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Sociology 125 Lectures 18 & 19 Gender November 4 & 6, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology 125 Lectures 18 & 19 Gender November 4 & 6, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology 125 Lectures 18 & 19 Gender November 4 & 6, 2014

2 I. GENDER & NATURE

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4 1.Definitions of Sex & Gender Sex = a biological distinction based on roles in the process of biological reproduction Gender = a social distinction between roles and expectations linked to sex. Gender is the social transformation of a biological difference – sex – into a social difference. Gender norms are the rules of appropriate behavior and roles for men and women.

5 1.Definitions of Sex & Gender Sex = a biological distinction based on roles in the process of biological reproduction Gender = a social distinction between roles and expectations linked to sex. Gender is the social transformation of a biological difference – sex – into a social difference. Gender norms are the rules of appropriate behavior and roles for men and women.

6 2. What is Natural? The intensity of caregiving behavior HighLow I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms

7 2. What is Natural? Women The intensity of caregiving behavior HighLow I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms

8 2. What is Natural? Women Men The intensity of caregiving behavior HighLow I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms

9 2. What is Natural? Women Men The intensity of caregiving behavior HighLow Gender gap in caregiving I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms

10 II. Hypothetical distributions of caregiving in a world with weak gender norms Women Gender gap in caregiving Men HighLow High 2. What is Natural? The intensity of caregiving behavior

11 I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms II. Hypothetical distributions of caregiving in a world with weak gender norms Women Men Gender gap in caregiving Men Women Gender gap in caregiving HighLow High 2. What is Natural? The intensity of caregiving behavior

12 II. THE EMPIRICAL STORY: MASSIVE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THREE GENERATIONS

13 Seven important elements of transformations of gender relations 1.Legal Rights 2.Labor force participation 3.Occupational Structure & Income 4.Power 5.Family structure 6.Domestic division of labor 7.Sexuality

14 1. Legal Rights

15 Legal Rights gained by women in 20 th Century Right to vote (1920) Right to own passport (early 1930s) Equal right to divorce (gradually since 1940s) Reproductive rights (1973, but eroding) Equal rights to university admission (1960s) Equal rights to all jobs (1960s) Equal rights to participate in sports (1972) Equal right to participate in all military roles (by 2016?)

16 2. Labor Force Participation

17 2. Labor Force Participation Rates of Married Women with Children,

18 3. Occupational Structure & Income

19 % of People in Selected Traditionally Male Professions who are Women, 1930, 1960, 1990, 2000, 2011

20 % Enrollments in Medical & Law Schools who are women,

21 Secretary98.1%95.4% RN97.8%91.1% Dental Assistant98.6%95.8% Carpenter1.6%2.1% Airline pilot1.6%4.9% auto mechanic1.6%1.3% % of Women in Selected Highly Gender-Segregated Jobs

22 Women’s wages = 63% of men’s wages Women’s wages = 84% of men’s wages Men’s and Women’s median wages,

23 4. Power

24 % of corporate officers and CEOs who are women

25 Women elected officials,

26 Women in national legislatures, 2013 (%)

27 5. Family Structure

28 % of Households that consist of a Married Couple

29 % of Women ages who have Never Married, % 14.3% 31.8%

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32 6. Domestic Division of Labor

33 Time devoted per week on routine housework by mothers and fathers in homes with children

34 Ratio 4.0:1 Ratio 2.5:1 Ratio 1.9:1 Time spent per week on child care for fathers and mothers in homes with children mothersfathers

35 7. Sexuality

36 Public Support for Same-Sex Marriages,

37 Age gradient in support for same-sex marriage

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39 8. Cultural Degendering

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42 III. EXPLAINING TRANSFORMATION

43 The Question Women have always tried to increase their autonomy and reduce their subjection. But throughout most of history these struggles have produced at best minimal change. Why do these struggles produce big changes sometimes and not others? Why in second half of the 20 th century was there such massive transformation?

