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DESY-Zeuthen, mar 31, 2014 Comments on: Flavor Mix and Fluxes of High Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos Sandip Pakvasa University of Hawaii Honolulu

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Existence of High Energy Gammas suggests that High energy accelerators in space EXIST Existence of High Energy Gammas suggests that High energy accelerators in space EXIST P+P and P+γ collisions produce π 0 ‘s P+P and P+γ collisions produce π 0 ‘s and π + ‘s and π + ‘s π 0 → γ ‘s → observed…..upto 100s of TeV π 0 → γ ‘s → observed…..upto 100s of TeV π + → ν ‘s…….hence high energy ν ‘s must exist! π + → ν ‘s…….hence high energy ν ‘s must exist! At detectable, useful fluxes? At detectable, useful fluxes? Now we have seen them at Icecube! Now we have seen them at Icecube!

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Candidates for Neutrino Sources: (i)AGNs (ii)GRBs (iii) GZK/BZ in all three the likely processes are: γ+p -> π + n and p+p->π + X

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GRB: Expected and observed at mospheric neutrino background

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Expected energy Spectrum from GRB’s

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Expected Energy Spectrum from AGN’s

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In the last year, IC has reported 29 very high energy neutrino events lying between 100 TeV and 2 PeV. The energies are given as follows: 22 shower events from 28 TeV to 1.2 PeV (one additional one at 2 PeV) and 7 muon track events from 32 TeV to 350 TeV. Most probably NOT prompt atmospheric and most probably extra-galactic…. Acc. IC the flavor mix is consistent with the canonical expected mix of 1:1:1…..

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FLAVORS at the Source: The variety of initial flavor mixes Conventional: P +P → π + X, π → ν μ + μ, μ → ν μ + ν e hence: ν e / ν μ = 1/2 Conventional: P +P → π + X, π → ν μ + μ, μ → ν μ + ν e hence: ν e / ν μ = 1/2 Same for P + γ, except anti-ν e suppressed by a factor 2 or so. Same for P + γ, except anti-ν e suppressed by a factor 2 or so. Damped muon sources: if μ does not decay or loses energy: No ν e ‘s, and hence ν e / ν μ = 0/1 Damped muon sources: if μ does not decay or loses energy: No ν e ‘s, and hence ν e / ν μ = 0/1 Pure Neutron Decay or Beta-Beam sources: n → anti-ν e, hence ν e /ν μ = 1/0 Pure Neutron Decay or Beta-Beam sources: n → anti-ν e, hence ν e /ν μ = 1/0 Prompt sources, when π’s absorbed and only heavy flavors contribute and ν e /ν μ = 1, such a flavor mix also occurs in muon damped sources at lower energies from μ decays. (Winter et al,2010) Prompt sources, when π’s absorbed and only heavy flavors contribute and ν e /ν μ = 1, such a flavor mix also occurs in muon damped sources at lower energies from μ decays. (Winter et al,2010) In general, flavor mix will be energy dependent……. In general, flavor mix will be energy dependent…….

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Neutrinos from “GZK” process: BZ neutrinos: Berezinsky and Zatsepin pointed out the existence/inevitability of neutrinos from : Berezinsky and Zatsepin pointed out the existence/inevitability of neutrinos from : P CR + γ CMB → Δ + → n + π + P CR + γ CMB → Δ + → n + π + Flavor Mix: below 10 Pev: (n decays)pure Beta- Beam: e:μ:τ = 1:0:0 Flavor Mix: below 10 Pev: (n decays)pure Beta- Beam: e:μ:τ = 1:0:0 Above 10 PeV: conventional(π decays) :e:μ:τ =1:2:0 Above 10 PeV: conventional(π decays) :e:μ:τ =1:2:0 (due to Engel et al. PRD64,(2001), (due to Engel et al. PRD64,(2001), also Stanev(2009)) also Stanev(2009))

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This is for Primaries being Primarily protons.

