2Industrial policy means rules, regulations , principles , policies , and procedures laid down by government for regulating , developing and controlling industrial undertakings in the country. It prescribes the respective roles of the public, private joint and cooperative sectors for the development of industries. It also indicates the role of the large , medium , and small sector . It incorporates fiscal and monetary policies, tariff policy , labour policy and the government attitude towards foreign capital, and role to be played by multinational corporations in the development of the industrial sector.
3OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1.Accelerating the overall rate of growth through industrialization.2.Expanding the industrial base in relation to industrialization needs of the country.3. Generating employment and reducing poverty.4.Preventing monopolies and concentration of industrial power.5. Creating competitive conditions and encouraging the growth of entrepreneurship6.Promoting balanced industrial development. 7. Promoting linkages with others sectors of the economy. 8. Assisting small enterprises 9. Encouraging the growth of industrial research and development
4OBJECTIVES OF NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY Attainment of international competitiveness.Development of backward areas.Encouraging competition within Indian industry.Efficient use of productive resources.Full utilization of plant capacities to generate employment.Revival of weak units.
5INDUSTRIAL POLICIES Industrial policy resolution of 1948
6Industrial policy resolution of 1948 Important distinction was made-Industries to be kept under :-public sector,-private sector and the-joint sector.Industrial Development and Regulation Act (IDR Act) was enacted in 1951.
7Objective of IDR1951Empowering the Government to take necessary steps to regulate the pattern of industrial development through licensing.This paved the way for the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, which was the first comprehensive statement on the strategy for industrial development in India.
8Industrial Policy Resolution - 1956 Shaped by the Mahalanobis Model of growth, which suggested that emphasis on heavy industries would lead the economy towards a long term higher growth path.The Industrial Policy Resolution classified industries into three categories :17 industries : exclusively under the domain of the Government. Theseincluded inter alia, railways, air transport, arms and ammunition, iron and steel and atomic energy.12 industrieswhich were envisaged to be progressively Stateowned but private sector was expected to supplement the efforts of the State.The third category contained all the remaining industries and it was expectedthat private sector would initiate development of these industries but theywould remain open for the State as well.
9ObjectivesTo accelerate economic growth and boost the process of industrialization as a means to achieving a socialistic pattern of society.Removal of regional disparities through development of regions with low industrial base.
10To reduce disparities in income and wealth. Improving living standards and working conditions for the mass of the people.To reduce disparities in income and wealth.To prevent private monopolies and concentration of economic power in different fields in the hands of small numbers of individualsThe State will progressively assume a predominant and direct responsibility for setting up new industrial undertakings and for developing transport facilities.At the same time private sector will have the opportunity to develop and expand.The adoption of the socialist pattern of society as the national objective.
11INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION, 1973 It provided for a closer interaction between the agricultural and industrial sectors. Accorded the highest priority to the generation and transmission of power.An exhaustive analysis of industrial products was made to identify products which are capable of being produced in the small scale sector.The list of industries exclusively reserved for the small scale sector was expanded from 180 items to more than 500 items.Within the small scale sector, a tiny sector was also defined with investment in machinery and equipment upto Rs.1 lakh and situated in towns with a population of less than 50,000 according to1971 census figures, and in villages.Special legislation to protect cottage and household industries was also proposed to be introduced.
12INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION, 1977 The Government would promote the development of a system of linkages between large nuclear plants and the satellite ancillariesTo boost the development of small scale industries, the investment limit in the case of tiny units was enhanced to Rs.2 lakh, of a small scale units to Rs.20 lakh and of ancillaries to Rs.25lakh.A scheme for building buffer stocks of essential raw materials for the Small Scale Industries was introduced for operation through the Small Industries Development Corporations in the States and the National Small Industries Corporation in the Centre.Industrial processes and technologies aimed at optimum utilisation of energy or the exploitation of alternative sources of energy would be given special assistance, including finance on concessional terms.
13INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION 1980 Correction of regional imbalances;Maximum production and achieving higher productivity; Higher employment generation;Strengthening of the agricultural base through agro based industries;Promotion of export-oriented industries;Consumer protection against high prices and bad quality.
15FEATURES OF NIPDe-reservation of Public Sector: The number of industries reserved for public sector was reduced to 8 industries. At present, there are only two industries reserved for public sector which include. (a) Atomic energy (b) Railways De-licensing: -The most important features of NIP, 1991 was the abolition of industrial licensing of all industries except six industries. The six industries are of social and strategic concern. The six industries are 1. Hazardous Chemicals. 2. Alcohol 3. Cigarettes 4. Industrial Explosives 5. Defense Products, and 6. Drug and pharmaceuticals. Disinvestment of public sector: -The NIP 1991 permitted disinvestment of public sector units. Disinvestment is a process of selling government equity in PSUs in favour of private parties. Disinvestments aim at certain objectives. (1) To provide better customer Service. (2) To make effective use of disinvestment funds. (3) To overcome the problem of political interference. (4) To enable the government to concentrate on social development.
