Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6 British Columbia to 1896 “Horizons”Chapter 6British Columbia to 1896
2 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” Russia first to reach Northwest coastBoth U.S. and Britain also wanted the Oregon TerritoryHBC - wanted to continue fur tradeU.S. - “Manifest Destiny” - settlement a priority1830’s - American settlers travelled along Oregon TrailOregon Territory
3 Manifest DestinyIn the United States in the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent.
5 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” Oregon Trail: only means to settle the westExtremely difficult & dangerous journey1 in 10 settlers died along the way - some walked 2000 miles barefootDeath often occurred due to cholera, poor sanitation & accidental gunshotsContrary to popular belief, most native tribes helpful to settlers
6 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” Oregon Trail: between , half a million settlers travelled west on the trailStrange but true facts:Many cholera victims were buried alive, because the wagon party was in a hurry (Donner Party)A cow that accidentally wandered into a Sioux camp ignited a conflict that led to the death of many Sioux warriors & U.S. soldiers
7 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” George Simpson - became governor of HBC in biggest challenge was New Caledonia/Columbia territoryRussia, United States both interested in areaSimpson toured forts in Oregon territory - decided to establish a new post, Fort VancouverChief Factor - John McLoughlinSimpson ordered HBC employees to open up trade in Fraser Valley, expand networks in native peoplesestablished Fort LangleyFort Langley
8 Fort Langley Never a successful fur trading post Traded in salmon in exchange for European goodsSalmon often went as ship food to resupply ships in Hawaii
9 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” McLoughlin - fair & generous administrator, political realistArrested for murder of Robert Semple (Battle of 7 Oaks) - acquitted in 1818Encouraged Americans to stay out of HBC territory - offered money & supplies to American settlersStrong American presence in Oregon Territory by 1830’sRussia: had fur-trade posts in Alaska, threatened to expand into Pacific Northwestagreement with HBC not to trade further south - HBC would supply Russian posts with foodJohn McLoughlin
10 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” Simpson toured area - not satisfied with fur trade - closed all coastal posts except Fort Simpson, designated HBC steamship Beaver as a ‘floating’ fur-trade postMcLoughlin furiousSituation worsened when McLoughlin’s son was killed in a brawlSimpson recommended charge of ‘justifiable homicide’McLoughlin developed hatred for both Simpson & HBCEncouraged all settlers to move north of the Columbia River (U.S.)“Beaver” - HBC steamship
11 McLoughlin’s Lega McLoughlin retired from HBC in 1845 Known as “Father of Oregon”, due to his kindness to American settlers
12 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Oregon Territory” Simpson worried that U.S. would take over territoryOrdered Chief Factor James Douglas to establish new depot on Vancouver IslandFort VictoriaJames Douglas
13 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858” 1840’s - U.S. wanted to expand past 54° 40’ (Oregon Territory)President James Polk tried to negotiate with BritainBoth sides agreed to extend border along the 49th parallel to Pacific OceanVancouver Island remained BritishFort Vancouver became U.S.1848: British government created the crown colony of Vancouver Island - HBC retained trade monopolyNew governor James DouglasActively encouraged British settlementVancouver Island
14 Purchasing Land on Van. Is. Recreating the English Class System£1 an acre with a minimum of 20 acresCurrent exchange rate (£1 = $1.55 CDN)If more than 100 acres were purchased – must have 5 people to work the landfew settlers became land owners due to this systemmost inhabitants were ex-HBC employees who bought up the valuable farm land
15 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858” Douglas created Legislative Assembly - 7 elected representativesOnly property owners could vote - 40/450 citizensAssembly could pass resolutions, but couldn’t enforce them - Douglas had final authorityDouglas also had to negotiate treaties with aboriginal peoples - approx. 30,000 living on islandThey would surrender land to Europeans, but would retain hunting and fishing rightsAnnual compensation to families each yearDouglas seemed to be ‘leasing’ land from aboriginal people - confirms their title?Only treaties of this nature negotiated in B.C. in 19th centurySir James Douglas
17 Chapter 6 - B.C. to 1896 “The Colony of Vancouver Island to 1858” English class system established - hierarchy1840’s - coal discovered near Nanaimo, diversified economySupplied Royal Navy, based out of Esquimalt harbour (still a base today)Royal Navy played huge role in Fort Victoria society - officers invited to parties given by English landownersDouglas married to Amelia Douglas, a Metis - not impressed with new ‘upper class’She had 13 babies (7 died as infants)Lady Amelia Douglas
18 Assignment Due at the end of the class. In an organizer, compare and contrast American and British attitudes towards the Oregon Territory. /3Why did the British Government put restrictions on land purchasing?/2What did the early government of Victoria have in common with Upper and Lower Canada before confederation? /2Due at the end of the class.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.