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Current Knowledge of Neutrino Mixing and Masses ν e ν 1 ν e ν 1 ν μ = U MNSP ν 2 ν μ = U MNSP ν 2 ν τ ν 3 ν τ ν 3 δm 32 2 ~ 2.5.10 -3 eV 2, δm 21 2 ~ 8.10 -5 eV 2 δm 32 2 ~ 2.5.10 -3 eV 2, δm 21 2 ~ 8.10 -5 eV 2 √2/3 √1/3 ε √2/3 √1/3 ε U MNSP ~ U TBM = -√1/6 √1/3 √1/2 U MNSP ~ U TBM = -√1/6 √1/3 √1/2 -√1/6 √1/3 -√1/2 -√1/6 √1/3 -√1/2 (ε ~ 0.15:DB,RENO,DC(2012)) Unknown: Unknown: Mass Pattern: Normal or Inverted:, phase δ 3 _______ 2_______ 3 _______ 2_______ 1 _______ 1 _______ 2_________ 2_________ 1_________ 3________ 1_________ 3________

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Effects of oscillations on the flavor mix are very simple : δm 2 > 10 -5 eV 2, hence (δm 2 L)/4E >> 1 for all relevant L/E, e.g. in one light day, δm 2 > 10 -5 eV 2, hence (δm 2 L)/4E >> 1 for all relevant L/E, e.g. in one light day, already this osc argument even for E~(PeV) is >>1 and already this osc argument even for E~(PeV) is >>1 and → sin 2 (δm 2 L/4E) averages to ½ → sin 2 (δm 2 L/4E) averages to ½ survival and transition probablities depend only on mixing angles: survival and transition probablities depend only on mixing angles: P αα = i U αi 4 P αα = i U αi 4 P αβ = i U αi 2 U βi 2 P αβ = i U αi 2 U βi 2

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In this tri-bi-maximal approximation, the propagation matrix P is: 10 4 4 10 4 4 P = 1/18 4 7 7 P = 1/18 4 7 7 4 7 7 4 7 7 ν e ν e ν e ν e ν μ = P ν μ ν μ = P ν μ ν τ earth ν τ source ν τ earth ν τ source

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Using the most recent best fit from e.g. Schwetz et al, the propagation matrix P becomes 0.5543 0.28/0.186 0.164/0.22 0.5543 0.28/0.186 0.164/0.22 0.28/0.186 0.346/0.41 0.378/0.371 0.28/0.186 0.346/0.41 0.378/0.371 0.164/0.219 0.3775/0.3713 0.47/0.4325 0.164/0.219 0.3775/0.3713 0.47/0.4325 (Again the two values correspond to δ = 0 or π)

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Flavor Mix at Earth (using Tri-Bi- Max mixing): Beam type Initial Final Conventional (pp,pγ) 1:2:0 1:1:1 Damped Muon 0:1:0 4:7:7 Beta Beam(n decay) 1:0:0 5:2:2 Prompt 1:1:0 1.2:1:1 Damped Muon produces a pure muon decay beam at lower energies with same flavor mix as the Prompt beam!

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Using the mixing from most recent best fits(e.g. Schwetz et al): 1:1:1 can become 1:0.86:0.86 to 1.0:1.05:1.01 These numbers include the “known” corrections to the standard 1:2:0 due to muon polarization effects, K’s etc.

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Discriminating flavors The ratios used to distinguish various flavor mixes are e.g. f e (e/(e+μ+τ) and R(μ/[e+τ]) The ratios used to distinguish various flavor mixes are e.g. f e (e/(e+μ+τ) and R(μ/[e+τ]) Source type f e R Source type f e R Pionic 0.33 0.5 Pionic 0.33 0.5 Damped-μ 0.22 0.64 Damped-μ 0.22 0.64 Beta-beam 0.55 0.29 Beta-beam 0.55 0.29 Prompt 0.39 0.44 Prompt 0.39 0.44 It has been shown that R and/or f e can be determined upto 0.07 in an ice-cube type detector. Hence pionic, damped μ, and Beta-beam can be distinguished but probably not the prompt It has been shown that R and/or f e can be determined upto 0.07 in an ice-cube type detector. Hence pionic, damped μ, and Beta-beam can be distinguished but probably not the prompt (Beacom et al. PRD69(2003).{Esmaili(2009).Choubey(2009).} (Beacom et al. PRD69(2003).{Esmaili(2009).Choubey(2009).}

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It should be stressed that the initial flavor mix will, in general be energy dependent. E.g. a typical example is when the mix starts out as pionic, i.e. a flavor mix of 1:2:0 and at a higher energy changes into a muon damped beam with a mix of 0:1:0. See e.g. Mehta and Winter, arXiv:1101.2673, Hummer et al.,arXiv:1007.0006 Incidentally, a damped muon flux is accompanied at lower eneries by a “prompt” flux with the mix of 1:1:0 due to contribution from muon decay. This makes it important to measure flavor mix over a reasonably broad energy range.

