# Understanding Comparison

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Understanding Comparison
How are modifiers used in comparisons? What are the degrees of comparison? Regular comparison Irregular comparison Solving common modifier problems Review A Review B

How are modifiers used in comparisons?
If you’ve ever played the game Twenty questions, you’ve used modifiers to make comparisons. Is it smaller than an ambulance? Is it larger than a skate?

How are modifiers used in comparisons?
A modifier gives more information about a word or word group. Adjective Adverb The patient children waited quietly. The patient children waited quietly. The patient children waited quietly. Noun Verb Patient tells “what kind” of children. Quietly tells “how” the children waited.

How are modifiers used in comparisons?
A comparison shows how two or more things are alike or different. One way we compare is by changing the forms of modifiers. A scooter is smaller than an ambulance but bigger than a skate. A scooter is smaller than an ambulance.

What are the degrees of comparison?
A modifier can have three different degrees, or forms: positive, comparative, and superlative. They’re prettier than the flowers we saw yesterday. Those flowers are pretty. They’re the prettiest flowers I’ve ever seen! Positive pretty Comparative prettier Superlative prettiest

What are the degrees of comparison? Positive
The positive degree is the basic form of the modifier. Lisa is a young girl. The balloon climbed high into the air.

What are the degrees of comparison? Comparative
The comparative degree compares one thing or action with another. Our balloon climbed higher than the other one. Lisa is younger than her brother.

What are the degrees of comparison? Superlative
The superlative degree is used to compare more than two things or actions. That balloon climbed the highest of all. Lisa is the youngest person in her family.

What are the degrees of comparison?
Tell whether each modifier is in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Be prepared to explain what is being compared. 1. The subway would be faster than the bus. 2. Kendra is the tallest girl on the basketball team. 3. We arrived at the game early. 4. Jimmie works more quickly than Kim does.

What are the degrees of comparison?
Tell whether each modifier is in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Be prepared to explain what is being compared. 1. The subway would be faster than the bus. Faster is the comparative degree of fast. The subway is being compared with the bus.

What are the degrees of comparison?
Tell whether each modifier is in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Be prepared to explain what is being compared. 2. Kendra is the tallest girl on the basketball team. Tallest is the superlative degree of tall. Kendra is being compared with all the other girls on the basketball team.

What are the degrees of comparison?
Tell whether each modifier is in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Be prepared to explain what is being compared. 3. We arrived at the game early. Early is the positive degree. There is no comparison. This sentence simply tells when we arrived at the game.

What are the degrees of comparison?
Tell whether each modifier is in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Be prepared to explain what is being compared. 4. Jimmie works more quickly than Kim does. More quickly is the comparative degree of quickly. Jimmie’s work speed is being compared with Kim’s.

Regular comparison Most one-syllable modifiers
form the comparative by adding –er form the superlative by adding –est Positive bright slow cute Comparative brighter slower cuter Superlative brightest slowest cutest

Grammar Gal Says... Regular comparison
Here’s a way to remember which form of a modifier to use. Grammar Gal Says... When comparing two things, use –er (the two-letter ending). This knife is sharper than that one. When comparing three or more, use –est (the three-letter ending). That knife is the sharpest of all.

Regular comparison Some two-syllable modifiers
form the comparative by adding –er or by adding more form the superlative by adding –est or by adding most Positive fancy easy often cheerful Comparative fancier easier more often more cheerful Superlative fanciest easiest most often most cheerful

Regular comparison If a modifier has three or more syllables
form the comparative by adding more form the superlative by adding most Positive powerful skillfully delicate creatively Comparative more powerful more skillfully more delicate more creatively Superlative most powerful most skillfully most delicate most creatively

Regular comparison Decreasing comparison
More and –er and most and–est show increases. To show decreases in the quality a modifier expresses, use less and least. The red sweater is less expensive than the gray one. The pink sweater is the least expensive of all.

Regular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each modifier. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. proud 3. tasty 2. generous 4. grateful

Regular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each modifier. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. proud, prouder, proudest less proud, least proud One-syllable modifiers form the comparative by adding –er and form the superlative by adding –est. Decreasing comparisons are formed using less and least.

Regular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each modifier. Be prepared to explain your answers. 2. generous, more generous, most generous less generous, least generous Modifiers with three or more syllables form the comparative using more and form the superlative using most. Decreasing comparisons are formed using less and least.

Regular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each modifier. Be prepared to explain your answers. 3. tasty, tastier, tastiest less tasty, least tasty Some two-syllable modifiers can form their comparative and superlative by using either –er and –est or more and most. Decreasing comparisons are formed using less and least.

Regular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each modifier. Be prepared to explain your answers. 4. grateful, more grateful, most grateful less grateful, least grateful Some two-syllable modifiers form the comparative using more and form the superlative using most. Decreasing comparisons are formed using less and least.

Complete each sentence by supplying the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. The Moon is the Earth’s __________ neighbor in space. (near) 2. Seen from the Earth, the full Moon is __________ than the new moon. (bright) 3. We notice the Moon ____________ when it is full than when it is new. (frequently) 4. The moons of some other planets move __________ than our Moon. (slowly) [End of Section]

Complete each sentence by supplying the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. The Moon is the Earth’s __________ neighbor in space. (near) 2. Seen from the Earth, the full Moon is __________ than the new Moon. (bright) 3. We notice the Moon _______________ when it is full than when it is new. (frequently) 4. The moons of some other planets move __________ than our Moon. (slowly) nearest brighter more frequently more slowly

Irregular comparison The comparative and superlative degrees of some common modifiers are irregular in form. Positive Comparative Superlative bad worse worst good better best well much more most many

Irregular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each of the following modifiers. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. bad 3. good 2. well 4. many

Irregular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each of the following modifiers. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. bad, worse, worst The comparative and superlative forms of bad are irregular. They are worse and worst.

