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Session 9: National Differences and Institutional Conditions Karl Ulrich Mayer Life Course Research: Theoretical Issues, Empirical Applications and Methodological.

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Presentation on theme: "Session 9: National Differences and Institutional Conditions Karl Ulrich Mayer Life Course Research: Theoretical Issues, Empirical Applications and Methodological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Session 9: National Differences and Institutional Conditions Karl Ulrich Mayer Life Course Research: Theoretical Issues, Empirical Applications and Methodological Problems Sociological Methodology Workshop Series, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan September 20-24, 2004

2 Outline The State and the Life Course in Advanced Societies Dualistic Life Course Regimes Political Economies: De-Regulated and Coordinated Life Course Regimes: Cross-National Typologies Political Economies and Life Course Outcomes Welfare State Regimes and Institutional Configurations / Life Courses National Institutional Configurations National Life Course Outcomes Life Course Risks and Mobility Regimes: United States, Germany, Sweden Life Course Policies Under Different Welfare-State Regimes Marriage Homogamy and Effects on Labour Force Participation and Income Inequality Globalization, Uncertainty and Changes in Early Life Courses (Mills/Blossfeld 2003)

3 The State and the Life Course in Advanced Societies Type of Relationship State – Life Course Level IndependenceLife Course as Human Development, Aging, Life Phases Macro/Micro ConstitutiveUnintentional EffectsMacro/Micro InterventionIntentional Social PoliciesMicro Reverse CausationLife Course Risks as Condition of Welfare State Action Meso Implicit Norm or Pension Systems as Implicit Theories of the Life Course Macro Incentive Structure VariableVarieties of Policy MeasuresMacro Micro VariableVarieties of Welfare StatesMacro

4 Dualistic Life Course Regimes Open/ Low Trust Closed/ High Trust (Re-)commodification Political Economy: Interaction of State, Family, Economy De-commodification Deregulated Corporatist/ Flexibly Coordinated

5 Political Economies: De-Regulated and Coordinated De-Regulated Market EconomiesCoordinated Market Economies Prime ExamplesUSA, UKGermany, Austria, Netherlands Financial / Econ Governance Short-term Financial Markets; Equity Financing; Limited Business Coordination; Anti-Trust Laws Long-term Financial Capital; Debt Financing; Strong Business Assoc; Inter-Company Ntwks Production System Low-Skill Production; Mass Products; Numeric Flexibilization High-Skill Production; High-Quality Products; Flexibile Specialization Labor Relations Decentralized Bargaining; Contentious Workplace Relations; Low Trust/Coordination Coordinated Bargaining; Statutory Worker Representation; High Trust/Coordination Schooling and Training General Education; On-the-Job Training; Low Coordination betwn Schools and Employers/Unions Vocational Training; Strong Coordination btwn Schools and Employers/Unions Labor Market Regulation Minimalist State; Weak Employment Protection; Low/Short-term Unemployment Benefits; Low (flat) Pensions Interventionist State; Strong Employment Protection; High/Long-term Unemployment Benefits; High (earnings-related) Pensions Job/Mobilty Structure “Individualist Mobility Regime“ Short Tenure; High Turnover; Rewards Structure Tied to Individual Skills / Productivity “Collectivist Mobility Regime“ Long Tenure; Low Turnover; Reward Structure Tied to Characteristics of Job Positions Occupational Careers Stop-Gap LM Entry; Short Tenure; High Turnover; Unstable, High Inter-Firm Job Shifts; Upward/Downward Mobility Smooth LM Entry; Long Tenure; Low Turnover; Stable, Low Inter-Firm Job Shifts; Mostly Upward Mobility Income Mobility Flat; High Variance; High PovertyProgressive; Low Variance; Low/Mod Poverty Retirement Late Retirement; Low Replacement; High Ineqality in Old Age Early Retirement; High Replacement; Medium Inequality in Old Age Family Structure Unstable; High Divorce; Gender EqualityStable; Low Divorce; Male Dominated

6 Life Course Regimes: Cross-National Typologies GroupGrid France Germany FinlandSwedenDenmarkNorway Dual Earner Male BreadwinnerDual Earner Male Breadwinner Gendered Life Course Etatist Federal ItalySpain UK USA Dual Earner Liberal/ Residual FamilisticContinentalSocialist -authoritarian- Welfare State CLOSEDOPEN Scandinavian