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Can small deviations from TBM be measured in the flavor mixes? Corrections due to ε/θ 13 are rather small(<10%) and we will neglect them with a few exceptions… Measuring such small deviations remains impractical for the foreseeable future Measuring such small deviations remains impractical for the foreseeable future By the same token the corrections due to a small mixing with a light sterile neutrino are By the same token the corrections due to a small mixing with a light sterile neutrino are also rather small and we will neglect those as well again with some exceptions! also rather small and we will neglect those as well again with some exceptions!

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Lipari et al(2007), Rodejohann, Weiler, SP(2008) In addition, sources are never “pure” meaning: Conventional/pp: after including μ polarization and effects due to K, D etc decays, the mix changes from1:2:0 to approx. 1:1.85:ε, (ε < 0.01) Conventional/pp: after including μ polarization and effects due to K, D etc decays, the mix changes from1:2:0 to approx. 1:1.85:ε, (ε < 0.01) Damped μ sources do not have exactly 0:1:0 but probably more like δ:1:0 with δ of a few %.......and similarly for Beta-beam. Damped μ sources do not have exactly 0:1:0 but probably more like δ:1:0 with δ of a few %.......and similarly for Beta-beam. For our present purposes, we will neglect such corrections as well. For our present purposes, we will neglect such corrections as well.

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To summarise, small deviations in flavor content NOT easy to measure in near future. But it should be possible to measure LARGE deviations from the canonical flavor mix. For our purposes here, let us agree to use the conventional flavor mix as canonical. use the conventional flavor mix as canonical. In this case the initial mix of 1:2:0 is expected to become 1:1:1 at earth. So we look for large deviations from this.

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Large deviations:

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How many ways can the flavor mix deviate significantly from 1:1:1 ? 1. Initial flux different from canonical: e.g. the damped muon scenario. In this case the flavor mix will be: the damped muon scenario. In this case the flavor mix will be: 4:7:7 4:7:7 similarly for the beta beam source, similarly for the beta beam source, the flavor mix will be: the flavor mix will be: 5:2:2 5:2:2 instead of 1:1:1 instead of 1:1:1

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Do neutrinos decay? Since δm’s ≠ 0, and flavor is not conserved, in general ν’s will decay. The only question is whether the lifetimes are short enuf to be interesting and what are the dominant decay modes. 2. Neutrino Decay:

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What do we know? Radiative decays: ν i → ν j + γ: Radiative decays: ν i → ν j + γ: m.e.: Ψ j (C + Dγ 5 )σ µν Ψ i F µν m.e.: Ψ j (C + Dγ 5 )σ µν Ψ i F µν SM: 1/τ = (9/16)(α/π)G F 2 /{128π 3 }(δm ij 2 ) 3 /m i Σ α m 2 α /m W 2 (U iα U jα * ) 2 τ SM > 10 45 s (Petcov, Marciano-Sanda)(1977) Exptl. Bounds on κ = e/m i [ C+ D 2 ] 1/2 = κ 0 μ B From ν e + e → e + ν’: κ 0 10 18 s. Bounds for other flavors somewhat weaker but still too strong for radiative decay to be but still too strong for radiative decay to be Of practical interest.

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Invisible Decays: ν i → ν j + ν +ν: Exptl Bounds: ν i → ν j + ν +ν: Exptl Bounds: F < εG F, ε < O(1), from invisible width of Z F < εG F, ε < O(1), from invisible width of Z Bilenky and Santamaria(1999): Bilenky and Santamaria(1999): τ > 10 34 s ν iL → ν jL + φ: g ij Ψ jL γ μ Ψ jL d μ φ If isospin conserved: invisible decays of charged leptons governed by the same g ij, and bounds on μ → e + φ, and τ → μ/e + φ yield bounds such as: τ > 10 24 s. {Jodidio et al. (1986), PDG(1996)}

