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1 Indian Partnership Act, 1932.  Sec 4 – “Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of business carried on by.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Indian Partnership Act, 1932.  Sec 4 – “Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of business carried on by."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Indian Partnership Act, 1932

2  Sec 4 – “Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. 2Indian Partnership Act, 1932

3  There must be a contract  Between two or more persons  Who agree to carry on a business  With the object of sharing profits  The business must be carried on by all or any of them acting for all (i.e., there must be mutual agency) 3Indian Partnership Act, 1932

4  Partnership at will – No provision regarding duration of partnership  Particular partnership – Partnership formed for a specific venture 4Indian Partnership Act, 1932

5  Actual or active partners  Sleeping or dominant partners  Silent partner  Partner in profit only  Sub partner  Partner by estoppel or holding out 5Indian Partnership Act, 1932

6  Cannot be a full fledged partner  But with the consent of all the partners can be admitted to the benefits of partnership ◦ Partnership must be in existence before a minor can be admitted to the benefits ◦ There cannot be a partnership consisting of all minors ◦ If a minor is made a full fledged partner under the terms of the partnership deed the deed would be invalid 6Indian Partnership Act, 1932

7  Entitled to receive his agreed share of the property and of the profits of the firm  Not personally liable to third parties for the debts of the firm  Not entitled to take part in conducting the business of the firm  On attaining majority, the minor must decide within six months whether he would or would not like to become a partner in 7Indian Partnership Act, 1932

8  On attaining majority, the minor must decide within six months whether he would or would not like to become a partner in the firm and give public notice of his decision. If he remains silent and fails to give such notice, it will be presumed that he had elected to be a partner of the firm 8Indian Partnership Act, 1932

9  Where the minor chooses not to become a partner ◦ His rights and liabilities continue to be those of a minor upto the date of his giving public notice ◦ He is entitled to sue the partners for his share of the property and profits in the firm 9Indian Partnership Act, 1932

10  Rt To take part in the conduct of the business  Rt To be consulted  Rt to Access the books of accounts  Rt to Share in the profits  Rt to Interest on capital  Rt to Interest on advances  Rt to indemnity 10Indian Partnership Act, 1932

11  Absolute duties ◦ Duty to carry on the business to greatest common advantage ◦ Duty to be just and faithful inter se ◦ Duty to render true accounts ◦ Duty to provide full information ◦ Duty to indemnify for loss caused by fraud ◦ Duty to be liable jointly and severally ◦ Duty not to assign his interest 11Indian Partnership Act, 1932

12  Qualified duties ◦ Duty to attend diligently to his duties ◦ Duty to work without remuneration ◦ Duty to contribute to the losses ◦ Duty to indemnify for willful neglect ◦ Duty to use firm’s property exclusively for the firm ◦ Duty to account for personal profits derived ◦ Duty not to compete with the business of the firm 12Indian Partnership Act, 1932

13  Every partner is the agent of the firm for the purposes of the business of the firm.  The authority of a partner means the capacity of a partner to bind the firm by his act.  This authority may be express or implied.  Expressly conferred by an agreement – express authority  No partnership agreement or where agreement is silent – implied authority 13Indian Partnership Act, 1932

14  Flows from the legal relations of the partners  Founded on the principle of agency  Subject to following conditions – ◦ Act done by the partner must relate to the normal or usual business of the firm. ◦ Must be done within the scope of the business ◦ Act must be done in the name of the firm, or in any other manner expressing or implying an intention to bind the firm 14Indian Partnership Act, 1932

15  Acts within the implied authority ◦ Engaging servants for partnership business ◦ Selling the goods of the firm ◦ Borrowing money on the credit of the firm ◦ Settling accounts with persons dealing with the firm 15Indian Partnership Act, 1932

16  No implied authority ◦ Submit a dispute relating to the business of the firm to arbitration ◦ Enter into partnership on behalf of the firm ◦ Acquire immovable property on behalf of the firm ◦ Transfer any immovable property on behalf of the firm 16Indian Partnership Act, 1932

17  Extension and restriction of a partner’s implied authority (sec 20)– Partner’s in a firm may by contract between them extend or restrict the implied authority of any partner. ◦ Firm continues to be liable to a third party for any such act which falls within the scope of the implied authority of the partner 17Indian Partnership Act, 1932

18  Effect of admissions by the partner (Sec 23) – Any admission made by the partner concerning the affairs of the firm is a sufficient evidence against the firm provided the said admission or representation is made in the ordinary course of business. ◦ If admission or representation is made beyond the scope of the authority the firm will not be bound by it. 18Indian Partnership Act, 1932

