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Lecture 5 Oral Presentations CSCI – 3350 Software Engineering II Fall 2014 Bill Pine.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 5 Oral Presentations CSCI – 3350 Software Engineering II Fall 2014 Bill Pine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 5 Oral Presentations CSCI – 3350 Software Engineering II Fall 2014 Bill Pine

2 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 2 Lecture Overview Introduction General Guidelines Keys to an Effective Presentation Tips Presentation Design Considerations

3 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 3 Introduction For many people, public speaking ranks high on a list of fears –A visit to the dentist –Being pulled over by a police officer –An IRS audit –Dying The ability to communicate effectively is rarely inherited This lecture will attempt to provide you with –A sense of the importance of making a good oral presentations –A methodology to approach any presentation –Tips for reducing your apprehension Our concentration will be on formal presentations

4 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 4 Formal Presentations When you are asked to appear before one or more people for the purpose of –Educating –Persuading / selling –Entertaining you are involved in a formal presentation Most presentations will be a mixture of these purposes

5 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 5 Basic Elements of a Presentation A presentation consists of the following elements –A subject –A presenter (you) –An audience –Presentation tools An effective presentation is one that gives due consideration to all of these elements

6 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 6 General Guidelines What is the purpose or goal of any presentation? –Communications People have different learning styles, people are best able learn by –Hearing –Reading –Visual images –Doing The effectiveness of each of these methods varies from individual to individual Many people learn most effectively by a combination In any case, if you want to reach as many people in your audience as possible, you must …

7 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 7 General Guidelines (cont.) Presentation aids are audio or visual elements that help your audience –See relationship between concepts and elements –Remember the material –Examine critically key ideas By the effective integration of presentation aids, you can –Inform –Entertain –Excite –Shock

8 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 8 General Guidelines (cont.) However, the inappropriate use of presentation aids can also –Distract –Annoy –Alienate Research has shown that, in general –We remember only 10% of what we hear –But over 50% of what we see and hear

9 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 9 General Guidelines (cont.) Presentation aids work by allowing the audience to engage the right side of their brain –Right side = creative side Visualization Music Drawing

10 General Guidelines (cont.) In summary, recall the old saw –I hear and I forget –I see and I remember –I do and I understand CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 10

11 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 11 Keys to an Effective Presentation 1.Know your subject matter 2.Know your audience 3.Develop a theme 4.Prepare a script 5.Select appropriate presentation aids 6.Prepare a storyboard 7.Produce the aids 8.Rehearse 9.Make the presentation 10.Follow up

12 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 12 Know Your Subject Research your subject –You don’t want waste your audience’s time –It will boost your confidence –This confidence will be obvious to the audience and they will be more attentive –One of the reasons for presentation anxiety is a fear that you will be asked a question that you cannot answer

13 Know Your Subject (cont) Know your subject consists of the following steps –Obtain several references sources –Study the sources –Synthesize the ideas –Compare and contrast the information –Form your opinions CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 13

14 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 14 Know your Audience Given a basic topic –Your approach will be different –The amount of detail in the script –The visual aids will be much different depending upon your audience An inappropriate level of content is deadly –Too high a level is as bad as too low

15 Know your Audience (cont) Suppose you are giving a 12 minute talk on networking –How is your presentation different for the following audiences? A Boy Scout Troop The Tri-Cities Computer Club A prospective client for your consulting business CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 15

16 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 16 Develop a Theme Every effective presentation is designed toward a main purpose –Clearly state that purpose - thesis –Commit it to writing Single sheet of paper Large font Place on a bulletin board or wall facing your working area Eye level when seated –I try keep that area on my bulletin board open

17 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 17 Develop a Theme (cont.) To arrive at the thesis, you may need (will most likely need) to iterate to refine the theme The purpose of the theme is to help you “stay on track” In the words of Mister Miyagi, –“Focus Daniel-san!”

18 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 18 Prepare the Script Many “authorities” will say that the script does not have to be a polished work I disagree The purpose of the script is to provide a means for you to converge on a good presentation –To find the right organization –To polish the language to ensure precise communications –To ensure smooth effective transitions between topics –To achieve the correct length –To record “good ideas” to prevent their loss –To provide a source for your presentation aids –To provide a place to anchor the presentation aids

19 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 19 Prepare the Script (cont.) Sloppy work reflects and promotes sloppy thinking Your completed script should be in a form that reads well to an uninvolved observer It can be written in bulleted form, It does not have to have complete sentences; concise phrases okay; more detail than will appear in visual aids Your script should consist of –An introduction –The body –Summary / Conclusion

20 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 20 The Introduction “Tell ‘em what you’re gonna to tell ‘em” Write this last A very brief, concise preview of your talk, possibly with an outline of the main points, and the main conclusion A “hook” to capture the interest of the audience

21 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 21 The Body “Tell ‘em” Write this first The “guts” of your presentation Begin with an outline to provide structure Depending upon the length, may need to prepare a series of mini-presentations, –Each with its own introduction, body and summary Clearly identify any assumptions

22 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 22 Summary / Conclusion “Tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Write this second Should be concise (simple and brief) Emphasize the main points and clearly state how they lead to a conclusion and/or point to future work Identify any limitations or constraints Provide an opportunity for questions after your summary

23 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 23 Closing Can’t write this in the script Purpose is to provide a summary of questions raised during the question and answer period How the question enforces your presentation Or shows the need for further work Provide handouts as appropriate

24 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 24 Script Production You should now be prepared to –Plan the script –Write the script Try to achieve a flow, Don’t worry about style, Just get your ideas down