16Foreign Investment: Approval will be given for direct foreign investment up to 51 percent foreign equity in high priority industries . There shall be no bottlenecks of any kind in this processForeign Technology Agreements: Automatic permission will be given for foreign technology agreements in high priority industries up to a lump sum payment of Rs. 1 crore.MRTP Act: Emphasis will be placed on controlling and regulating monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices. Simultaneously, the newly empowered MRTP Commission will be authorized to initiative investigations on complaints received from individual consumers or classes of consumers in regard to monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices
17Public Sector Policy: The priority areas for growth of public enterprises in the future will be the following:Essential infrastructure goods and services.Exploration and exploitation of oil and mineral resources.Technology development and building of manufacturing capabilities in areas which are crucial in the long term development of the economy and where private sector investment is inadequate.Manufacture of products where strategic considerations predominate such as defense equipment.
18The spread of industrialization to backward areas of the country will be actively promoted through appropriate incentives, institutions and infrastructure investments.Foreign investment and technology collaboration will be welcomed to obtain higher technology, to increase exports and to expand the production base.Workers’ participation in management will be promoted
19INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991 ISSUES (evaluation) Government recognizes the need forsocial and economic justice, to end poverty and unemployment and to build a modern, democratic, socialist, prosperous and forward-looking IndiaIndia to grow as part of the world economy and not in isolationEnhanced support to the small-scale sector so that it flourishes in an environment of economic efficiency and continuous technological up gradationEmphasis on building our ability to pay for imports through our own foreign exchange earnings
21INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991 OBJECTIVES Government decided to take a series of initiatives in respect of the policies relating to the following areas:Industrial Licensing.Foreign Investment.Foreign Technology Agreements.Public Sector Policy.MRTP Act.
22Industrial Licensing: Industrial licensing abolished for all projects except a short list of 7 industries related to security and strategic concerns, social reasons, hazardous chemicals etc.Areas where security & strategic concerns predominate, reserved for public sector.In projects where imported capital goods are required, automatic clearance given.In locations other than cities of more than 1 million population, no requirement of obtaining industrial approvals from Central Government.Incentives & investments in infrastructural development, to promote dispersal to rural and backward areas.Existing units enabled to produce any article without additional investment.
23INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991 B. Foreign Investment: Approval upto 51 percent foreign equity in high priority industriesImports governed by general policy applicable to other domestic units monitored by RBI.Other foreign equity proposals, not covered above, need prior clearance.A special Empowered Board- to negotiate with a number of large international firms & get FDIs approved.
24INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991C. Foreign Technology Agreements:Automatic permissions for foreign technology agreements in high priority industries upto a lump sum payment of Rs. 1 crore.No permission will be necessary for hiring of for foreign technicians, foreign testing of indigenously developed technologies.
25INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991 D. Public Sector Policy: Portfolio of public sector investments reviewed with a view to focus public sector on strategic, high tech & essential infrastructure.Chronically sick public enterprises, referred to Board of Industrial & Financial Reconstruction (BIFR).A part of government’s shareholding in public sector offered to mutual funds, financial institutions, public & workers.Boards of public sector companies- more professional & powerful.MOU system- managements would be granted greater autonomy & held accountable.
26INDUSTRIAL POLICY 1991E. MRTP Act: (Monopolistic Restrictive Trade Practices):Removal of threshold limits of assets in respect of MRTP Companies & dominant undertakings.Elimination of need of prior approval of Central Government for establishment, expanding, merger, amalgamation & takeover.Emphasis on controlling & restrictive & unfair trade practices.Enabling the MRTP Commission to exercise punitive & compensatory powers.
27Industrial Policy changes Pre 1991 PolicyIndustrial licensing was a rulePublic sector monopoly in basic and heavy industriesMRTP act restrictions on entry and growth of large companiesForeign sector allowed in select industries’Restrictive policy towards foreign technologyReservation of large number of products for small scale sectorCurrent PolicyLicensing is an optionAll but two industries are open to private sectorNo such restrictionsForeign investment allowed in large no. of industriesVery liberal policy towards foreign technologyReservation list is being pruned
28Positives & Watch- Outs De-licensing of most industries will help entrepreneurs to quickly seize business opportunities.Removal of controls under the MRTP Act will facilitate expansion and growth.There will be greater inflow of foreign capital and technology due to easing of restrictions.Burden on the public sector will be reduced.WATCH-OUTS:. The bureaucracy has a tendency to attempt to defeat measures aimed at deregulations.Foreign investors still regard the policy and procedural system in India confusing. Rather many feel that policy and development environment in China is superior to India.Distortion in Industrial pattern would occur due to slow pace of investment in few basic and strategic industries. Absence of a mechanism would slow down the development of backward areas