19  Effect of notice to acting partner (sec 24) – Notice to a partner who habitually acts in the course of the business of the firm any matter relating to the affairs of the firm operates as notice to the firm except in case of fraud.  Liability of partner for acts of firm (sec 25) – Every partner is liable for all the acts done while he is a partner 19Indian Partnership Act, 1932

20  Liability of the wrongful acts of the partner –(sec 26) Firm is liable to the same extent as the partner  Liability of the firm for misapplication (sec 27) – A firm is liable to make good the loss where- ◦ (a) a partner acting within the scope of his apparent authority receives the money or property from a third party and misapplies it: ◦ (b) the firm in the course of its business receives money or property from a third party and the same is misapplied by any of the partners while it is in the custody of the firm 20Indian Partnership Act, 1932

21  Registration of firms is not mandatory  Time – Registration may take place at any time during the continuance of the partnership firm.  Procedure – An application in the prescribed form along with the prescribed fee has to be submitted to the registrar of firms of the state in which any place of business of the firm is situated. 21Indian Partnership Act, 1932

22  No suit can be filed in a civil court by firm against third parties.  No suit can be filed a partner against the firm or other copartners.  The firm or is partners cannot make a claim of set-off or other proceedings based upon the contract. 22Indian Partnership Act, 1932

23  PROCEDURE FOR REGISTRATION The registration of a firm may be effected at any time by sending by post or delivering to the Registrar of Firms of the area in which any place of business of the firm is situated or proposed to be situated, a statement in the prescribed form and accompanied by the prescribed fee, stating :  the firm name 23Indian Partnership Act, 1932

24  the place or principal place of business of the firm;  the names of any other places where the firm carries on business;  the date when each partner joined the firm; 24Indian Partnership Act, 1932

25  the names in full and permanent addresses of the partners; and  the duration of the firm. 25Indian Partnership Act, 1932

26  The statement shall be signed by all the partners or by their agents specially authorised in this behalf. Each person signing the statement shall also verify in the manner prescribed. 26Indian Partnership Act, 1932

27  A firm name shall not contain any of the following words viz. "Crown", ‘Emperor", "Empress", "Empire", "Imperial", "King", "Queen", "Royal", or words expressing or implying the sanction, approval or patronage of Government, except when the State Government signifies its consent to the use of such words as part of the firm name by order in writing. 27Indian Partnership Act, 1932

28  All the States have framed rules prescribing the forms, fee for registration and verification of the statement. The application for registration has to be made to the Registrar of Firms in the prescribed form 28Indian Partnership Act, 1932

29  When the Registrar is satisfied that the provisions have been complied with, he shall record and entry of the statement in a register called the Register of Firms and shall file the statement. The Registrar is the competent authority and if he acts bona fide and follows the procedure, his satisfaction cannot be challenged. 29Indian Partnership Act, 1932

30  CHECKLIST FOR DRAFTING A PARTNERSHIP DEED  A partnership deed should contain the following clauses  Name of the parties  Nature of business 30Indian Partnership Act, 1932

31  Duration of partnership  Name of the firm  Capital  Share of partners in profits and losses  Banking, Account firm  Books of account 31Indian Partnership Act, 1932

32  Powers of partners  Retirement and expulsion of partners  Death of partner  Dissolution of firm  Settlement of disputes 32Indian Partnership Act, 1932

33  (a) Dissolution of partnership – When one or more partners cease to be partners of the firm but others continue the business in partnership may or may not involve the dissolution of the firm.  (b) Dissolution of the firm – Dissolution of partnership between all the partners of a firm 33Indian Partnership Act, 1932

34  By agreement  By notice  On happening of certain contingencies ◦ death of a partner ◦ Adjudication of the partners as insolvent  Compulsory dissolution 34Indian Partnership Act, 1932

35  Dissolution by court ◦ Grounds  Insanity of partner  Permanent incapacity of partners  Misconduct  Transfer of interest  Persistent breach of agreement  Continuous losses 35Indian Partnership Act, 1932

36  Continuing liability of partners after dissolution  Continuing authority of partners for winding up  Right of partners to enforce winding up  Liability to share personal profits  Return of premium  Rt where partnership contract is rescinded for fraud  Right to impose restrictions 36Indian Partnership Act, 1932

37  Every partner or his representative is entitled –  (1) to have the firms property applied in payment of the firm’s debts  (ii) to have the surplus distributed amongst the partners or the representatives according to their respective rights. 37Indian Partnership Act, 1932

38  Until a public notice of is given of dissolution, the partners continue to be liable for any act done by any of them after dissolution and any such act is deemed to be an act done before the dissolution. 38Indian Partnership Act, 1932


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