Phrases A phrase is a group of related words that, together, function as a part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, preposition, and so on). A phrase lacks a subject, a verb, or both, and is never a complete sentence. Examples of phrases are as follows: saved by the bellin the morning a young strangerpracticing his juggling skills building a portfolio There are three common kinds of phrases: prepositional, verbal, and appositive phrases.
Prepositional Phrases These consist of a preposition, its object, and any modifiers of that object. Prepositions -- often small words – show relationships. A preposition is a word or, in some instances, a word group that relates one sentence element (object of the preposition) to another sentence element. They can show position (hint: the word position is hidden in the word preposition) or time. Prepositions can also compare or connect. Because a preposition must have an object, the preposition and the object of the preposition and any modifiers that pattern with them constitute a prepositional phrase.
Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases may function as an adjective or adverb. Adjective: Sue planned a party with music and dancing. (with music and dancing tells what kind of party Sue had). Adjective: She found the CDs and tapes in the box under her bed. (under her bed tell in which box Sue found the CDs). Adverb: Albert struggled into his jacket. (into his jacket describes the verb struggled—it tells how Albert struggled). Adverb: My friend is generous with her time. (with her time is modifying the adjective generous). HINT: Find out which word the prepositional phrase is modifying. Figure out which part of speech that word is (noun, adjective, adverb, etc.). Based on this, you will be able to tell which part of speech the prepositional phrase is functioning as.
Recognizing Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions After each of the following sentences, you’ll find listed prepositions in that sentence, the object of each preposition, and the word modified by each prepositional phrase: We looked into the garage and saw a car with stainless-steel wheels. (Prep -- Adverb) into: (obj of prep) garage, (word modified) looked (Prep -- Adjective) with: (obj of prep) wheels, (word modified) car
Recognizing Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions Abdul found a ruler in the desk at which he was sitting today. (Prep -- Adverb) in: (obj of prep) desk, (word modified) found (Prep -- Adj) at: (obj of prep) which, (word modified) desk The hawk in the tree was calling to his mate. (Prep -- Adjective) in: (obj of prep) tree, (word modified) hawk (Prep -- Adverb) to: (obj of prep) mate, (word modified) calling
Recognizing Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions You should never buy a pig in a poke. (Prep -- Adjective) in:(obj of prep) poke, (word modified) pig In this class, you cannot pass a test without studying. (Prep) in: (obj of prep) class, (word modified) pass (Prep) without: (obj of prep) studying (word modified) pass
Now you try. Identify the preposition, the object of each preposition, the word modified, and whether the preposition is functioning as an adjective or adverb. In the back of this text, you will find the answers to the problems. The shirt with the green trim appeals to me. When you go to the store, try to find some fresh asparagus. “Elegy for Jane” by Theodore Roethke is a poignant poem. For Whom the Bell Tolls is one of Hemingway’s best novels.
Three types of verbal phrases: gerunds, participial, and infinitive Participial Phrases A participle is a verb form ending in –ing, -d, or –ed that acts as an adjective (it tells us more about a noun or pronoun). Ex: I closed the door. Closed is a VERB here, NOT a participle. Ex: The closed door blocked my view. Closed is a PARTICIPLE. A participial phrase is made up of a participle and all the words related to it (objects, modifiers, and prepositional phrases). The entire phrase acts as an adjective. Ex: Swimming quickly toward the shore, Diego thought eagerly about a warm shower. (The participle swimming, the adverb quickly, and the prepositional phrase toward the shore make up the participial phrase that tells us more about Diego.) Ex: Jeffrey picked up the clothes scattered around his bedroom. (The participle scattered and the prepositional phrase around his bedroom make up the participial phrase that tells us more about clothes.)
Three types of verbal phrases: gerunds, participial, and infinitive Gerund Phrases A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that functions as a noun. Ex: I ran yesterday. Ran is a VERB, NOT a gerund. Ex: Running is fun. Running is a GERUND. A gerund phrase is a phrase made up of a gerund and all of its modifiers and compliments. The entire phrase functions as a noun. A gerund’s modifiers include adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. Ex: Waiting for the school bus gives Henry time to read. (What thing, or noun, gives Henry time to read?) Ex: One of Henry’s favorite quiet times is waiting for the school bus. (What thing is Henry’s favorite quiet time?) Ex: Jim, however, hated waiting for the school bus. (What thing does Jim hate?) Ex: He always stopped for snacks before waiting for the school bus. (What thing did Jim stop for snacks before?)
