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NEPAL Presentation A Round Table Policy Discussion

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1 NEPAL Presentation A Round Table Policy Discussion
Kamal P Pokhrel Director, Department of Education, Nepal A Round Table Policy Discussion "Right to Education – Perspectives from South Asia" 17th January, 2014 – Islamabad, Pakistan

2 Presentation Outline Background Information
Provision on Right to Education (RtE) in Nepal Legal Provision (Constitution and Laws) Sector Plans, Programs  Provision on proposed RtE Act Experiences from Past Issues Access Quality /Student Learning/ Quality Infrastructure and holistic coordination mechanism Teachers management Resources for Education  Non-state Actor’s (I/NGOs, Private sector) role in education   Country's position on Post 2015 Development Agenda

3 1.1 Nepal – Key Facts Political transition stage – Post conflict
Population 26.5 million 42% under age 18 66% of the population is literate (5+) Culturally rich and diverse – 123 different language groups Geographic diversity – mountains, hills and the plains. Ranked 147 out of 187 countries on the HDI (a least developed country) (Decade-long conflict ended in 2006, awaiting new constitution due since 2010) .Much of these have been improved over the past years. This calls for the further need to continue and strengthen education devt Source Population: Nepal census 2011 HDI ranking, poverty, life expectancy: HDI report 2013 Neonatal mortality, infant mortality, stunting: Nepal DHS 2011 Maternal mortality: Ministry of Health and Population (in 2006) 25% of population live under the 1.25 USD PPP per day. (international poverty line

4 1.2 Education at a Glance Nepal Education Budget NRs m = US$ 810 m (2013); 4.3% of GDP, 65% of National Budget For Basic Education Legal Instrument : Education Act, Regulations, Guidelines, Circulars Apex Institution : Ministry of Education Current National Program : School Sector Reform Plan ( ), Free and Compulsory education Program. Enrolment : Total: 8.7 million Basic (Grade 1 – 8; Age 5-12 years) : 6.5 million Secondary (Grade 9 – 12; Age years) : 1.2 million ECD (Age 3-5 i.e. 36 to 39 months : 1.0 million) GPI, almost 1:1 at all level No. of Schools: (with 14% share of private) and secondary level-grade 9-12 : 8711) Teachers: Total : Govt pay roll: 152,909 + community hired + private school teachers Female teachers 41.5% Indicators: Net Enrolment Rate : 95.6% (Primary) Survival : 84.1% (Primary) Cohort graduation 75% (Primary) Out of School Children 1.1 m aged 5-16 years and 0.6 m aged 5-12 years Literacy : 65.9% (2011 Census) and 69% (2013 estimated)

5 2.1 Legal Provision: Right to Education in Nepal
Nepal’s Commitment on Int’l forum (HR- Declaration, CRC. EFA, MDGs) Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006 Fundamental Rights : Article 17: Right to Education and Culture Right to Education Act: (in the process of ratification) Education Act – 1971 Education Rules Child Policy 2012 Child Rule Child Act, 1992

6 Nepal and int’l Conventions/Declarations Nepal being a signatory of various Declarations has devised policy and legislative instrumentation to ensure the right of children to education Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948: Article 26 Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959 U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (Ratified: 14 September 1990) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966: Articles 13 & 14 Minimum Age Convention 1973 Optional Protocols to the CRC on Sex Trafficking, Armed Conflict 2000 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women 1979 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 1999 International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination 1965 International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – CRPD 2006 (Signed: 3 Jan 2008) Salamanca Declaration on Special Needs Education 1994

7 The Interim Constitution of Nepal: Jan. 15, 2007
Under Part 3 – the Fundamental rights #Article 17 Right to Education: (1) Each community shall have the right to receive basic education in their mother tongue as provided for in the law. (2) Every citizen shall have the right to receive free education from the State up to secondary level as provided for in the law (3) Each community residing in Nepal has the right to preserve and promote its language, script, culture, cultural civilization and heritage. #Article 22. Right to the Child : (1) Every child shall have the right to have their own identity and name. (2) Every child shall have the right to get nurtured, basic health and social security. (3) Every child shall have the right against physical, mental or any other form of exploitation. The exploiting actions shall be punishable by the law and the person who is treated in such manner shall be compensated in accordance with the law. (4) Helpless, orphan, mentally challenged, conflict victims, displaced and street kids at risk shall have the right to get special provision from the state for their secured future. (5) Any minor shall not be employed in factories, mines or for any other hazardous work or shall be used in army, police or in conflicts.

8 RtE related debates in the Constituent Assembly, 2008-2012
Each community shall have the right to basic education in mother tongue as provisioned in the law Each community shall have the right to free education up to secondary level as provisioned in the law Free education includes, inter alia, absence of all forms of tuitions, free midday meals and school dress, and provision of hostel and scholarships as per need.