25 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 25 Script Production (cont.) –Perform 1 review pass for obvious problems –Let it set for a minimum of 24 hours, then review the script for Adherence to the theme Good organization Smooth transitions Is your conclusion justified by the script Appropriate length –This is time consuming Cannot be accomplished within a single session

26 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 26 Presentation Aids Short informal talk to a small audience –Less than 5 minutes –Flip chart –Use simple handouts Intermediate length talks to larger groups –5 to 20 minutes –Overhead transparencies –PowerPoint Presentation –Refined handouts Longer talks or training sessions –PowerPoint Presentation –35 mm slides sometimes required for formal technical presentations

27 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 27 Prepare a Storyboard A storyboard is a graphic, sequential depiction of your presentation The idea is to transform your script into a visual form Create “guide slides” that will serve to guide you during the presentation –Should contain just main points and conclusion Decide at which point in your script your message will be strengthened by a enhancement –Image, Chart, Video, Audio clip

28 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 28 Adding Enhancements Provide a “sketch” of the enhancement on an 8½ X 11 sheet of paper Place the sketches in order on storyboard Do a rehearsal of your presentation to insure that the enhancement really enhances your presentation

29 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 29 Produce the Visuals Create the finished versions of your enhancements Details depend upon the media you have chosen If outsourcing the production, be sure to allow ample time for at least 1 iteration of modifications

30 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 30 Rehearse Give a full presentation using the script –Either to blank wall or a sympathetic audience –Identify any “rough” spots Repeat a few times Put away the script Give one or two more “dry runs” to ensure that your “guide slides” keep you on track

31 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 31 Make the Presentation Have a backup for your presentation aids –Spare bulb for projector –Transparencies –Copies of any handouts Arrive early Check out the room –Size –Is there a podium? –Is there a lectern? –Layout –Location and operation of any presenter controls

32 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 32 Make the Presentation (cont.) Use humor judiciously Relax Don’t rush –Pause at topic shifts in your talk Make sure that all questions are answered –If you don’t know the answer Don’t try to fake it Refer the question to a colleague Say you don’t know the answer, get the questioner’s name and contact information Deliver the answer to the questioner Have a good time

33 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 33 Follow Up Check with the organizers and participants to assure that your goals were met –Can use an informal questionnaire as part of the handouts –Encourage follow up questions be sent to you

34 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 34 Miscellaneous Tips Begin by introducing yourself –The first slide of your presentation aids (title slide) should have The title of your presentation The names of all presenters The date Your organization Team members –The title slide should be displayed as you are introduced (or introduce yourself)

35 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 35 Miscellaneous Tips (cont.) Use no more than 3 slides per minute of presentation, 2 is probably better Stand with screen to your right (right-handed) Avoid turning your back to the audience Maintain eye-contact with the audience Don’t fidget –Twirl the pointer –Bounce around –Shuffle notes if you must use notes Speak slowly and clearly

36 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 36 Miscellaneous Tips (cont.) Never read a technical presentation –Speak extemporaneously –Add interest by using anecdotes and personal examples to expand or clarify your point

37 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 37 Designing The Presentation Aids Presentation aids should supplement your message, not detract from the message Types of presentation aids –Pictures –Diagrams –Maps –Graphs Line graphs – one quantity is a function of another Bar graphs – compare the magnitudes of several quantities Pie graph – show the relationship of parts to the whole –Flow diagram – show the step by step progression of a process –Tables – Systematic grouping of data by rows

38 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 38 Designing (cont.) Keep the presentation aids simple, neat and uncluttered Concentrate on 1 main idea, as indicated in the slide title Usually fewer than 45 words per slide –6 - 8 words per line –5 - 7 lines per slide Do not overuse special effects –Slide transition effects –Animation –Sound effect

39 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 39 Designing (cont.) Rule of three –A single slide should contain at most 3 elements Title Body Text Graphic A slide should have lots of ‘white space” Text should not extend from one side to the other –Keep generous margins

40 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 40 Designing (cont.) 8H Rule –If an aid is visible when viewed from a distance of 8 times its height, the aid will probably be easily visible when projected –Heuristic for 8 ½ X 11 transparency Should be easily readable when placed on the floor, with the viewer standing

41 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 41 Designing (cont.) Have a consistent general slide layout –Titles should be in the same location –Consistent font type and size –If you must use a transition effect, use the same one throughout

42 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 42 Designing (cont.) Colors –Limit the number of colors you use –Limit to three colors per slide Color psychology –Color interpretation is culture dependent

43 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 43 Color Connotation Western civilization has the following color connotations –Red = alert, passion, life –Orange = optimism, wisdom, warmth –White = hopeful, truth, new –Black = importance, gravity –Green = growth, progress –Purple = regal, spirituality, nostalgia –Gray = integrity, maturity –Blue = trust, stability

44 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 44 Designing (cont.) Carefully proofread your slides –Eliminate errors and design flaws Use spell checker, but don’t rely on it –Ruthless eliminate words – strive for vital concise statements –Be consistent in capitalization and punctuation Don’t use periods on bulleted lines –Typos and error destroy your credibility as an authority on any subject

45 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 45 Designing (cont.) Write slide titles in the style of newspaper headlines Fonts –When projected, san-serif fonts (Arial) are easier to read than serif fonts (Times Roman) –Do not use font sizes smaller than 18 pt Possible exception text on figures Be consistent in font effects –Use bold, italics and underlines judiciously only for carefully chosen emphasis Avoid “ goofy ” fonts

46 CSCI 3350 Lecture 5 - 46 Final Thoughts You are the message –Maintain a true smile –Use gestures as appropriate, but don’t fidget –Relax If you want to discourage questions, –Pause, slowly scan the audience, cross your arms over your chest, then ask if there are questions

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