The difference between a gerund and a participial phrase … Hanging upside down, Spiderman kissed Mary Jane passionately. Sacrificing his life for Rose is one of Jack’s favorite activities. Screaming in the barber’s chair, Justin Bieber got a haircut. Laughing hysterically is one of Jimmy Fallon’s job functions. Licking his owner’s face, the mangy mutt showed his love. Gerunds are verbs that act like nouns: – Subject – DO – IO – OP – PN – APP
Three types of verbal phrases: gerunds, participial, and infinitive Infinitive Phrases An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive and all its modifiers. They can function as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. Ex: It’s pleasant to eat strawberries with whipped cream. (adverb describing the adjective “pleasant”) Ex: The general intends to charge at the enemy’s flanks. (noun) Sometimes the “to” of an infinitive is left out. It’s understood. Ex: Eli helped [to] build the deck.
Verbals Review VERBALS: (Looks like a verb but acts as a noun or adjective!) Gerunds:Look like verbs but act as NOUNS. End in –ing Ex: I like exercising. She hates cooking. Gerund phrases also act as nouns. Ex: She couldn’t help spilling the pitcher of ice water. Participles: Look like verbs but act as ADJECTIVES. End in –ing OR –ed Ex: That is a roasting pan. She ran into the closed door. Participial phrases also act as adjectives. Ex: Jeffrey picked up the clothes scattered around his bedroom. Soaked by the rain, the cat came through the front door. Infinitives: Look like verbs but act as NOUNS, ADVERBS, and ADJECTIVES. “To” + verb (To run, to play, to dance) Ex: I like to run. Infinitives phrases also act as nouns. Ex: I like to run in the morning. The general intends to charge at the enemy’s flank.
VERBALS: (Look like verbs but act as nouns or adjectives!) PRACTICE: Identify whether each sentence contains a gerund, participle, or infinitive. 1. I plunged my hands, covered with garlic, into a bath of lemon water. 2. Meeting every voter, the president spent the day campaigning in our town. 3. It’s pleasant to eat strawberries with whipped cream. 4. Elia suggested shooting hoops in the park this afternoon. 5. Susan helped to build the deck. 6. Sitting on a crowded bus left us exhausted and hungry. 7. The entire incident, filmed by a helicopter crew, dominated the evening news.
Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain it. Ex: Kim’s specialty, pound cake, tastes really great. (specialty = pound cake; pound cake is identifying Kim’s specialty.) Ex: His favorite writer, Annie Dillard, will read from her work tonight. (writer = Annie Dillard; Annie Dillard is identifying who his favorite writer is.)
Appositive Phrases Cont’d Some appositives are essential, meaning that they cannot be removed from the sentence because they are essential to the sentence’s meaning. Essential appositives are NOT set off by commas. Ex: The short story “Fire and Ice” has a sad ending. An appositive phrase is simply an appositive with one or more modifiers; it is a noun or pronoun with modifiers placed next to another noun or pronoun to add information or details. The modifiers can be adjectives, adjective phrases, or other words that function as adjectives. Ex: The desk, the roll-top oak one, is where I write. Appositives and appositive phrases can be compound. – Ex: Elizabeth Bowen, an Irish novelist and short-story writer, was a perceptive observer of middle class life.
Tomorrow, Tuesday, October 7, 2008 Fragments Run-on’s Parallel Structure
Anaphora: A form of parallel structure – the repetition of grammatical structures for emphasis Rhetorical device – the repetition of a unit of words for emphasis. – Page 97: ‘What is my’ – Page 101: ‘He was enslaved’
The link between noun functions in a sentence and gerund phrases … Nicole enjoys playing volleyball with her friends. Nicole eats musubi beside relaxing family members at the beach. Sleeping in the musubi is Hello Kitty’s preferred activity in Hawaii on Ali’i Drive. The class finished the assignment, finding gerunds. Douglass’s favorite pastime is riding gnarly waves in Hawaii.
Sentence Fragment … Is a unit of words that does not contain a complete thought, but is punctuated like a complete sentence. If I were a girl.