7 Political Economies and Life Course Outcomes LiberalConservative Social Democratic Familistic Leaving Home Early, High Variance Medium, High Variance Early, Low Variance Late, High Variance Age Leaving School/Training Medium Homogeneous High StratifiedMediumLow Stratified Labor Market Entry Early, Stop-Gap, Low Skill Late, Integrated, High Skill Early, Integrated Late, Marginal Firm ShiftsHighLow Occupational Shifts HighLowHighLow

8 Political Economies and Life Course Outcomes LiberalConservative Social Democratic Familistic Income Trajectories Flat, High Variance Progressive, Low Variance Flat, Low Variance Progressive, High Variance Careers of Women High Participation, Medium Level, Continuous Medium Participation, Low Level, Interrupted High Participation, Low Level, Continuous Low Participation, Low Level, Dualist Family Unstable, Medium Fertility Stable, Low Fertility Stable, Medium Fertility Stable, Low Fertility Retirement Low Replacement, High Variance High Replacement, Low Variance, Early High Replacement, Low Variance, Late Late, High Variance

9 Welfare State Regimes and Institutional Configurations / Life Courses Liberal Market State Continental Conservative Welfare State Scandinavian Social Democratic Welfare State Southern European Welfare State UnitIndividualFamilyIndividualFamily Temporal Organization Discontinuity, De-standardized Continuity, Standardized Continuity, Standardized Continuity, De-standardized Inequalities; Heterogeneity High, dualism: private protection/ excluded, gender equality Medium, male dominance Low, homogeneity, gender equality High, male dominance Intra Cohort/ Time Inequalities Unstable, cumulative and high inequality Stable, medium inequality Insiders/ dependents/ outsiders Stable, equality Unstable, cumulative and high inequality Source: Mayer, Karl Ulrich (2001): "The Paradox of Global Social Change and National Path Dependencies: Life course patterns in advanced societies." In: Alison E. Woodward and Martin Kohli (eds.), Inclusions and Exclusions in European Societies. London: Routledge, Pp

10 National Institutional Configurations (1) Life Course Institutions United StatesGermanySweden Schooling Low stratification, Low Standardization, General Education Highly Stratified, High Standardization, Low Stratification, High Standardization, Vocational Training Marginalized Voc School, On-the-Job Training, Apprent/Voc School, Dual System, Highly Standardized, Emplyr/Union Coordinated Voc School (Upper Secondary), Un-standardized, Uncoordinated; School-to-Work Linkages Loose Linkages, Personal Networks Tight Linkages, Apprenticeships, Employment Offices Loose Linkages, Labor Exchange Production Systems Low Skill, Mass Products, High External Flexibility Service Based Economy High Skill, Export-Oriented, High-Quality Niche High Internal Flexibility High-Skill, Export-Oriented, Labor Relations Systems Decentralized Bargaining, Low Union Density, Contentious Relations; Coordinated (sectoral) Bargaining Encompassing Emplyr Assoc, Medium Union Density, Cooperative Relations Coordinated (sectoral) Bargaining Encompassing Emplyr Assoc, High Union Density, Firm-based Institutions Weak ILMs High Occupational Welfare Strong ILMs Medium Occupational Welfare Weak ILMs Low Occupational Welfare

11 National Institutional Configurations (2) Life Course Institutions United StatesGermanySweden Welfare State (General) Low Decommodification; Means-Tested benefits; Mixed Services; Flat Benefits Medium Decommodification; Employment Related Benefits; Transfer Payments; Contribution Related High Decommodification; Universal Benefits; Public Services; Redistributional Public SectorLowMediumHigh Active Labor Market Policy Low (Medium) Training/Employment Subsidies High; Vocational (Re)Training; Low Skill Public Employment Labor Market Regulation De-Regulated, Weak Job Protection Highly Regulated, Work Conditions and Benefits, Strong Job Protection Medium Regulation, Work Conditions and Benefits, Weak Job Protection, Retirement / Pensions Flat Social Security; Partial Firm Pensions; Pre-Tax Pensions Savings Dual System: Earnings Related Pensions; High Level Company-based Supplement Two-Tiered: Flat Universal and Supplemental Earnings Related; Early Exit Schemes; Long-term Unemp/Disability; System of Taxation Low level of taxation, Unit = Individual (Dual Earner Model) Moderate level of taxation, Unit = Household (Male-breadwinner model) High Levels of Taxation Unit = Individual (Dual Earner Model) Family Policies: Family Allow Childcare Parental Leave No Family Allowance; Privatized child care; Short, job protection, Zero Income Replacement; Direct Cash Transfer-entitled to Household head; Low Public Childcare, half-day schooling; Short Income Replacement; Long Job Protection Direct Cash Transfer to Child; Strong Public Provision of Childcare; Long/Generous Income Replacement and Job Protection

