Presentation on theme: "Local contaminant sources in the Arctic Volatile and non-volatile residues from combustion engines in surface soils from snow mobile tracks in the vicinity."— Presentation transcript:
Local contaminant sources in the Arctic Volatile and non-volatile residues from combustion engines in surface soils from snow mobile tracks in the vicinity of Longyearbyen (Svalbard Norway ) Roland Kallenborn (UMB/UNIS, NO), Stefan Reimann (EMPA, CH), Norbert Schmidbauer (NILU, NO), Michael Tessmann (NILU/ UiB, NO), Monika Trümper (UNIS, NO) SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20121
Project description and background High levels of Benzene -Toluene- Xylene (BTX) measured during a 2007 measuring campaign in Longyearbyen (Reimann et al 2009). Combustion engine related emissions assumed as primary sources (vehicles, generators, local power plant) Project initiated (funded by Svalbard Miljøvernfond) for the investigation of VOCs, BTX and Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) surface samples in the vicinity of Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway). SETAC Berlin: 24.05.2012 2 Ref.: Reimann S, Kallenborn R, Schmidbauer N. 2009. Severe Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution in the Arctic Town of Longyearbyen (Svalbard) cause by snowmobile emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 4749-4795.
Field work Sampling: 25.06. – 02.07.2010 around Longyearbyen Sampling of soil and snow surface around Longyearbyen and in Sassendalen (reference site) SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20123
Field work Quantitative analysis of 15 PAHs and selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface soil and snow using GC/ MS methods (TraceGC - PolarisQ, ThemoFisher, Oslo, Norway) BTX monitor installed at Longyearbyen Research Park/ UNIS. SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20124
Results SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20125 PAH in Sample locations and characterisations No VOCs were detected in surface snow and soil samples
Results SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20127 Relative [%] PAH distribution patterns in contaminated soil samples
Discussions and Perspectives Source elucidation SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20128 Phenanthrene/ Anthracene (P/A) as well as the Fluoranthene/ Pyrene (F/P) used for evaluation of potential PAH sources pyrigenic - petrogenic Pyrogenic source : P/A > 3 and F/P > 0.9. Absence of two-ring PAHs (i.e., naphthalene), usually representing freshly emitted PAH mixtures = indication for weathered PAH mixtures in the analysed soil samples
Benzene (BTX) campaign (2007 and 2010) SETAC Berlin: 24.05.20129 Lower benzene levels in 2010 compared to 2007: - More 4-stroke engine based snow scooter in Longyearbyen in 2010?
Conclusions Combustion processes specifically related to fossil fuel types (coal and petroleum oil products) are identified as major source. The highest contaminated samples were identified with Sum PAH levels between 1500 and 1800 ng/ dw (table 3) with predominant phenanthrene, chrysene and Benzo(b) fluoranthene (samples V-1-1, V-3-1, V-4-1 and V-8-1) All high-contaminated sites (“Hot spots”) could be associated with over average usage of snowmobile (driving and maintenance). Although considerably reduced, the 2010 benzene levels are still significantly above the expected background levels for Svalbard SETAC Berlin: 24.05.201210
Acknowledgement The here presented study would not have been possible without the support and help of many colleagues. The governors environmental department (Sysselmannen på Svalbard) as well as the Logistical/ technical department, University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) supported us during the 2010 fieldwork campaign on Spitsbergen. The Svalbard Miljøverfond (environmental protection fond in Svalbard), the FP7-ArcRisk project, the Nordic Council of Ministers as well as the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) supported the study economically. We appreciate the advice and support of Dr. Mark Hermanson during the laboratory work as well as during the quantitative PAH analysis at the UNIS environmental chemistry laboratory. BTX measurements in ambient air performed at UNIS but concentration calculation were done at EMPA, Switzerland. The BTX measurements in soil “headspace” samples were done at NILU SETAC Berlin: 24.05.201211
Thank you for your attention SETAC Berlin: 24.05.201212