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Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 4: The Adjectival Phrase Tom Morton IV-bis 205

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Presentation on theme: "Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 4: The Adjectival Phrase Tom Morton IV-bis 205"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lengua Inglesa II Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 4: The Adjectival Phrase Tom Morton IV-bis 205

2 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Forms of adjectives: Simple: tall Derived: friendly Participial: drunken Functions: Epithet: His brilliant acting Cs: The acting was brilliant Co: I consider that offensive Adjunct: I’m receiving you loud and clear. Disjunct: Strange, I never suspected him 1. The Adjectival Phrase

3 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Adjectives can be premodified by either: Grading (slightly, somewhat, very, extremely, overly): A slightly bent wire, an extremely overweight dog Comparison (more, most, less, least) the least bent wire, the most overweight dog Not all adjectives can be graded or compared: Comparable: more beautiful, the most red Noncomparable (ungradable): NATIONALITIES: French, Spanish, etc. MISC.: dead, alive, broken, etc. Comparison can also be done morphologically: the bigger/biggest 3. Adjective Premodification

4 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Say which of the adjectives as used in the following phrases can be graded (1) shallow water; (2) the closing date; (3) a daily newspaper; (4) a small size; (5) the probable outcome; (6) the main reason; (7) a fast driver; (8) the political consequences. (From Downing and Lock 2 nd edition) Exercise 2: Gradability

5 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Comparing with Adjective Phrases: 3. Adjective Premodification: Comparison MorphologicalPremodifier Absolute superiority the easiestthe most difficult Comparative sup. easiermore difficult Equality as easy/difficult Comparative inf. less easy/difficult Absolute inferiority the least easy/difficult

6 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase 3. Adjective Premodification: Comparison Number of syllablesFormExamples 1 syllableadj +ersmall  smaller big  bigger 2 syllables: - ending in –y - others adj –y +er more adj early  earlier social  more social 3 or more syllablesmore adjdifficult  more difficult

7 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Say which of the following adjectives should be in fl ected (-er, -est) for grading and which take more/most): risky real varied blue typical mistaken friendly user-friendly small tight generous bitter (From Downing and Lock 2 nd edition) Exercise 3: Morphology or Syntax?

8 Inflected or analytic? Inflected risky blue friendly small tight bitter* (bitterest) Analytic real varied typical mistaken user-friendly generous bitter (more bitter)

9 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Provide the comparative and superlative forms for the following: Exercise 4: Comparative/Superlative AbsoluteComparativeSuperlative big brave free early good bad far// old//

10 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Provide the comparative and superlative forms for the following: Exercise 4: Comparative/Superlative AbsoluteComparativeSuperlative bigbiggerbiggest bravebraverbravest freefreerfreest earlyearlierearliest goodbetterbest badworseworst farfarther/furtherfarthest/furthest oldolder/elderoldest/eldest My elder/older sister The older car. She is older.  She is elder

11 good good at grammar very good very good indeed very good indeed at grammar Michael is

12 ADJECTIVAL GROUP mhmc h good hc goodat grammar mh verygood mhm verygoodindeed mhmc verygoodindeedat grammar

13 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Adjectives that take complementation: I was afraid that he was not coming He was conscious that he was late (aware, certain) She was fond of chocolate. (obligatory) These represent mental states The complentation represents the object of the mentation Note the correspondence¨: He was afraid thatHe feared that... She was conscious thatHe knew that... She was fond ofShe liked 4. Adjectival Post-modification

14 Complement the adjectives 1.Jasmine and Nick are keen to take up golf. 2.I am sorry ………………………….. 3.My girlfriend is insistent ……………….. 4.You are right ……………………………. 5.We are convinced …………………….. 6.The manager is confident ……………… 7.You must be crazy ……………………… 8.I am happy …………………………… 9.I’m glad ……………………………….. 10.His new book is likely …………………………….

15 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Comparative postmodification: Another form of postmodification makes the attribute relative to some other case: She was quicker than Mary This music is livelier than the other. He is more eloquent than me. I am less talented at this than you. Sufficiency (enough): It is hot enough now 4. Adjectival Post-modification (ii)

16 3.4 The Adjectival Phrase Adjectives can be classified in terms of the slots they can fill: Epithet vs. Complement Most adjectives can be both Epithet and Complement the beautiful girl / the girl is beautiful Some can be Epithet only (with the intended sense): an old friend, a complete fool Some can be Complement only: Health adjs.: ill, well, faint, unwell (vs. the sick man) 2. Classes of adjectives

17 Syntactic functions of AdjPs/AdjGs (pre-) modifier in a NG heavy rain, an old friend (post-) modifier in a NG something cheap, the person responsible head of a NGthe French, the young, the most expensive complement of a prepostion at last, for good, in short modifier in an AdjG bright red, pale blue, red hot AdjGs in groups: Subject compliment The acting was brilliant Object compliment I consider that offensive AdjGs in clauses

18 It was always a surprise to me that I was good at games. It was an even greater surprise that I was exceptionally good at two of them: one called fives, the other, squash-racquets. Fives, which many of you will know nothing about, was taken seriously at Repton and we had a dozen massive glass- roofed fives courts kept always in perfect condition. We played the game of Eton-fives, which is always played by four people, two on each side, and basically it consists of hitting a small, hard, white, leather-covered ball with your gloved hands, The Americans have something like it which they call handball, but Eton-fives is far more complicated because the court has all manner of ledges and buttresses built into it which help to make it a subtle and crafty game. Fives is possibly the fastest ball-game on earth, far faster than squash, and the little ball ricochets around the court at such a speed that sometimes you can hardly see it. You need a swift eye, strong wrists and a very quick pair of hands to play fives well, and it was a game I took to right from the beginning. You may find it hard to believe, but I became so good at it that I won both the junior and the senior school fives in the same year when I was fifteen. AdjG as Cs in clauseAdjG as m in NGAdjG as Co in clause


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