12 National Life Course Outcomes (1) United StatesGermanySweden Leaving Home Early, High Variance Medium, High Variance Early, Low Variance Age Leaving School/ Training Early, Un-stratified Late, Highly Stratified Medium, Un-stratified Labor Market Entry Early, Loosely Coordinated Stop-Gap, General Skills Late, Highly Coordinated, Industry-specific Skills Medium, Moderately Coordinated, General Skills Economic Self- Sufficiency Early, Earnings Late Early, Earnings + Study Grants / Welfare Transfers Family Formation Early Entry Into Marriage/Parenthood Cohabitation Before Marriage, Delayed Entry into Marriage/ Partial Parenthood High Permanent Cohabitation Delayed Entry into Marriage/Parenthood Job ShiftsHigh Intra-Firm Mobility High Inter-Firm Mobility Mod Intra-Firm Mobility Low Inter-Firm Mobility High Intra-Firm Mobility High Inter-Firm Mobility Worklife Class Mobility High Upward and Downward Low, (Upward) Intermediate, Upward

13 National Life Course Outcomes (2) United StatesGermanySweden Employment/ Unemployment High Employment, Continuous / Frictional Unemployment, Early Entry / Late Exit Low Employment, Low Youth Unemployment, Prolonged Unemployment, Late Entry / Early Exit High Employment, Continuous/Frictional Unemployment, High Youth Unemployment, Late Entry / Late Exit Careers of Women High Participation, High Qualif Variance, Mostly Full-time, Continuous Medium Participation, Medium, Homogeneous Qualifications, Mostly Part-time, Interrupted High Participation, Low+High Qualif, Full-time / Part-time Continuous Family Life Course Unstable, High Single Mothers, Medium Fertility Stable, Low Single/Non- Marital Parenthood, Low Fertility Moderately Stable, High (Single)/Non-Marital Parenthood, Medium/Declining Fertility Income Trajectories Flat, High Variance, High Poverty Progressive, Low Variance (Low) Poverty Flat, Low Variance, Low Poverty Retirement Late Exit High Variance, Low Replacement, High inequality in old age Early Exit Low Variance, High Replacement Medium Income Inequality Gradual Late Exit Medium Variance, High Replacement Low Income Inequality

14 Life Course Risks and Mobility Regimes United StatesGermanySweden Occupational Mobility (Males) Unstable; High Mobility; Upward and Downward Stable; Low Mobility Intermediate; High Mobility; Upward Mobility Household Level Income Mobility Moderate Relative Mobility / High Absolute Mobility High Relative Mobility / Moderate Absolute Mobility Union Dissolution High Rate; Intermediate Risk of Poverty Low Rate; High Risk of Poverty Moderate Rate; Low Risk of Poverty Weak Welfare Protection; High Female LF Participation Rate; Moderate Repartnering Rates; Moderate Welfare Protection; Low Female LF Participation Rates; Moderate Repartnering Rates Strong Welfare Protection; High Female LF Participation Rate; Rapid Repartnering Rates Job Displacement Moderate Rate of Job Loss; Low Risk Long-term Unemp; Moderate Risk of Wage Loss; Moderate Risk of Poverty Moderate Rate of Job Loss; High Risk Long-term Unemp; Low Risk of Wage Loss; Low/Mod Risk of Poverty Moderate Rate of Job Loss; Low Risk Long-term Unemp; Low Risk of Wage Loss; Low Risk of Poverty Low Replacement/Short- term Unemp Benefits; Secondary Earner Generous/long-term Unemp Benefits; Insider-Outsider LM; No Secondary Earner Generous/Medium-term Unemp Benefits; Secondary Earner Poverty Dynamics High Rate of Entry; Low Rate of Exit; Moderate Rate of Entry; Moderate Rate of Exit; Low Rate of Entry; High Rate of Exit Mobility Regime Weak (dis)Incentives; Weak Insurance Incentive Based SystemInsurance Based System

15 Rate Negative Consequences Insurance Factors Job MobilityHigh Mobility High Probability of Downward Mobility Household Level Income Mobility Moderate Relative Mobility / High Absolute Mobility Union Dissolution High Rate Intermediate Risk of Income Loss High Female LF Participation; Moderate Repartnering Rates; Job Displacement Moderate Rate of Job Loss High Probability of Wage Loss; Moderate Risk of Poverty Relatively Rapid Rate of Re-employment; Secondary Earner Poverty Dynamics High Rate of Entry; Low Rate of Exit Entrapment United States