44 The Answer While women have tried throughout history to increase their autonomy and reduce their subordination, they could only succeed in doing this on a large scale once social conditions had changed in ways that made existing gender power relations fragile.

45 Three basic processes 1.Decline in a coherent interest among men to defend male domination 2.Erosion of institutional system of female domesticity which eroded women’s interest in traditional gender relations 3.Increase in capacity for challenge by women

46 1.The decline of coherent male interests in male domination Central explanation: The rapidly increasing economic demand for literate labor by male employers undermined male interest in excluding women.

47 2. The Crisis of Female Domesticity

48 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

49 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

50 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

51 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

52 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

53 Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity A family wage made domesticity economically feasible dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc.) cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

54 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

55 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

56 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

57 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

58 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

59 Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960s decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

60 3. The Women’s movement & Feminism

61 V. THE WORLD TODAY: DILEMMAS AND PROSPECTS

62 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

63 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

64 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlik ely to decline 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

65 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

66 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline. Degendering of traditional roles unlikely to be reversed 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

67 Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline Degendering of traditional roles unlikely to be reversed 1. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

68 Gender equality expands opportunities and freedom of choice for women in general, BUT Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher-level jobs; end of gender-based privileges. 2. The problem of Winners & Losers

69 Gender equality expands opportunities and freedom of choice for women in general, BUT Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher-level jobs; end of gender-based privileges. 2. The problem of Winners & Losers

70 Gender equality expands opportunities and freedom of choice for women in general, BUT Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher-level jobs; end of gender-based privileges. 2. The problem of Winners & Losers

71 Gender equality expands opportunities and freedom of choice for women in general, BUT Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher-level jobs; end of gender-based privileges. 2. The problem of Winners & Losers

72 Gender equality expands opportunities and freedom of choice for women in general, BUT Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher-level jobs; end of gender-based privileges. 2. The problem of Winners & Losers

73 World #1World #2 Average wages of men and women are about the same Good quality childcare is provided by the government or employers free or at low cost Generous paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies and early infant care Average wages of women are 75-80% of wages of men No childcare is provided by government or employers; private daycare is expensive or of poor quality no paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies or early infant care 3. Imagine two possible worlds

74 World #1World #2 Average wages of men and women are about the same Good quality childcare is provided by the government or employers free or at low cost Generous paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies and early infant care Average wages of women are 75-80% of wages of men No childcare is provided by government or employers; private daycare is expensive or of poor quality no paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies or early infant care 3. Imagine two possible worlds

75 World #1World #2 Average wages of men and women are about the same Good quality childcare is provided by the government or employers free or at low cost Generous paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies and early infant care Average wages of women are 75-80% of wages of men No childcare is provided by government or employers; private daycare is expensive or of poor quality no paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies or early infant care 3. Imagine two possible worlds

76 World #1 = SwedenWorld #2 = United States Average wages of men and women are about the same Good quality childcare is provided by the government or employers free or at low cost Generous paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies and early infant care Average wages of women are 75-80% of wages of men No childcare is provided by government or employers; private daycare is expensive or of poor quality no paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies or early infant care 3. Imagine two possible worlds

77 Paid Parental Leaves in Various Countries

78 1.Pay Equity: equal pay for comparable work 2.Quality public provision of childcare in neighborhoods and workplaces 3.Generous paid parental leaves 4. Three reforms

79 1.Pay Equity: equal pay for comparable work Removes one source of gender inequality Caregiving work becomes more attractive to men Increases women’s bargaining power in the home over domestic division of labor 4. Three reforms

80 2. Public provision of high quality childcare Opens choices for work/family balance Reduces class inequalities in opportunities for women Makes bargaining within families over division of labor easier 4. Three reforms

81 3. Paid parental leave: three forms Maternal leaves Parental leaves giving to families to divide Mother & Father parental leaves given to individuals 4. Three reforms

82 The Family Ideals and Fallback Positions of Young Men and Women


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