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Conclusion: Only “fast” invisible decays are Majoron type couplings g ν C jR ν iL χ : g ν C jR ν iL χ : I(isospin) can be a mixture of 0 and 1(G- R, CMP) I(isospin) can be a mixture of 0 and 1(G- R, CMP) The final state ν can be mixture of flavor/sterile states……… The final state ν can be mixture of flavor/sterile states……… Bounds on g from π & K decays Bounds on g from π & K decays Barger,Keung,SP(1982),Lessa,Peres(2007), g 2 < 5.10 -6 Barger,Keung,SP(1982),Lessa,Peres(2007), g 2 < 5.10 -6 SN energy loss bounds: Farzan(2003): g < 5.10 -7 SN energy loss bounds: Farzan(2003): g < 5.10 -7 g 2 10 -8 s/eV g 2 10 -8 s/eV g 0.1 s/ev g 0.1 s/ev

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Current experimental limits on τ i: τ 1 /m 1 > 10 5 s/eV SN 1987A τ 1 /m 1 > 10 5 s/eV SN 1987A B. o. E. Careful analysis. B. o. E. Careful analysis. τ 2 /m 2 > 10 -4 s/eV (Solar) 10 -4- 10 -2 s/eV Beacom-Bell(2003),KamLand(2004) τ 2 /m 2 > 10 -4 s/eV (Solar) 10 -4- 10 -2 s/eV Beacom-Bell(2003),KamLand(2004) τ 3 /m 3 > 3.10 -11 s/eV (Atm) 9.10 -11 s/eV τ 3 /m 3 > 3.10 -11 s/eV (Atm) 9.10 -11 s/eV Gonzalez-Garcia-Maltoni(2008) Gonzalez-Garcia-Maltoni(2008) Cosmology: WMAP/PLANCK free-streaming ν’s τ > 10 10 s/eV at least for one ν… τ > 10 10 s/eV at least for one ν… Hannestad-Raffelt(2005), Bell et al.(2005) Hannestad-Raffelt(2005), Bell et al.(2005) ( With L/E of TeV/Mpsc or PeV/1000Mpsc, can reach τ of 10 4 s/eV) These bounds depend crucially on free-streaming and whether one or all neutrinos are free-streaming. These bounds depend crucially on free-streaming and whether one or all neutrinos are free-streaming.

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Beacom et al(2003) When ν i decays, U αi 2 gets multiplied by the factor exp(-L/γcτ) and goes to 0 for sufficiently long L. For normal hierarchy, only ν 1 survives, and the final flavor mix is simply ( SP 1981 ): e:μ:τ = U e1 2 : U μ1 2 : U τ1 2 ~ 4:1: 1 or even 10:1:1 with the new best fits… These flavor mixes are drastically different from canonical 1:1:1 and easily distinguishable.

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Effects on absolute fluxes in decay scenarios: In normal hierarchy, if only ν 1 survives: In normal hierarchy, if only ν 1 survives: ν µ flux can go down by as much as a factor of 0.1 from the original flux at the source.. ν µ flux can go down by as much as a factor of 0.1 from the original flux at the source.. ν e flux is enhanced from the original by a factor of 2. ν e flux is enhanced from the original by a factor of 2. Early Universe neutrino count is modified to 3+4/7(this is allowed by PLANCK and BBN) Early Universe neutrino count is modified to 3+4/7(this is allowed by PLANCK and BBN)

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But if the decay is into a sterile neutrino then (NH).……. ν 3 and ν 2 simply disappear and only ν 1 survives but at a smaller flux. The final fluxes are then: ν 3 and ν 2 simply disappear and only ν 1 survives but at a smaller flux. The final fluxes are then: ν e : 2/3 of the original flux ν e : 2/3 of the original flux ν µ : 1/6 of the original flux ν µ : 1/6 of the original flux Other implications: ν-counting in early universe modified by 3 -> 4+4/7, this isin some conflict with PLANCK + BBN.

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If no positive results are found in neutrino-less double-beta-decay experiments, it behooves us to consider the possibility that neutrinos are Dirac or Pseudo-Dirac Idea of pseudo-Dirac neutrinos goes back to Wolfenstein, Petcov and Bilenky - Pontecorvo (1981-2). Also a recent clear discussion in Kobayashi- Lim(2001). These arise when there are sub-dominant Majorana mass terms present along with dominant Dirac mass terms. 4. Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos: (Sometimes called Quasi-Dirac)

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The three δm 2 ’s will be different, in general.

