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First report on cultural attitudes to the gluten-free diet The Mediterranean Network for Celiac Disease V Progress Meeting - Istanbul, June 30 th 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "First report on cultural attitudes to the gluten-free diet The Mediterranean Network for Celiac Disease V Progress Meeting - Istanbul, June 30 th 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 First report on cultural attitudes to the gluten-free diet The Mediterranean Network for Celiac Disease V Progress Meeting - Istanbul, June 30 th 2012

2 GREECE Greek cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine, sharing characteristics with the cuisines of Italy, the Balkans, Turkey, and the Levant. Contemporary Greek cookery makes wide use of olive oil, vegetables and herbs, grains and bread, wine, fish, and various meats, including poultry, rabbit and pork. Also important are olives, cheese, eggplant (aubergine), courgette, and yogurt. Greek desserts are characterized by the dominant use of nuts and honey. Some dishes use filo pastry.

3 FISH SOUP (Soupa Kakavia) Cooking Instructions: Scrape the scales of the fish and gut them. Put the salt, pepper, olive oil, the sliced onions, the celery and the sliced tomatoes and boil them. Strain the vegetables well and put them on a plate. Put the fish on the same water and boil them. After boiling them for about 1 hour, strain them through a strainer, making sure the meat of the fish is well pressed in order all the fish juice to come out. Serve the soup hot with lemon. Serve the vegetables and the fish on a plate seperately. If you use a larg variety of fish the fish soup will be more tasty About 1,5 kilo of fish (Use large variety of fish for more taste) Olive oil, 2 - 3 onions, 3 - 4 tomatoes, cellery, salt, pepper

4 Stuffed cabbage leaves with rice Cooking Instructions: Wash the cabbage and remove the root. In a large saucepan boil water and heat the cabbage. Carefully separate each leaf and drain. Remove, if possible, the hard stem from each leaf. Be careful not to damage them. Chop the onions and the dill finely and roast in the olive oil. Add the raisins, pinecones, the rice and stir the mixture. Finish roasting with wine. Add salt and pepper. The stuffing is ready! Use a tea spoon to count the appropriate portion of rice for each leaf. Place on each leaf the mixture and then fold to make a little parcel. At the bottom of a large saucepan place a few of the outer cabbage leaves and on top of them place the stuffed ones. Pour the chicken stock and cover with a plate in order not to open. Pour the lemon juice and boil in low heat for 1 1/2 hour. 1 big cabbage 900 gr onions 200 gr rice for the stuffing 70 gr raisins 70 gr pinecones (if available) 1-3 tea spoons cinamon 1 tea spoon salt 150 gr lemon juice 100 gr wine 150 gr dill 450 gr olive oil 1 chicken stock cube

5 GREEK SHRIMP WITH FETA (Garides saganaki) Cooking Instructions: Preheat the oven to 425 F. Warm the oil in a nonreactive large skillet over med. heat. Add the onions and saute until a light golden brown, 7 min. Add the parsley, garlic and sugar and stir to mix. Add the tomatoes and cook until they soften and the liquid is absorbed, about 20 min. Add the wine to the skillet and cook until the liquid is absorbed. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring occasionally, for 30 seconds. Remove from the heat. Pour the shrimp and sauce into a 2 qt. casserole. Top with the feta cheese. Bake until the cheese melts, 5 min. 3 tbsp. olive oil 2 1/2 cups chopped onions 1/4 cup finely chopped fresh parsley 1 clove garlic, minced 1/2 tsp. sugar 3 cups chopped fresh plum tomatoes (about 1 1/2 lbs.) 1 cup dry white wine, preferably retsina (Greek resinated wine) 1 1/2 lbs. shrimp, peeled and deveined 1 cup crumbled feta cheese

6 GREEK SALAD WITH FETA (xoriatiki) Cooking Instructions: Cut the tomatoes, slice the cucumber, the onion and the peppers. Put them all in a deep plate or a salad bowl and then add salt, then we add the caper the olive oil and the feta cheese oregano. Finally we add the oregano and it is ready to be served. olive oil onions olives feta cheese Tomatoes, cucumber, peppers oregano, caper, salt

7 CROATIA Croatian cuisine is heterogeneous and is known as a cuisine of the regions since every region has its own distinct culinary traditions. Mainland cuisine is more characterized by the earlier Slavic and the more recent contacts with neighboring cultures - Hungarian, Austrian and Turkish, using lard for cooking, and spices such as black pepper, paprika, and garlic. The coastal region bears the influences of the Greek, Roman and Illyrian, as well as of the later Mediterranean cuisine - Italian (especially Venetian) and French, using olive oil, and herbs and spices such as rosemary, sage, bayleaf, oregano, marjoram, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, lemon and orange rind. Peasant cooking traditions are based on imaginative variations of several basic ingredients (cereals, dairy products, meat, fish, vegetables) Charcuterie is part of Croatian tradition in all regions.

