Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Imagine that you are the President of the United States in 1929 as the Great Depression takes its hold on the economy and society. 1. What would."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up Imagine that you are the President of the United States in 1929 as the Great Depression takes its hold on the economy and society. 1. What would you do? 2. What legislation would you propose to improve life for Americans? 3. What message would you send to citizens to reassure them?
1932 Election & the New Deal
Amidst the Great Depression, the presidential election of 1932 took place. Franklin D. Roosevelt challenged Republican incumbent Hoover as the Democratic candidate in the 1932 Presidential Election. Given what you learned about the situation in America during the Great Depression, how do you imagine the public voted and why? v/s
FYI…. FDR was swept into office over Hoover, with North Carolina’s voters giving him 497,566 votes to Hoover’s 208,344.
“The country needs…bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all try something.” ~ Franklin Roosevelt, 1932
FDR Inaugural Speech peeches/fdrfirstinaugural.html peeches/fdrfirstinaugural.html As we listen to the first few minutes of FDR’s address, consider what his goals were. What is the tone and purpose of the speech? Why do you think this is the direction he chose to take in his inaugural address?
“This is a day of national consecration. And I am certain that on this day my fellow Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with a candor and a decision which the present situation of our people impels. This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. And I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.”
“In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone. More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.”
“Yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. Primarily this is because rulers of the exchange of mankind's goods have failed through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.”
“...in the event that Congress shall fail to take these courses and in the event that the national emergency is still critical I shall not evade the clear course or duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact to be invaded by a foreign foe.” ~FDR, 1933 Inauguration
IV. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Defeated Hoover in the election of 1932 Cousin of Teddy Roosevelt Became ill with polio in 1921 – forced him to use a wheelchair 1 st Pres. to use the radio regularly – “Fireside Chats” – explained his plans and programs to the people
FDR Restored Confidence In his inaugural address, he said “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself….” He promised vigorous leadership and bold action, called for discipline and cooperation, expressed his faith in democracy, and asked for divine protection and guidance.
FDR’s Personal Qualities He was a practical politician who practiced the art of the possible. He was a charismatic person who exhibited a warmth and understanding of people. He knew how to handle press by focusing attention on Washington. He provided dynamic leadership in a time of crisis. He was willing to experiment
IV. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Handled the press well – ex: pictures not taken of him in his wheelchair (did not want to appear weak) Famous quote – “All we have to fear, is fear itself.” The “Brain Trust” was a group of advisors that helped him – attorneys, economists, political scientists, etc.
IV. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, was his most important advisor -FDR said she was his “eyes and ears” outside the White House -she could travel and meet with people he couldn’t because of his disability -transforms what it means to be a “First Lady” -advocates for minorities in WH
Sources of New Deal Ideas Brain Trust: specialists and experts, mostly college professors, idea men New Economists: Keynesian economic theory - government spending, deficit spending and public works, government should prime economic pump Roosevelt Cabinet: - often conflicting, compromising, blending ideas
IV. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Bank Holiday – 1 st action as Pres. -closed every bank in U.S. for 4 days -sent people out to determine which ones were strong and those were re-opened -almost all were re-opened -trying to restore confidence in banks – people began to put their money back in
Emergency Banking Relief Act Closed all banks for 4 days Opened up only sound banks, merged or eliminated weak ones Gold hoarding prohibited Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
V. New Deal Programs: The “New Deal” was FDR’s response to the Great Depression Created new agencies to help the people -nicknamed “alphabet soup” because of all the abbreviations that were used From 1933 to early 1935, the dominating goals of FDR were… “reform” “relief” “recovery”
Purposes of the New Deal Relief: immediate help to poor and unemployed Recovery: Bring businesses back from foreclosure Reform: Long range changes – no more depressions
V. New Deal Programs: This phase was called the First New Deal -tried to get the economy moving again and give help to those in need
V. New Deal Programs: A. First New Deal Programs: 1) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC): insured bank deposits up to $5,000 -prevented people from losing their money when their bank closed -reform
V. New Deal Programs: 2) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): built dams, power plants -provided cheap electricity, recreation, and encouraged businesses to come to the region -employed up to 40,000 workers -provided cheap alternative to energy monopolies -relief
V. New Deal Programs: 3) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): offered outdoor work to unemployed men -recruited young men (18-25) from the cities -set up camps - planted trees, fought forest fires, built dams, etc. (environmental work) -relief
V. New Deal Programs: 4) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): paid farmers not to produce certain crops (cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn, etc.) -trying to eliminate the surplus which would increase prices of goods -relief for farmers
V. New Deal Programs: 5) National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): controlled business practices -set the minimum wage (30 cents to 40 cents an hour) -shortened working hours to create more jobs -created the National Recovery Adm. (NRA) to enforce these new codes (eventually found unconstitutional) -relief