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Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896

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1 Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896
“Horizons” Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896

2 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
Russia first to reach Northwest coast Both U.S. and Britain also wanted the Oregon Territory HBC - wanted to continue fur trade U.S. - “Manifest Destiny” - settlement a priority 1830’s - American settlers travelled along Oregon Trail Oregon Territory

3 Manifest Destiny In the United States in the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent.


5 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
Oregon Trail: only means to settle the west Extremely difficult & dangerous journey 1 in 10 settlers died along the way - some walked 2000 miles barefoot Death often occurred due to cholera, poor sanitation & accidental gunshots Contrary to popular belief, most native tribes helpful to settlers

6 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
Oregon Trail: between , half a million settlers travelled west on the trail Strange but true facts: Many cholera victims were buried alive, because the wagon party was in a hurry (Donner Party) A cow that accidentally wandered into a Sioux camp ignited a conflict that led to the death of many Sioux warriors & U.S. soldiers

7 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
George Simpson - became governor of HBC in biggest challenge was New Caledonia/Columbia territory Russia, United States both interested in area Simpson toured forts in Oregon territory - decided to establish a new post, Fort Vancouver Chief Factor - John McLoughlin Simpson ordered HBC employees to open up trade in Fraser Valley, expand networks in native peoples established Fort Langley Fort Langley

8 Fort Langley Never a successful fur trading post
Traded in salmon in exchange for European goods Salmon often went as ship food to resupply ships in Hawaii

9 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
McLoughlin - fair & generous administrator, political realist Arrested for murder of Robert Semple (Battle of 7 Oaks) - acquitted in 1818 Encouraged Americans to stay out of HBC territory - offered money & supplies to American settlers Strong American presence in Oregon Territory by 1830’s Russia: had fur-trade posts in Alaska, threatened to expand into Pacific Northwest agreement with HBC not to trade further south - HBC would supply Russian posts with food John McLoughlin

10 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
Simpson toured area - not satisfied with fur trade - closed all coastal posts except Fort Simpson, designated HBC steamship Beaver as a ‘floating’ fur-trade post McLoughlin furious Situation worsened when McLoughlin’s son was killed in a brawl Simpson recommended charge of ‘justifiable homicide’ McLoughlin developed hatred for both Simpson & HBC Encouraged all settlers to move north of the Columbia River (U.S.) “Beaver” - HBC steamship

11 McLoughlin’s Lega McLoughlin retired from HBC in 1845
Known as “Father of Oregon”, due to his kindness to American settlers

12 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory”
Simpson worried that U.S. would take over territory Ordered Chief Factor James Douglas to establish new depot on Vancouver Island Fort Victoria James Douglas

13 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
1840’s - U.S. wanted to expand past 54° 40’ (Oregon Territory) President James Polk tried to negotiate with Britain Both sides agreed to extend border along the 49th parallel to Pacific Ocean Vancouver Island remained British Fort Vancouver became U.S. 1848: British government created the crown colony of Vancouver Island - HBC retained trade monopoly New governor James Douglas Actively encouraged British settlement Vancouver Island

14 Purchasing Land on Van. Is.
Recreating the English Class System £1 an acre with a minimum of 20 acres Current exchange rate (£1 = $1.55 CDN) If more than 100 acres were purchased – must have 5 people to work the land few settlers became land owners due to this system most inhabitants were ex-HBC employees who bought up the valuable farm land

15 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
Douglas created Legislative Assembly - 7 elected representatives Only property owners could vote - 40/450 citizens Assembly could pass resolutions, but couldn’t enforce them - Douglas had final authority Douglas also had to negotiate treaties with aboriginal peoples - approx. 30,000 living on island They would surrender land to Europeans, but would retain hunting and fishing rights Annual compensation to families each year Douglas seemed to be ‘leasing’ land from aboriginal people - confirms their title? Only treaties of this nature negotiated in B.C. in 19th century Sir James Douglas


17 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858”
English class system established - hierarchy 1840’s - coal discovered near Nanaimo, diversified economy Supplied Royal Navy, based out of Esquimalt harbour (still a base today) Royal Navy played huge role in Fort Victoria society - officers invited to parties given by English landowners Douglas married to Amelia Douglas, a Metis - not impressed with new ‘upper class’ She had 13 babies (7 died as infants) Lady Amelia Douglas

18 Assignment Due at the end of the class.
In an organizer, compare and contrast American and British attitudes towards the Oregon Territory. /3 Why did the British Government put restrictions on land purchasing?/2 What did the early government of Victoria have in common with Upper and Lower Canada before confederation? /2 Due at the end of the class.

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