8 1 portion: 40 g cornmeal 200 ml water 5g butter Pinch of salt 200 ml yoghurt POLENTA WITH YOGHURT (Palenta s jogurtom)

9 1 portion: FRIED CHICKEN BREAST WITH MASHED POTATOES AND VEGETABLES (Piletina s pire krumpirom i povrćem) 150g of chicken (or turkey) breast 7g sunflower oil Mashed potatoes: 250g of cocked potato 5g of butter; 10ml of cow milk 180g cocked vegetables (carrot, broccoli) Pinch of salt, pepper, parsley Salad: 100g cabbage 30g sweet pepper Pinch of salt and pepper 5g olive oil 5ml vinegar

10 1 portion: FISH (MERLUCCIUS) RISOTTO (Riblji rižoto) 150g cooked white fish 7g olive oil 150g cocked rice 15g onion 15g carrot 50ml fish soup (bullion) Pinch of salt, pepper, parsley Salad: 50g fresh tomato

11 1 portion: FISH BRUDETTO (Riblji brudet) 150g cooked white fish 7g olive oil 25g tomato 15g onion; 5g garlic 15g carrot 10ml white vine 50ml fish soup (bullion) 200g cooked polenta Pinch of salt, pepper, parsley Salad: 100g lettuce Pinch of salt Pinch of pepper 5g olive oil 5ml vinegar

12 BOSNIA Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, but usually in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, bell peppers, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, dried and fresh beans, plums, milk, paprika and cream called pavlaka and kajmak. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb. Some local specialties are ćevapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilav (pilaf), gulaš (goulash), ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. The best local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Plum or apple rakija, is produced in Bosnia.

13 Razlyevusha with cheese 3 boxes of corn flour 1 1/4 sticks of butter, melted 1 1/4 c yogurt 1 small package of cream cheese (cubed small) 3 eggs 16 oz large curd cottage cheese 1 c crumbled feta cheese Cooking Instructions: 1.Mix cottage cheese, eggs and cubed cream cheese in large bowl; this will used as a filling. 2.Grease 9x13 baking pan and evenly sprinkle 1/2 box of corn meal into bottom of pan. Drizzle some melted butter and then sprinkle with some milk. Repeat two more layers as above 3.Evenly spread filling over 3rd layer and add crumbled feta cheese Repeat 3 layers as above (cornbread mix, butter, and milk) over filling. Dribble some extra melted butter evenly over top layer 4.Bake at 350F for 55 minutes or until golden brown. Cool on rack and cut into squares - best served warm.

14 Bosnian Pot 3 lbs. lamb or beef, cut into cubes 1 cup finely chopped onion 1 tbsp. finely chopped garlic 1 cup finely chopped parsley 1/4 cup finely chopped celery leaves 1 tbsp. salt 2 tsp. pepper 3 bay leaves 1/2 cup butter 1 cup sliced carrots 1 cup chopped kohlrabi 1/2 cup chopped parsley root Cooking Instructions: Preheat the oven to 350F. Rinse the meat and put in a sieve to drain. Combine the onion, garlic, parsley, celery leaves, salt, pepper, and bay leaves. Melt the butter in a large, oven- proof stew pot, then put alternate layers of vegetables and meat, sprinkling some of the onion/garlic/parsley combination on top of each layer. Combine the water and vinegar, and pour it into the pot. Cover the pot with a lid or aluminum foil, and bake until everything is tender, about 3 hours. 1/2 cup chopped celery root 1 cup green beans, cut into 1" pieces 2 red bell peppers, seeded and cut into squares 2 cups tomatoes, peeled, seeded and quartered 3 cups potatoes, cut into cubes 2 leeks, cleaned and cut into 1/2" slices 1 cup coarsely chopped cabbage 1/2 tsp. hot paprika or cayenne, or to taste 6 cups water 1/4 cup vinegar

15 MONTENEGRO The traditional dishes of Montenegro's heartland, and its Adriatic coast have a distinctively Italian flavour which shows in the bread-making style, the way meat is cured and dried, cheese-making, wine, and spirits, the soup and stew (čorba) making style, polenta, stuffed peppers, meatballs, priganice, raštan, etc. The second large influence came from the Levant and Turkey, largely via Serbia: sarma, musaka, pilav, pita, gibanica, burek, ćevapi, kebab, and Turkish sweets like baklava and tulumba, etc.

