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Fiscal System Junhui Qian 2014 October. Content Basics The Transition of Fiscal System The Fiscal System Before the Reform Fiscal Responsibility System.

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Presentation on theme: "Fiscal System Junhui Qian 2014 October. Content Basics The Transition of Fiscal System The Fiscal System Before the Reform Fiscal Responsibility System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fiscal System Junhui Qian 2014 October

2 Content Basics The Transition of Fiscal System The Fiscal System Before the Reform Fiscal Responsibility System (1980-1993) Fiscal Reform of 1994 Reforms after 1994 Future Fiscal Reform Revenue and Expenditure in 2012

3 Basics of Fiscal System The fiscal system collects tax, provide public goods and make transfer payments to the citizens. A modern fiscal system has the following characteristics: Principled taxation (equity, certainty, convenience, economy in collection, etc.) Modern budgeting process (in which the public have a say) Rule/law-based sharing of revenue and responsibility among different levels of government

4 What is public goods? ExcludableNon-excludable RivalPrivate goods (e.g., clothes, food)Common goods (e.g., public parks) Non-RivalSemi-public goods (e.g., satellite signal) Public goods (e.g., national defense, public security)

5 What is transfer payment? Transfer payment is a redistribution of income by the government. Examples include welfare, social security, and subsidies for certain businesses. Transfer payment is often referred to as the second distribution of income, after the first distribution in the market (i.e., wage, interest, dividend).

6 Content Basics The Transition of Fiscal System The Fiscal System Before the Reform Fiscal Responsibility System (1980-1993) Fiscal Reform of 1994 Reforms after 1994 Future Fiscal Reform Revenue and Expenditure in 2012

7 The Fiscal System Before the Reform Essentially all expenditures were determined at the center. Responsibilities for day-to-day public administration and social services, such as education (except universities), public safety, health care, social security, housing, and other local/urban services, were all delegated to local governments. Financing for these services was provided by the central government through the revenue-sharing system, under which all revenues belonged to the central government. Revenues came largely from industrial profits and were collected in a highly uneven pattern from different regions and localities.

8 The Decline of the Budget As reform started, the formal revenue system quickly began to erode. Central revenues were especially hard-hit because local governments in rich regions often shielded local enterprises from taxation to avoid sharing revenues with central the government. Furthermore, there was no tax administration in place for rural enterprises. Piece-meal reforms: 1984: Income tax on SOE’s was introduced to replace profit remittances. 1986: A contract system was introduced 1988: Fiscal responsibility system (a contract system with local governments )

9 Fiscal Responsibility System The contracts stipulated a lump-sum remittance to the center from each province, to increase annually by an agreed rate, with any additional revenues accruing to the province. In return, provinces accepted responsibility for meeting their expenditure requirements from retained revenues. Fiscal contracts put local governments on a self-financing basis. The responsibility system did not stop the decline of the budget. The central government share of revenue declined further due to the generous terms of the contracts (also thanks to the inflation). Accompanying this decline of the budget, “extra-budgetary revenues” grew during the 1980s and 1990s. By the early 1990s, the central government was in a “desperate” situation, spurring a drastic reform with two objectives: stemming the decline of revenues Increasing the share of central government revenue

10 Budgetary Share of GDP

11 Central government share of budgetary revenue and expenditure

12 The 1994 Reform The major fiscal reform of 1994 re-centralized the fiscal system. The reform package had three components: Tax modernization Tax sharing Tax administration

13 Tax Modernization Objectives: simplify tax structure, eliminate distortion, and increase transparency. The complex multi-tiered system of turnover taxes borrowed from the Soviet Union was replaced with a value-added tax (VAT), which now applies to all manufacturing, repair, and assembly activities, primarily at a single rate of 17 percent. By taxing only the portion of value added in any enterprise, the VAT also eliminated tax cascading and much of the incentive for vertical integration. On eleven products an excise tax (the consumption tax, CT) is applied at differing rates in addition to the VAT, generally at a rate of 5%.

14 Tax-Sharing System Under the TSS, taxes are assigned to central government, local government, or shared. By assigning the biggest tax, the VAT, as a shared tax and claiming 75 percent of its receipts, the central government reclaimed a majority portion of total revenues.