16 Rate Negative Consequences Insurance Factors Job MobilityIntermediate Household Level Income Mobility High Relative Mobility / Moderate Absolute Mobility Union Dissolution Moderate Rate Strong Welfare Protection; High Female LF Participation; Rapid Repartnering Rates Job Displacement Moderate Rate of Job Loss Generous/Medium-term Unemployment Benefits; Secondary Earner Poverty Dynamics Low Rate of Entry; High Rate of Exit Wage Equality + Generous Benefits Sweden

17 Rate Negative Consequences Insurance Factors Job MobilityLow Mobility Household Level Income Mobility High Relative Mobility / Moderate Absolute Mobility Union Dissolution Low Rate High Risk of Income Loss Strong Welfare Protection; Moderate Repartnering Rate; Job Displacement Moderate Rate of Job Loss Long-term Unemployment Generous/long-term Unemployment Benefits; Poverty Dynamics Moderate Rate of Entry; Moderate Rate of Exit Women’s Vulnerability Strong Welfare Protection; Medium Wage Equality Germany

18 USASweden Welfare State Conservative Welfare State; Multiple, Generous, Full-Exit; Limited Partial Exit Liberal Welfare State; Limited / Meager Full-Exit; Full Withdrawal Requirement Social Democratic Welfare State; Limited but Generous Full-Exit; Generous Partial Exit Production System High Quality Niche Production; High/Specific Skills/ High Wages; Strong Internal Labor Markets; Seniority Pay System Fordist Mass Production; Low/General Skills; Numerical Flexibility; High Labor Turnover High Quality Production; General Skills / High Wages; Active LM Policies; Job Rotation System Employment Protection and Occupational Structure Regulated Labor Market; Low PT Employment Opportunity; Small Public Employment Sector Unregulated Labor Market; Medium PT Employment Opportunity; Small/Privatized Public Services Regulated Labor Market; High PT Employment Opportunity; Large Public Employment Sector Occupational Pensions Weak “push” effect; Private Firm OPs / Beamte; (50% Coverage) Strong “push” effect; Private Firm OPs (Skilled/High Paid); (50% Coverage) Weak ”push” Effect; Collectively Bargained Supp Pensions; (>90% Coverage) Social Partnership Institutions Collective Bargaining; WP Reps; Management-Labor Collusion to Externalize Costs of Restructuring Employer Controlled Private OPs, “Window Plans” and Severance Pay; Downsizing Strategy During Low Demand Centralized Unions; Collective Bargaining; Union Adoption of More Integrative/Full Employment Restructuring Strategy Early Retirement Pattern Full (High) Early Exit; Externalization; Medium

19 Life Course Policies Under Different Welfare-State Regimes Source: Leisering, Lutz and Stephan Leibfried (1999): Time and Poverty in the Welfare State: United Germany in Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 49. Model Life Course Effect on Life Course Form of Life Course Poverty Risk Residual welfare state (US model) Word-centred biography (punitive workfare) Minimal security/ insecurity Fluid life course structure Good opportunities; high risks High: passed on to society Citizenship provision (Swedish model) Work-centred biography (Obligation to work encouraged by labour and family policy Formative influenceStandardized Good opportunities; low risks Low/rising: taken by the state Social insurance state (German model) Gendered normal biography (rewarded by social insurance) Formative influenceStandardized Good opportunities (unequally distributed): low risks Limited: taken by the state Authoritarian welfare state (East German model ) Work-centred biography Direct controlHighly standardized Poor opportunities; minimal risks Minimal/high collective poverty

20 CountryMarriage homogamy Effects of wife’s resources on her labour-force participation Effects of husband’s resources on wife‘s labour-force participation Consequences for pre-tax, pre-transfer income inequality between couple households Conservative Welfare State GermanyHighPositiveNegativeReduced The NetherlandsHighPositiveNegativeReduced Belgium (Flanders)HighPositiveNegativeReduced Mediterranean Welfare State ItalyHighPositiveNegativeReduced SpainHighPositiveNegativeReduced Liberal Welfare State Great BritainHighPositiveNo effects USAHighNot studied Social Democratic Welfare State DenmarkHighPositive Increased SwedenHighPositive Increased (Former) State-Socialist Countries HungaryHighPositive Increased PolandHighPositiveNegativeReduced Urban ChinaHighPositive increased Marriage Homogamy and Effects on Labour Force Participation and Income Inequality

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