16 CHICKEN SOUP WITH RED PEPPER (Kokosja Supa ) Cooking Instructions: Saute onions in oil. Sprinkle with paprika. Add stock, bring to a boil. Add chicken and simmer for 10 minutes. Add peppers, tomatoes and cauliflower, simmer for 10 minutes. Add potatoes and simmer for 25 minutes. Add more stock if necessary. Serve. 2 Large Onion -- Chopped 2 Tablespoons Olive Oil Paprika -- To Taste 1 Quart Chicken Stock 1 Medium Chicken -- In 8 Pieces 2 Large Red Bell Pepper -- Chopped 1 Can Tomatoes -- Chopped 1 Pound Cauliflower -- Chopped 1 Pound Potatoes -- Chopped

17 Polenta (Kacamak) Cooking Instructions: Once the flour is cooked in steam (around 40min – 1h depending on amounts used), everything is mashed. Cheese, butter, kajmak are melted in another dish and added to the mashed flour and potaotes and mixed well to make it 'zasmocani kacamak'. Some versions are done with wheat flour and some without potatoes. Served with yoghurt. Water Potatoes corn meal

18 ALBANIA Albanian cuisine is characterized by the use of various mediterranean herbs such as Oregano, Black Pepper, Mint, Basil, Rosemary and more in cooking meat and fish. Olive oil and butter is also a main ingredient in different dishes. In Albania, meat (lamb, cow, rabbit and chicken) is used heavily in various dishes in most of the country. Seafood specialties are also common in the coastal areas such as Durrës, Vlorë, Shkoder, Lezhe and Sarandë. Vegetables are used in almost every dish. The main meal of the Albanians is lunch, which usually consists of gjellë, the main dish of slowly cooked meat, and a salad of fresh vegetables, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers, and olives. The salad is dressed with olive oil, vinegar, and salt.

19 FRIED EGGPLANTS, ZUCCHINI AND GREEN PEPPERS WITH PLAIN YOGURT (Tarator) Cooking Instructions: Peel the eggplants in lengthwise strips at 1 1/2 cm intervals, then cut either in circles or in long slices. Sprinkle salt over and place the eggplants in salted water for half an hour to drain off their bitter juices. Squeeze each eggplant before putting into hot oil. Fry both sides, drain away excess oil and place on a serving plate. Scrape the skin of the zucchinis until their green parts can be seen, sprinkle with salt and leave aside for 1.5 hours. Put flour and water into a bowl and blend together. First place the zucchini in flour-water mixture and then into the hot oil. Fry until both sides are golden. Place them with the eggplants and peppers. Mix cucumber and yogurt, pour over the fried vegetables (if desired, crushed garlic can be added to the yogurt). 1250 gr. eggplants 1500 gr. zucchini salt a piece of cucumber finely chopped 250 gr. yogurt 2 tablespoons salt 4 cloves of garlic salt

20 BAKED LEEKS (Tave me presh ) Cooking Instructions: Heat 60 ml oil in a deep saucepan and sauté the leeks until soft. Place the leeks in a baking dish. Heat the remaining 40 ml of oil in the pan and fry the onions and the meat. Add the tomato sauce, red pepper, seasoning and enough meat stock to cover and bring to the boil. Pour the meat mixture over the leeks and bake for 1 hour at 190° C (375° F - gas 5). 100 ml olive oil 1.8 kg leeks, green parts removed and cut into 2.5 cm diagonal slices 225 g onions, chopped 450 g minced lamb, beef or chicken 2 tablespoons tomato sauce 2 red peppers, chopped Seasoning Hot meat stock

21 TURKEY Turkish cuisine varies across the country. The cooking of Istanbul, Bursa, Izmir, and rest of the Aegean region inherits many elements of Ottoman court cuisine, with a lighter use of spices, a preference for rice over bulgur, and a wider use of seafoods. The cuisine of the Black Sea Region uses fish extensively, especially the Black Sea anchovy (hamsi), has been influenced by Balkan and Slavic cuisine, and includes maize dishes. The cuisine of the southeast — Urfa, Gaziantep and Adana — is famous for its kebabs and dough-based desserts such as baklava, kadayıf and künefe (kanafeh).

