Presentation on theme: "Analogies A reasoning technique that shows the relationship between pairs of words."— Presentation transcript:
Analogies A reasoning technique that shows the relationship between pairs of words
A : B:: C : D The relationship between A and B is the same as the relationship between C and D.
Calf : Cow :: Chick : Hen The relationship between calf and cow is the same as the relationship between chick and hen. A calf is the offspring of a cow, and a chick is the offspring of a hen.
Analogies appear on many standardized tests. Test takers must identify the relationship between the first pair of words in an analogy then apply that relationship to another pair of words. Based on that relationship, test takers must choose the answer that best completes the analogy.
The best way to complete an analogy is to create a short, simple sentence that states the relationship between the first pair of words. Sometimes only one of the four words in an analogy is missing.
A sentence for the first pair of words in this analogy would be: If a person is wealthy, he or she is not poor.
Now try to create the same sentence with the words from the second part of the analogy. Try each answer in the choice bank. If a person is selfish, he or she is not _____. A.Rich B.Greedy C.Generous D.needy
The only choice that makes sense: Wealthy : Poor :: Selfish : Generous
On some tests, one pair of words in an analogy is given and you must choose the second pair of words to complete the analogy. In this case you would still create a word sentence in order to identify the correct answer.
Hints for Completing Analogies Be sure to create sentences and use the words in the order in which they are given. Do not settle for the first answer that “seems” correct. Examine all the answer choices. If two choices seem to complete your sentence correctly, go back and refine your sentence in some way.
The words that make up the two pairs of analogy should be matching parts of speech. Consider the analogy: King : Wealthy :: Peasant : ___________ A.Queen B.Poverty C.Rich D.Poor
King : Wealthy :: Peasant : _______ A.Queen B.Poverty C.Rich D.Poor Answers B and D both refer to a peasant’s lack of money, but poor is an adjective that describes a peasant, just as wealthy is and adjective that describes king. The correct answer is D.
Write a sentence to describe the relationship between the pairs of words in each of the following analogies. 1.Wallet : Money :: Book Bag : Books A wallet is used to carry money. A book bag is used to carry books. 1.Antiquated : Modern :: Repulsive : Appealing 2.Coat : Clothing :: Pizza : Food 3.Pen : Write :: Scissors : Cut
Analogy Work We will have analogy tests. Every day you will have a set of analogies to work on as class begins. As soon as you enter the classroom, get started on the analogies written on the board. Keep your work in the “Analogies” section of your binder. This will be checked later in a notebook check.