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The Main Philosophical Approaches To Morality. Proving Morality Is Natural Consequentialism Virtue Ethics Communitarianism Deontological Ethics Contractarianism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Main Philosophical Approaches To Morality. Proving Morality Is Natural Consequentialism Virtue Ethics Communitarianism Deontological Ethics Contractarianism."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Main Philosophical Approaches To Morality

2 Proving Morality Is Natural Consequentialism Virtue Ethics Communitarianism Deontological Ethics Contractarianism

3 Consequentialism Consequentialism – The view that what makes moral standards valid is the fact that acting on them produces good effects. Example: Utilitarianism

4 Consequentialism Utilitarianism – States what is good is happiness. – Happiness being the state of satisfaction or fulfilled desires.

5 Consequentialism Utilitarian Ethics Summary – “The greatest good for the greatest number.”

6 Consequentialism Utilitarian Role in Modern CJ Practices – Provides rationale punishment is justified because it tends to deter criminals.

7 Consequentialism Utilitarian Role in Modern CJ Practices – Provides rationale punishment is justified because it tends to deter criminals. – Suggests punishment be determined based on facts Effect of punishment on crime rates – Actual Outcome: Civilized CJ punishmants

8 Consequentialism Utilitarian Role in Modern CJ Practices – Provides rationale punishment is justified because it tends to deter criminals. – Does punishment deter criminals? – If it does not, how does that effect the theory that punishment is justified?

9 Consequentialism Utilitarian Role in Modern CJ Practices – Provides rationale punishment is justified because it tends to deter criminals. Effect: Actions that yield enough satisfaction for enough people are considered moral even if they impose great dissatisfaction on a small number of others.

10 Virtue Ethics – States that morality stems from individual goodness (virtues such as kindness, fairness, etc.) rather than the goodness of goals or rules.

11 Virtue Ethics – States that morality stems from individual goodness (virtues such as kindness, fairness, etc.) rather than the goodness of goals or rules. – Morality is seen as being fair and generous to others’ needs – “Doing the right thing because it is right.”

12 Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics Problems – States that morality stems from individual goodness (virtues such as kindness, fairness, etc.) rather than the goodness of goals or rules. – Why is fairness and generosity good while self- indulgence and selfishness is bad?

13 Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics Problems – States that morality stems from individual goodness (virtues such as kindness, fairness, etc.) rather than the goodness of goals or rules. Why is fairness and generosity good while self- indulgence and selfishness is bad? Virtue Ethics more accurately answers “to what morality applies” than “what is moral.”

14 Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics more accurately answers: “To what morality applies” than “What is moral.” – It applies to individual character rather than actions or to rules.”

15 Communitarianism Communitarianism – States that morality is constituted by the ideals that define and hold together human groups.

16 Communitarianism Communitarianism – States that morality is constituted by the ideals that define and hold together human groups. – Does not specify proper moral standards – Does accept standards of existing groups as definitive What might be the problem with this?

17 Communitarianism Communitarianism – States that morality is constituted by the ideals that define and hold together human groups. – Does not specify proper moral standards – Does accept standards of existing groups as definitive What might be the problem with this? – Morality becomes equivalent to what people endorse.

18 Communitarianism Communitarianism – States that morality is constituted by the ideals that define and hold together human groups. What might be the problem with this? – Morality becomes equivalent to what people endorse. Are women meant to obey and serve men? Are some racial groups inferior to others?

19 Communitarianism Communitarianism Value – States that morality is constituted by the ideals that define and hold together human groups. Recognition of human sociality. – Recognition of moral traits Altruism Self-Sacrifice Commitment Beyond Ourselves

20 Deontological Ethics – View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Immanuel Kant

21 Deontological Ethics – View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Immanuel Kant – Kant idea that rational being ability to formulate general or universal laws gives rise to moral knowledge.

22 Deontological Ethics – View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Immanuel Kant – Kant idea that rational being ability to formulate general or universal laws gives rise to moral knowledge. – Would you be willing to endorse any act you perform as a universal law? Similarity to Golden Rule.

23 Deontological Ethics – View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Immanuel Kant – Does not say dishonesty is bad. – Does suggest applying “universal law test.” Suggests actions are wrong if would not be applied to all people.

24 Deontological Ethics – View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Immanuel Kant – Identified with respect for others.

25 Deontological Ethics Deontological Ethics Comparison – To Consequentialism DE rules out using people as means to happiness for others DE more suited to individual human rights considerations – To Utilitarianism DE does not emphasize satisfaction of desires DE does not provide simple notion of good De is more abstract than pleasure or satisfaction

26 Contractarianism Contractarianism – Idea that people agree to a social contract for a type government, then that form of government cannot be considered tyrannical or oppressive. John Locke

27 Contractarianism Contractarianism – Idea that people agree to a social contract for a type government, then that form of government cannot be considered tyrannical or oppressive. John Locke Social Contract concept, as a theory, also suitable as a basis for morality.

28 Contractarianism Contractarianism – Idea that people agree to a social contract for a type government, then that form of government cannot be considered tyrannical or oppressive. John Locke Social Contract concept, as a theory, also suitable as a basis for morality. Concept that morality requires sacrifices and the benefits that must accrue to make moral obligations reasonable for all.

29 Contractarianism Contractarianism Standard of Morality – Whether a proposed moral standard, considering its constraints on self interests, would be rational for all people even without knowing specifically how all would be affected.

30 Contractarianism Contractarianism Comparison – Similarity to Deontological Ethics View that moral requirements do not depend on whether the actions required produce good consequences. Refusal to allow sacrifice of the few for the benefit of others – Similarity to Utilitarianism “The greatest good for the greatest number.” Emphasis on concrete benefits

31 Contractarianism Contractarianism Problems – Disagreement over what is good – Disagreement over what is worth sacrificing for

32 Why Be Moral? Reasons for morality. Self-Interest Happiness (Making self and others happy) Self-Respect Self-Worth (Rising above desires) Sense of Community (Sociality)

33 Break Read Assignments Participate in Class Discussions Review Notes Weekly


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