Basic Narrative Pattern A quest, in which the hero undertakes a dangerous journey in search of something of value
Reflection of Society System both of government and of landownership. Give oath of loyalty, receive land. Nobleman ruled land, judged legal cases, imposed taxes, and maintained an army
Elements of Romance Unusual or exotic setting A near perfect hero A test of the hero Brave knights An evil enemy Battles, quests, contests, tests Magical or supernatural elements & events
Elements of Romance Good vs. Evil Female figures who are usually maidens (beautiful & in need of rescue), mothers, or crones High-born figures, such as kings or queens Themes of love, loyalty, faith, courage in a blend of realism and fantasy
Courtly Love & Knightly Adventure From The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus He who is not jealous cannot love. Boys do not love until they reach the age of maturity. When one lover dies, a widowhood of two years is required of the survivor Some Rules of Courtly Love
Courtly Love & Knightly Adventure Some Rules of Courtly Love Con’t... From The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus It is not proper to love any woman whom one would be ashamed to seek to marry. A true lover does not desire to embrace in love anyone except his beloved. The easy attainment of love makes it of little value: difficulty of attainment makes it prized.
Courtly Love & Knightly Adventure Some Rules of Courtly Love Con’t... From The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus When made public love rarely endures. A new love puts an old one to flight. Good characters alone makes any man worthy of love. Rich jealousy always increases the feeling of love.
Courtly Love & Knightly Adventure Some Rules of Courtly Love Con’t... From The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very little. A true lover considers nothing good except what he thinks will please his beloved. Nothing forbids one woman being loved by two men or one man by two women.
Ideals of Knightly Conduct Courage Loyalty Courtesy
Code of Chivalry Loyalty Maintain commitment to the people and ideals you choose to live by. Never compromise. Defense Stay true to the oath to defend the liege lord; seek always to defend your nation and your family.
Code of Chivalry Prowess Seek excellence in all endeavors. Use strength for justice – not for personal gain. Seek always the path of “right,” or unencumbered by bias or personal interest, no matter what the cost.
Code of Chivalry Humility Do not boast of your own accomplishments; let others do this for you. Honor others before yourself. Courage Be ready to follow the most difficult paths. Be prepared to make personal sacrifices in service of others.
Code of Chivalry Faith Have faith in your beliefs, for faith roots you and gives hope against the despair created by human failings Generosity Be generous as much as your resources allow; generosity in this way counters gluttony. Nobility Hold to the virtues and duties of a knight, realizing the ideals cannot be reached.
Code of Chivalry The Ten Commandments of the Code of Chivalry I. Believe all that the Church teaches, and observe all its directions. II. Defend the Church. III. Respect all weaknesses, and constitute thyself defender of them. IV. Love the country in which you were born. V. Do not recoil before your enemy. VI. Make war against the Infidel without cessation, and without mercy. VII. Perform scrupulously your feudal duties, if they be not contrary to the laws of God. VIII. Never lie, and remain faithful to your pledged word. IX. Be generous, and give largess to everyone. X. Be everywhere and always the champion of the Right and the Good against Injustice and Evil. From Chivalry by Leon Gautier
May be based in fact Feature these elements: Heroic figures and memorable deeds Quests, contests, or tests Patterned events (for instance, events repeated three times) Included: Detailed descriptions Plot twists Sophisticated characterization
King Arthur Was King Arthur real? No one knows, but his name has popped up since the sixth century, and by the ninth century, he was a folk hero.
Morte d’Arthur Written by Sir Thomas Mallory First English prose version of King Arthur’s life. Romance & medieval legend King Arthur battles his illegitimate son, Mordred, loses his knights and dies himself Values Chivalry, bravery, loyalty, warfare, honor, conquests, heroism Themes Love, loyalty, betrayal
Sir Gawain & the Green Knight Romance & medieval legend Values Heroism, honor, chivalry, bravery, beauty, honesty, loyalty Gawain is Arthur’s loyal nephew; he is tested by three challenges Gawain is admirable, but not invulnerable