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Implications for absolute fluxes: In particular, if the separation for the δm 2 1 is much smaller than for the other two, ν μ ’s get depleted almost by a factor of 2. And in a model with mirror matter one can get a further factor of 2, yielding a net suppression of factor 4. Eventually, when L/E gets large enuf all flavors get suppressed by the factor of and trhe flavor mix returns to the canonical 1:1:1

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6. Effects of Magnetic Fields Can change the spectra in GRB/AGN model predictions….. Can change the spectra in GRB/AGN model predictions….. In regions with large magnetic fields, neutrino magnetic transitions can modify the flavor mix. In regions with large magnetic fields, neutrino magnetic transitions can modify the flavor mix. However, for Majorana neutrinos, the magnetic moment matrix is antisymmetric and hence, a flavor mix of 1:1:1 remains 1:1:1 ! However, for Majorana neutrinos, the magnetic moment matrix is antisymmetric and hence, a flavor mix of 1:1:1 remains 1:1:1 ! For Dirac case, possible interesting effects via RSFP (Akhmedov and Lim-Marciano) for μ ν at the maximum allowed values of about 10 -14 μ B and B of order of a Gauss For Dirac case, possible interesting effects via RSFP (Akhmedov and Lim-Marciano) for μ ν at the maximum allowed values of about 10 -14 μ B and B of order of a Gauss In this case also, large conversion from flavor to sterile state can occur, and reduce absolute fluxes by a factor of 2 or more….. In this case also, large conversion from flavor to sterile state can occur, and reduce absolute fluxes by a factor of 2 or more…..

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Other possibilities 7. Lorentz Invariance Violation 7. Lorentz Invariance Violation 8. CPT Violation 8. CPT Violation 9. Decoherence 9. Decoherence 10. Mass varying Neutrinos 10. Mass varying Neutrinos 11. etc….. 11. etc…..

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Lorentz Invariance Violation Discussed esp. by Coleman-Glashow(1997-8), Kostelcky(1997 on..) etc Many possible manifestations: can lead to many fascinating possibilties-e.g. Mass depending on velocity. E.g. if m ν depends on velocity, it can make the decay of π into μ+ν forbidden above some energy and hence no ν’s are emitted above that energy leading to a cut-off in the highest possible energy-can this be the reason for no events(yet) above 2 PeV? In another scenario with phenomenology identical to Violation of Equivalence Principle (Halprin,Leung,Pantaleone,Glashow(1998)……..

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Flavor Signatures in IceCube … signature of signature of 10 13 eV (10 TeV)6x10 15 eV (6 PeV)Multi-PeV +N +... ± (300 m!) +hadrons B10

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Conclusions/summary Neutrino Telescopes MUST measure flavors, and need to be v.v.large(Multi-KM), just OBSERVING neutrinos NOT enuf…… Neutrino Telescopes MUST measure flavors, and need to be v.v.large(Multi-KM), just OBSERVING neutrinos NOT enuf…… If the flavor mix is found to be 1:1:1, it is BORING and confirms CW, even so can lead to many constraints. If the flavor mix is found to be 1:1:1, it is BORING and confirms CW, even so can lead to many constraints. If it is approx ½:1:1, we have damped muon sources. If it is approx ½:1:1, we have damped muon sources. If the mix is a:1:1, then a>1 may mean decays with normal hierarchy and can give info about θ 13 and δ….. If the mix is a:1:1, then a>1 may mean decays with normal hierarchy and can give info about θ 13 and δ….. If a is <<1, then decays with inverted hierachy may be occuring.. If a is <<1, then decays with inverted hierachy may be occuring.. Can probe v.v. small δm 2 beyond reach of neutrinoless double beta decay…. Can probe v.v. small δm 2 beyond reach of neutrinoless double beta decay…. Anisotropy can be due to flavor violating gravity? Anisotropy can be due to flavor violating gravity?

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Some thoughts: Is it possible that the lack of events above 2 PeV indicates a cut-off in neutrino energies? E.g. Glashow resonance would lead to not only a shower at 6.3 PeV(due to W->hadrons) but also events at ½ (6.3) PeV and 1/4(6.3)PeV due to the events in which W -> e+ν or W->τ+ν. No such events have been seen…. One can speculate about the origins of such a cut-off…..all involving exotic new physics

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