Irregular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each of the following modifiers. Be prepared to explain your answers. 2. well, better, best The comparative and superlative forms of well are irregular. They are better and best.

Irregular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each of the following modifiers. Be prepared to explain your answers. 3. good, better, best The comparative and superlative forms of good are irregular. They are better and best.

Irregular comparison Give the comparative and superlative forms of each of the following modifiers. Be prepared to explain your answers. 4. many, more , most The comparative and superlative forms of many are irregular. They are more and most.

Complete each sentence by supplying the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. Of all the instruments she can play, Judy plays the flute __________. (well) 2. Gina’s cold is __________ today than it was yesterday. (bad). 3. The judges awarded a prize for the __________ essay. (good). 4. I have __________ baseball cards than she does. (many) [End of Section]

Complete each sentence by supplying the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. Of all the instruments she can play, Judy plays the flute __________. (well) 2. Gina’s cold is __________ today than it was yesterday. (bad) 3. The judges awarded a prize for the __________ essay. (good) 4. I have __________ baseball cards than she does. (many) best worse best more

Solving common modifier problems Good and well
The modifiers good and well have different uses. Use good to modify a noun or a pronoun. The weather was good for hiking. The weather was good for hiking. Noun If you want a pear, here is a good one. If you want a pear, here is a good one. Pronoun

Solving common modifier problems Good and well
Use well to modify a verb. The jazz band plays well. The jazz band plays well. Verb Jen did well in most of her classes. Jen did well in most of her classes. Verb

Solving common modifier problems Good and well
Well can also mean “in good health.” When well has this meaning, it modifies a noun or pronoun. Grammar Gal Says... Is the baby well today? In this sentence, well modifies the noun baby.

Solving common modifier problems Double comparisons
Avoid double comparisons. Using both –er and more is incorrect. Using both –est and most is also incorrect. Correct Incorrect Her hair is more redder than her brother’s. Her hair is redder than her brother’s. Incorrect Correct The chili was the most popular food at the fair. The chili was the most popularest food at the fair.

Solving common modifier problems Double comparisons
To correct a double comparison, first decide whether the comparative and superlative forms of the modifier use –er and –est or more and most. Your bike is more faster than mine. more faster? or faster? That was the most interestingest show I ever saw. most interesting? or interestingest? Then, delete the unnecessary part.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. Today was (more rainier, rainier) than yesterday. 2. The farm had a (good, well) crop this year. 3. Liang cooks many foods (good, well). 4. That story was the (scariest, most scariest) of all.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. Be prepared to explain your answers. 1. Today was (more rainier, rainier) than yesterday. To form the comparative of rainy, add –er only, not both more and –er.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. Be prepared to explain your answers. 2. The farm had a (good, well) crop this year. Use good to modify the noun crop.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. Be prepared to explain your answers. 3. Liang cooks many foods (good, well). Use well to modify the verb cooks.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. Be prepared to explain your answers. 4. That story was the (scariest, most scariest) of all. To form the superlative of scary,add –est, not most and –est.

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
On Your Own Proofread each sentence for the correct use of modifiers. If you find an error, correct it. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1. Jamal looked good after recovering from the flu. 2. The Moon looks more beautifuller tonight. 3. My sister writes poetry well. 4. As it rained, the river rose more rapidlier. 5. Our team played good at the tournament. [End of Section]

Solving common modifier problems Good and well/Double comparisons
Answers Proofread each sentence for the correct use of modifiers. If you find an error, correct it. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1. Jamal looked good after recovering from the flu. 2. The moon looks more beautifuller tonight. 3. My sister writes poetry well. 4. As it rained, the river rose more rapidlier. 5. Our team played good at the tournament. well beautiful C rapidly well

Review A Complete each sentence by providing the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. Yesterday was the __________ day of my entire life. (good) 2. Which runs __________ , the cheetah or the lion? (fast) 3. This piñata is decorated __________ than the other one. (beautifully) 4. This is the __________ stamp in Ray’s collection. (valuable) 5. We had __________ fun at the concert than we did at the game. (much)

Review A Complete each sentence by providing the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. 1. Yesterday was the __________ day of my entire life. (good) best 2. Which runs __________ , the cheetah or the lion? (fast) faster 3. This piñata is decorated _______________ than the other one. (beautifully) more beautifully 4. This is the _____________ stamp in Ray’s collection. (valuable) most valuable 5. We had __________ fun at the concert than we did at the game. (much) more

Review B Correct the errors in the use of modifiers in the following sentences. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1. Tamika performed good at the gymnastics meet. 2. The butler is the most interestingest character in the film. 3. She hit the ball less harder last time. 4. Doug’s grades were good this semester. 5. Flora arrived more sooner than I did. 6. The colorful kite flew the most high in the sky. [End of Section]

Review B Correct the errors in the use of modifiers in the following sentences. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. well 1. Tamika performed good at the gymnastics meet. 2. The butler is the most interestingest character in the play. hard 3. She hit the ball less harder last time. 4. Doug’s grades were good this semester. C 5. Flora arrived more sooner than I did. est 6. The colorful kite flew the most high in the sky.

The End