Presentation on theme: "Marsh, Downland and Weald: Monastic foundation and rural intensification in Anglo-Saxon Kent Gabor Thomas University of Reading."— Presentation transcript:
Marsh, Downland and Weald: Monastic foundation and rural intensification in Anglo-Saxon Kent Gabor Thomas University of Reading
Monastic role in rural intensification Tied labour-force of slaves/bond (600 working brethren at Wearmouth/Jarrow) Stable centres of lordship – inalienable endowments with permanent complexes of core buildings Core of monastic estates formed intensively exploited inlands. Emphasis on agriculture as a form of estate income as opposed to cash income and commuted food rents. Augmented by scattered (outfield) dependencies ‘an archipelago of rights to tribute’ offering vital resources. Beyond economics. To what extent did new Christianised perceptions of the natural world and its resources allow such changes to happen? ‘Scale of the their endowments, the coherence of their estate organisation and in the special needs that drove [monastic communities] to intensify production and generate surpluses’ (Blair 2005, 254).
The dynamics of rural intensification To what extent did the structure of early royal estates influence the economy of minsters endowed from them? (Faith 1997, 28) Continuity: monasteries tapped pre-existing supply networks (customary food renders) embedded in the workings of royal estates; exploited broadly the same landscapes and environmental niches as their royal predecessors Change – Patterns of consumption – Land-management/rural exploitation/estate infrastructure – Christianised perceptions of the natural world and its resources
Assessing the archaeological contribution Emphasis on the technology of craft specialization Only infrequent glimpses on the technology of rural production HartlepoolWhitby Hoddom grain drying
Weaknesses in current archaeological data Previous work weighted heavily towards core buildings at the expense of outer precincts – the main domestic/economic zones of monastic complexes Sample of excavated sites geographically skewed towards Northumbrian/Northern Britain Sampling of zooarchaeological, archaeobotanical data often poor leaving serious gaps in understanding – e.g. fish remains Poor conception of the impacts of monastic foundation upon existing technology/rural infrastructure – the dynamics of monastic foundation ‘our archaeological knowledge of all but a few minsters is still restricted to tiny keyholes at most’ (Blair 2011, 733 ‘we lack the commensurate archaeology of the peripheral zones of monasteries and their attendant settlements’ (Loveluck 2005, 245).
Wihtred’s charter (AD 699) Domesday Monachorum Sts Peter/Paul, Canterbury St Augustine’s, Canterbury ReculverChrist Church, Canterbury Lyminge Minster-in-Thanet Folkestone Dover Minster-in- Sheppey ?Eastry HooMaidstone Milton Charing Teynham Wingham Wye Kentish perspectives One of the best documented monastic provinces in pre-Viking England Good level of economic detail contained in charter sources Long-term stability of Kentish royal centres means that we can examine monastic foundation and associated processes as a dynamic phenomenon
Economic glimpses in charter sources Trade - involvement of Kentish double-minsters in long-distance exchange networks – toll remission charters Land-management – Exploiting outlying resources: saltmarsh grazing, salt production, fishing, iron industry – Consolidation of estates - Arch Wulfred ‘gathered small land-units together and formed them into one estate enclosed by a single boundary fence, so that they will be easier to administer and cultivate’. (AD811)
St Augustine’s, Canterbury Reculver St-Mary-Le-Grand, Dover Previous work in Kent
Introducing Lyminge as a new case-study
Results Five seasons of open-area excavation, trial-trenching and geophyzz completed since 2008 Two distinct settlement foci, the earlier (late 5 th -early 7 th C) culminating in a ‘Great Hall’ complex A localised ‘Middle Saxon Shift’, spatial redefinition of settlement around a monastic nucleus established in the later 7 th century Microcosm for investigating the social dynamics of monastic foundation and Christianisation in Anglo-Saxon Kent.
Early Anglo-Saxon settlement focus
The Lyminge ‘Great Hall’
Monastic phase occupation
Agrarian technology in the 7 th century
Date of deposition
Innovations in monastic economy 1: agrarian surplus The Lyminge ‘threshing barn ’
Innovations in monastic economy 2: Ironworking AD 689 King Oswine grants to St Augustine’s, Canterbury, a sulung of iron- bearing land which had previously belonged to the cors at Lyminge
Crop husbandry signatures occurrence of unusually abundant, very dense samples the occurrence of rare, possibly cultivated species, such as opium poppy relatively high quantities of glume wheat remains relatively high proportions of oats among free- threshing cereal remains Quern manufacture
Intensification in supply networks: The Romney Marsh connection
The charter evidence CharterLocationResources S21 AD 700/715?Pleghelmestun/Wilmington, KentPasture for 300 sheep – ‘Rumining seta’ S23 AD 732Sandtun, West Hythe, KentLand with generous supply of fuel for saltmaking S24 AD 741Broomhill, KentFishing rights in the River Lympne
A turn to the sea: marine signatures 10,000s specimens - largest assemblage of fish bones from AS England. 8/9thC: rise to dominance of marine species - cod, ling, herring, flatfish, horse mackerel, sea bream - accounts for 35% of the hand-collected/dry sieved assemblage By contrast 6/7 th C contexts produced only relatively small numbers of inshore estuarine species, herring and flatfish Upsurge in the exploitation of marine mollusca Conclusion: a diversification in coastal fishing placing new emphasis on line-caught deep-water Gadidae (Cod, Haddock and Ling), but with continued exploitation of inshore/coastal estuarine species.
Transformations in animal husbandry
Conclusions Anglo-Saxon monastic archaeology has hitherto offered a largely ‘craft- dominated’ perspective on technology as a tool of conversion. Limited understanding of how monastic foundations exploited existing systems of rural production; very small pool of archaeological evidence for tracking monastic impact on rural intensification – disconnect with historical sources. Methodological implications: the outer precincts of known monastic institutions need to be targeted using intensive sampling regimes. Due to the stability of its central-places, Kent offers a vital perspective on the dynamics of monastic conversion and its impacts on the rural landscape. Lyminge holds unique archaeological potential for examining how the technology of rural production was transformed under the impetus of monastic foundation and Christianisation. Whilst there is clear evidence for monastic innovation/intensification, we should not underestimate the capacity of pre-existing systems of rural production.
References Brooks, N ‘Romney Marsh in the early Middle Ages’, in Romney Marsh. Evolution, Occupation, Reclamation (eds J Eddison and C Green), , Oxford Univ Comm Archaeol Monogr 24,Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Oxford Blair, J The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford Kelly, S ‘Lyminge minster and its early charters’ in Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Cyril Hart (ed S Keynes and A P Smyth), , Four Courts Press, Dublin Thomas, G. & Knox, A ‘A window on Christianisation: transformation at Anglo-Saxon Lyminge, Kent, England. Antiquity, 334 Thomas, G. in press. Life before the minster: the social dynamics of monastic foundation at Anglo-Saxon Lyminge, Kent’, Antiquaries Journal, 93