15 Revenue assignments between the central and provincial governments (I) Taxes exclusively assigned to the central government include: 1.Excise taxes 2.Taxes collected from the Ministry of Railroads and from the headquarters of banks and insurance companies 3.Income taxes, sales taxes, and royalties from offshore oil activities of foreign companies and joint ventures 4.All customs duty, VAT, and excise taxes on imports 5.Enterprise income tax collected from banks and other financial institutions

16 Revenue assignments between the central and provincial governments (II) Taxes shared between the central and local governments include: 1.Value-added tax (75 percent central and 25 percent provincial) 2.Natural resource taxes (coal, gas, oil, and other minerals if the enterprises are fully Chinese owned) 3.Salt tax 4.Industrial and commercial tax, and income tax levied on foreign and joint venture enterprises 5.Security and exchange tax (50 percent central and 50 percent provincial) – added in late 1990s 6.Income tax of all enterprises – added in 2002 7.Personal income taxes – added in 2002

17 Revenue assignments between the central and provincial governments (III) Taxes exclusively assigned to local governments include: Business (gross receipts) tax falling on sectors not covered by VAT (transportation and communications, construction, finance and insurance, post and telecommunications, culture and sports, entertainment, hotels and restaurants, and other) Rural market (stall rental) trading tax The urban maintenance and construction tax (a surcharge on the tax liability of enterprises for business tax, CT, and VAT) The urban land-use tax Vehicle and vessel utilization tax Value-added tax on land Education surtax Entertainment and slaughter taxes Property tax Surtax on collective enterprises Resources tax

18 Tax Administration The 1994 reform established a national tax administration in China for the first time. By removing central taxes and the VAT from local administration, the reform largely eliminated opportunities for local governments to divert central revenues into local coffers through manipulation of tax assessments.

19 Overview of the 1994 Reform While reducing fiscal incentives for promoting local industry, the TSS also shifted incentives more toward commerce and trade by expanding the business tax on services and assigning it to local governments where it has become an important revenue source that rivals the VAT. Distortions remain. The sharing of VAT and EIT on a derivation basis (where taxes are collected, such as the headquarters of enterprises) hinders the growth of national enterprises and slow down the consolidation process. Tax competition Dis-equalizing effect of the flat-rate sharing scheme More fundamentally, the reform recentralized revenues but left expenditure assignments unchanged, it created a huge fiscal gap for local governments.

20 The Fiscal Imbalance

21 Reforms after 1994 The clean-up of extra-budgetary revenue. In 1992, EBR represented 110.67% of in-budget revenue. In 2000, the ratio of EBR to IBR was reduced to 28%. By 2003, all fees and incomes from the previous EBR had been incorporated into budgeting. Gradual improvement of tax sharing Most importantly, transfer payment is improved to equalize the provision of public goods across regions.

22 Transfers as a share of local expenditures

23 Transfer payment as a share of the gap between local revenue and local expenditure

24 The Improving Structure of Transfer Payments

25 Future Fiscal Reforms The modernization of budgetary process The phase-out of investment expenditure and the expansion of public goods provision. The rebalancing of revenue and responsibility among different levels of the government. Key questions are: what kind of public goods should be provided by the local governments and how to finance them? Other tax reforms Production-type VAT to consumption-type VAT Expansion of VAT to service industry

26 Content Basics The Transition of Fiscal System The Fiscal System Before the Reform Fiscal Responsibility System (1980-1993) Fiscal Reform of 1994 Reforms after 1994 Future Fiscal Reform Revenue and Expenditure in 2012

27 Revenue (2012, unit: RMB 100m) TotalCentralLocalCentral (%)Local (%) Total Revenue117253.556175.261078.347.952.1 Tax Revenue100614.353295.247319.153.047.0 Domestic VAT26415.519678.46737.274.525.5 Domestic CT7875.6 100.00.0 Costoms (net)4373.3 100.00.0 Business Tax15747.6204.715542.91.398.7 EIT19654.512082.97571.661.538.5 PIT5820.33492.72327.660.040.0 Resources Tax904.448.6855.85.494.6 City Construction Tax3125.6190.92934.86.193.9 Property Tax1372.5 0.0100.0 Other Tax15325.05348.29976.834.965.1 Nontax Revenue16639.22880.013759.217.382.7

28 Recent Trend

29 Expenditure (2012, unit: RMB 100m) TotalCentralLocalCentral (%)Local (%) Total Expenditure125953.018764.6107188.314.985.1 Ordinary Public Service12700.5998.311702.17.992.1 Foreign Affairs333.8332.41.499.60.4 Defense6691.96481.4210.596.93.1 Public Security7111.61183.55928.116.683.4 Education21242.11101.520140.65.294.8 Science and Technology4452.62210.42242.249.650.4 Culture, Sports, and Media2268.4193.62074.88.591.5 Social Security and Employment12585.5585.711999.94.795.3 Medicine7245.174.37170.81.099.0 Environmental Protection2963.563.72899.82.197.9 Community Service9079.118.29060.90.299.8 Farm, Forest, Water11973.9502.511471.44.295.8 Transportation8196.2863.67332.610.589.5 Public Housing4479.6410.94068.79.290.8 Interest Payments2635.72060.4575.378.221.8 Others11993.51684.410309.114.086.0


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