Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY I CAN DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MAIN CONCEPTS AND THEORIES WITHIN APS – FOUNDATIONS The Sociological Perspective."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY I CAN DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MAIN CONCEPTS AND THEORIES WITHIN APS – FOUNDATIONS The Sociological Perspective
Defining Sociology Social science discipline that examines development and structure of human society (institutions) Sociology theorizes social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior Sociologists investigate structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how individuals are impacted
Main Concepts in Sociology
Societal Roles and Status Everyone plays certain roles within society – Social Scientists refer to this as status Roles can be ascribed (born into) Roles can also be achieved Status is used to describe our position within an institution (e.g.) cashier within a drive-through restaurant
Hierarchy Hierarchy - ranking system used in any particular environment based on authority of power Within a hierarchy, role players expected to behave in certain ways (norms) Many different roles in society are played simultaneously (e.g.) parent at breakfast becomes an employee within the workplace
Values and Rules Values – particular set of expectations assigned to each role that role players are expected to accept and internalize Rules – developed by cultures based on their system of values
What are Norms? Norms are behaviours that govern social action and which the majority of the members of society regards as proper, right and expected. Norms lead to the standardization of behaviour within any given society Norms are an important form of social control
Norms There are four types of norms: Mores Folkways Taboos Laws
What are Mores? Mores are norms that society considers vital for its survival; what is right and wrong, moral and immoral Strongly sanctioned by society. E.g. Society insists on respect for human life. Therefore murder is harshly punished.
What are Folkways? Folkways are norms governing behaviour which the society considers acceptable but does not insist upon. E.g. Using a spoon instead of a knife and fork at table; picking one’s nose in public Folkways are relatively weak norms
What are Taboos? Taboos are behaviours that society finds revolting. E.g. Incest Others ???
What are Laws? Laws are norms that society considers sufficiently valuable that they are codified/formalized through the legislative process with specific formal sanctions/penalties to be imposed on those who break them. E.g. Family, religion, education, economy, political subsystem, legal subsystem, mass media.
What are Social Institutions? Talcott Parsons: Social Institutions are ‘normative patterns which define what are felt to be proper, legitimate or expected modes of action of social relationships’
Deviance and Rehabilitation Deviance – behaviour that is different from the societal norm, considered “deviant” because society does not accept it Deviance can range from odd behaviour to acts that harm society Sociology has a strong link with the criminal justice system Canada’s criminal justice system is based on rehabilitation, or trying to re-educate and re-socialize inmates so that they can grow to accept society’s values and norms
Rehabilitation Sociology has formed a strong link with the justice system A fundamental component of modern imprisonment is rehabilitation, or trying to re-educate and re- socialize inmates so that they can grow to accept society’s values and norms
Stanford Prison Study Sociology and Zimbardo Prison Study Explain how the Zimbardo Prison Study helps us to explain the major concepts in Sociology – roles, status, role expectation, hierarchy, deviance, norms. Make sure to include all of these key terms in your explanation.
Structural Functionalism Marxism (Conflict Theory) Symbolic Interactionism Feminism Inclusionism Sociological Schools of Thought
Symbolic Interactionism – Max Weber Developed by Max Weber German late 1800s, early 1900s work Began as a Conflict theorist; shifted his ideas, methods of social science
Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic Interactionists believe humans have complex brains and little instinctive behaviour interpretation of daily stimuli occurs through the attachment of personalized meanings (e.g.) One person might pursue fame and fortune while a sibling might dedicate their life to charitable work Focus on how individuals process and interpret society beyond its institutions to form values As a result, Symbolic Interactionists focus research on the human mind rather than social structures
Symbolic Interactionism People’s actions are based on understandings of meanings of the particular situation– the “definition of the situation.” It is essentially how we as individuals process and interpret what we observe in society, not society’s institutions, that form the core of our value system.
People act toward things on the basis of the meanings that things have for them (interpret symbols based on meanings) These meanings arise out of social interaction Social action results from a fitting together of individual lines of action. Symbolic Interaction
Symbolic Interactionism – George Herbert Mead ( ) See sociology as the study of one’s own and others’ beliefs, motives, values Interactionists study the meanings people give to their society How do we experience, interpret reality? Reality is defined by context, experience, through social interactions and rituals
Symbolic Interactionism – Herbert Blumer Importance of language: the symbols used to communicate with each other Verbal and non-verbal cues Believe society is a product of face-to-face interaction between people using symbols (meaningful things that represent something else– words, gestures and signs).
Symbolic Interactionism – Charles Cooley ( ) Key idea of the “looking- glass self” People develop self-image from the way they think others see them “Self-fulfilling prophecy”: seek experiences that reinforce our self-image Study: researchers calls people for donations; tells one group they are generous, thanks for past generosity; gave more than those not told they are generous.
Conflict Theory/Neo-Marxism Developed by Karl Marx, mid 1800s; German Basis of the theory founded in the political/economic theory of communism
Conflict Theory/ Neo-Marxism Focus on process of economic power leading to political power as a key to understanding society Struggle for economic power means that society is not static but ever- changing Economic system creates a rich class of owners and a poor class of workers - Social ills stem from the economic inequalities between the two classes. Social institutions (churches, schools, prisons etc.) created to represent the division between the powerful and powerless
Conflict Theory Max Weber also inspired sociologists who follow Conflict Theory. He argued that conflict arises as much over values, status, and a sense of personal honour as economic status. “Haves” “Have Nots” CONFLICT
Feminist Theory Feminist Theorists focus on sex and gender issues – extension of Conflict Theory Believe that women have traditionally been disadvantaged in society because men have discriminated against them Since men have traditionally made the decisions in within society, they tend to favour men Liberal feminism emphasizes better-paid and prestigious jobs to women and the elimination of laws discriminating against social rights of women Marxian feminists believe women’s unpaid / undervalued domestic work has influenced lower wages to male workers Radical feminists believe child bearing has led to systematic oppression by men Socialist feminists try to separate issues of oppression that stem from male domination through capitalism
Structural Functionalism Founded by Emile Durkheim Born in France, Set out to counter Marx’s view of society
Structural-Functionalism Belief that each society should provide its members with the fundamental requirements for functioning fulfilling material needs socializing and educating youth regulating reproduction (usually marriage) Argue that societies remain stable by its members sharing values and agree on ways that its institutions operate. Change is slow, then society stable. When change occurs in one part, there is change in another. During times rapid change, the danger is that sometimes institutions fail to fulfill their function.
SOCIETY Families (reproduce and nurture) Economy (production, distribution, consumption of goods and services) Government (Controls conflict between groups and contributes to sharing of norms and values) Education (socializes young people, teaching them things they need to know in adult life)
Durkheim and Deviance “We must not say that an action shocks the common conscience because it is criminal, but rather that it is criminal because it shocks the common conscience. We do not reprove (denounce) it because it is a crime, but it is a crime because we reprove it” Emile Durkheim What do you think of Durkheim’s quote? Is it compatible with a Christian worldview?
Inclusionism Focus on possibility of conflict between ethnic and religious groups as well as between economic classes Before WWII, most sociologists held an assimilationist views on cultural relations; believing the majority would eventually absorb the minority (melting pot) Late 1960’s, changing immigration policies established new views with large numbers of immigrants arriving in Canada Responsibility of sociologists to recognize cultural diversity while rejecting the urge to view society through perspective of the majority