policy strategy to achieve gender equality xGeneral policy principle (Sweden and Iceland) xOrganisational infrastructure (Denmark) and training in GM (Sweden & Denmark) 8

9 9 Economic institutions and processes zMarket (and policy) processes create both de-gendering and re- gendering processes that have resulted in fragmentary progress towards gender equality (Walby 2007). yDe-gendering: Participation in paid work has become more equal among men and women and distribution across sectors & occupations yRe-gendering: Gender segregation and the gender pay gap fail to show significant improvement and have in some cases widened. zGrowing regulation of market forces yForce employers to honour the equality law (legal obligations and fines) Dissemination of pay information Pay analysis and action plans to reduce the gender pay gap Fines for failing to provide information and undertake active measure yEnable women to enter company boards and management position xGender balance (40%/60%)on boards of private and public companies

10 Reached the “glass ceiling” zThe Nordic approach to gender equality has been successful in boosting female employment but a costly solution that has reached its limits (Datta Gupta, Smith & Verner 2008) zThe regulation of gender relations becoming increasingly market- interventionist (re-regulation instead of de-regulation) zThree-track strategy to gender equality: zGender mainstreaming zSpecial measures to improve the position of women/MEN zLegal obligations and fines zWomen are striking against undervaluation of female-dominated jobs yWomen’s higher level of education and economic independence from men enhancing women’s empowerment 10


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