22 STUFFED VEGETABLES WİTH MEAT (Dolma) Cooking Instructions: Put all the ingredients in a bowl and mix them with your hands Stuff inside of the vegetables with this mixture Place them in a pan,add 2-3 tablespoons of vegetable or olive oil,and add enogh water Cook for 40-60 minutes on stove on moderate heat Serve hot with yogurt on top 400 gr ground meat 2 medium onions (finely chopped) 1/3 glass rice 1 bunch chopped parsley and dill 1 tablespoon tomatoe paste ½ tablespoon red pepper paste Salt-black pepper

23 MEAT BALLS (Köfte) Cooking Instructions: Placepotato flakes in a bowl,add the others and mix them with hands Roll in the palm and shape of a finger Roll each köfte in flour Fry them in a pan in vegetable oil for 5 minutes Serve hot 750 gr ground meat Potato flakes 1 whole egg 2 grated small onions Black pepper-cumin-salt ½ cup water ½ tablespoon tomatoe paste

24 COUS Cooking Instructions: Soak the raisins and apricots in 1/2 cup boiling water for 1 hour. Drain and add to the couscous. Pour 2 cups boiling water over the mixture, over and allow water to be absorbed. Cool and fluff with a fork. Make a dressing with the oil, lemon juice and spices and mix well. In a large bowl combine the rice couscous with the red pepper, green onions and chickpeas. Add the dressing and mix well. Toss in the mint, parsley and cilantro. 2 cups rice couscous 2 1/2 cups water 1/4 cup raisins 6 tablespoons olive oil 4 tablespoons lemon juice 2 teaspoons cumin; 2 teaspoons ground coriander 1 teaspoon ground ginger; 2 teaspoons salt 1/4 cup red pepper, diced 1/4 cup green onion, sliced 2 cups chick peas, rinsed 2 tablespoons fresh chopped mint, parsley and cilantro

25 ISRAEL Israeli cuisine has adopted, and continues to adapt, elements of various styles of Jewish cuisine, particularly the Mizrahi, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi styles of cooking.It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, and foods such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar are now thought to be synonymous with Israeli cuisine. Other influences on cuisine are the availability of foods common to the Mediterranean region, especially certain kinds of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish; the distinctive traditional dishes prepared at holiday times; New dishes based on agricultural products such as oranges, avocados, dairy products and fish, and others based on world trends have been introduced over the years

26 ISREALI SALAD Cooking Instructions: Chop the vegetables in small pieces. The secret to a really good Israeli salad is finely chopped vegetables. Immediately before serving, season lightly with oliv. Prep Time: 10 minutes 3 cucumbers 3 tomatoes 1 green or red pepper 3 green onions olive oil lemon juice salt zaatar (hyssop spice)

27 HUMMUS Cooking Instructions: 1. Soak the chick peas in plenty of cold water for a few hours or overnight. (The chick peas will just about cover the bottom of a medium saucepan. Fill water about half way up the saucepan.) 2. Generously salt the water (I take a few large pinches of kosher salt-- be generous because this is what will salt the hummus itself) and simmer the chick peas for a few hours, until soft. While the chick peas are still warm, spoon them into a food processor along with the rest of the ingredients. Using the food processor blade, blend to a smooth paste, adding enough of the liquid from the chick peas to make a smooth paste. (One of the great things about using warm, freshly-cooked chick peas is that the paste will get a bit more solid as it cools. So add plenty of water so that you get an easily-blended paste, about the consistency of mashed potatoes.) 3. Transfer the hummus to a serving or storage container. Add topings if you wish. The easiest topping is a bit of drizzled olive oil and a sprinkling of paprika. You could also drizzle olive oil and sprinkle a different spice or herb, such as cumin or zatar. Or, you could chop up some parsley and whole chick peas, set on top, and drizzle with olive oil. Chopped olives would be good too. Use your creativity! This recipe makes about a pint of hummus. 1 cup dry chick peas (garbanzo beans) 1 tsp salt 4 Tbs tahini Juice from one lemon (about 2 Tbs) 3 garlic cloves, minced 1/2 tsp cumin (optional) Optional toppings: Olive oil Paprika Zatar (a middle-Eastern spice blend) Parsley Whole cooked chick peas

28 If we look on the web about free gluten food, what do we see? Discussion 1) Many websites, tips and advertising in any country are related with farmacy products BUT…

29 If we look on the web about free gluten food, what do we see? Discussion 2) A lot of forums, travel books and patients who are looking for natural gluten-free food! We are not alone!

30 What shall we do? Discussion Spread the idea that a natural free gluten diet is not only possible, but also healthier, cheaper and very tasty! It is a very long way but the first step could be: Celiacs We could write a huge database with many recipes, not only natural but also certified by leading experts of CD in Europe

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