9 Education Act – 1971 and Education Rules - 2002
Provisions on establishment, management, operation of school throughout the Nation Provision of free education (free Textbooks, no tuition fee, exam and admission fees) up to grade 8 Other entitlements to marginalized and deprived children Provision of standardized curriculum, examination, Teacher recruitment and development to serve the pupil All institutional and instructional arrangements made for school education

10 Child Act, 1992, Child Rule – 1995 and Child Policy 2012
Various provisions enacted in line with international conventions/declarations (viz. Child Right of survival, protection, development and participation) Apex Agency to look after Children’s Right : Ministry of Woman, Child and Social Welfare (MOWCSW) Provisions of district level, VDC level and local level mechanism to look at children matters

11 2.2 Right to Education in Plans and programs
Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA/NPA , long term) – Goal 2 EFA Core Document ( , medium term) – Goal 2 Thirteenth Plan ( ) NPC: Education Sector Plan: School Sector Reform Program ( ) – Component 2 Out of School Strategy Paper ( ), FCBE 1093 VDCs, 13 districts – Pilot FCE Literacy/NFE Policy and Program Framework – Related with FCE Community School Support Program (CSSP, ) – Contributes to FCE Construction of Primary Schools (EFA 04-09; JICA, 03-06) - Contributes to FCE Teacher Education Project (TEP, 02-07) - Contributes to FCE Various Programs of UN agencies, such as UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, WFP, ILO Various programs of I/NGOs such as Save the Children, Plan Nepal, World Education, World Vision are contributing to FCE of Nepal

12 RtE in School Sector Reform Plan (SSRP) 2009-15
Goal of basic education ‘to ensure equitable access to quality education through a rights-based approach and promotion of a child friendly environment in schools’ (p. 13) Objective of the basic education ‘to ensure equitable access to quality basic education for all children in 5-12 age group’ (p. 13) Strategic Interventions ‘A phased plan for a compulsory basic education policy through statutory arrangement, appropriate at national and local levels’ and ‘Incentive schemes to encourage local governments to adopt and declare basic education free and compulsory in their respective areas’ (p. 15)

13 2.3 Right to Education Act (RTE Act)
Present Status : In the Cabinet for endorsement Preamble : to ensure the school age children's right to free and compulsory education Definitions : Free = not to charge any kind of fees (monthly tuition, admission, re-admission, sports, extra-curricular, lab, library, exam, maintenance, primary aid, etc) and removal of any financial burden by the state that prevents a child from completing specified years of schooling Compulsory = mandatory provision of admission, attendance, retention and completion of specified level of education, parental duty to admit their children to school

14 Duty of the Government:
The Beneficiaries 5-12 years age children, gradually up to grade 12 Right of a child: All children shall have right to free and compulsory education at the neighborhood school. Duty of the Government: to ensure free education to every child including immigrants residing in the country for more than three months; establishment of school unit in each community to ensure access at child’s neighborhood; ensure no child with disability remain out of school; ensure school Minimum enabling conditions (teacher, curriculum, textbooks, school calendar, incentive and support system to the students)

15 Community Participation :
Entitlements: Textbooks, Midday meal, materials, other incentives, special attention to children from in danger community (socially, financially or other reasons) Voucher system/ incentive coupon for poverty card family is under discussion Community Participation : Majority of SMC members from among parents of children in the school Empowered SMC by giving extra powers e.g. evaluation of the teachers Quality Measures : Academic responsibility of the teachers and code of conduct specified : Teachers qualification for appointment upgraded. Permanent teacher to be recruited by national level TSC and temp. at local level Students can opt for change of a school if school does not meet quality standards Schools Norms and standards are set Minimum Infrastructure: Classroom, teachers, textbooks, separate toilets and book corners, sports facility Teacher-Pupil Ratio of 1:40 (max.) School days (220 opening days, 192 days net instruction) and total instructional hours (800 hours grade 1-3, hours upper grades)

16 Special Arrangements:
Providing second chance education for over-age and dropout children; integrated and segregated schools for differently-abled children; residential schools for remote areas with difficult geography, special incentives system for deprived and vulnerable ethnic groups, mainstreaming of traditionally run Madarsha, Gonpa and Gurukuls education Local government Municipality, VDC, Wards’ geographical territory taken as unit of FCBE implementation State Facilities to parents who admit, retain and assist their children to complete desire level of education Different social security allowances National ID, citizenship, voter ID, land-owner/property card, poverty card and any other ID Eligibility of a candidature Eligibility of entry in public services Bank loans and waiving (this clause to be enforced in two years of enactment):

17 Partnership for sharing responsibility and funding:
Joint responsibility of central and local government (own fund and allocations from centre), local bodies (VDCs, Municipality) to plan and implement Integrated govt programs to be implemented in the targeted pocket areas, DDCs right to coordinate and intervene to ensure FCE DEOs to establish and coordinate NGOs networks NGOs to prioritize FCE within their plans/programs Role of private schools: Provide scholarships (with residential facility wherever applicable) for 10% of total students, Enroll students with voucher scheme, Establish institutional linkage with specified public school to share experiences, Government to allocate grants to best performing private schools

18 3. Experiences from Past and lessons for Future With special reference to Free & Compulsory Primary Education (Goal 2 of EFA or Component 2 of SSRP) 3.1 Policy Focus: Improving equitable access (More schools to bring School Closer – 30 minutes or less, alternative schooling, flexible school hours, free education, free textbooks, school feeding, school mapping, increase number of female teachers, Focused Interventions to Bring Out-of-School Children into the System) Improving quality and efficiency (Curriculum improvement, teacher training, Resource Centre and their Professional support, School environment, reform in school exam, Introduction of CFS, SZOP, NVT with directives) Increasing institutional capacity (EMIS, decentralized management, HRD plan) Continuing school self- Governance and community involvement (Block grant, performance based incentives, Community school management) Targeted programs for disadvantaged (Incentives, scholarship to remove Economic Barriers)

19 3.2 Interventions/measures
Access Measures: Welcome to school program for reaching the disadvantaged children in the rural area Grants to public lower secondary and secondary schools to provide free education to all dalit students helped increase their enrolment and retention 3-phase approach to Free and Compulsory Education (expanding access of free education; ensuring FCE as fundamental right through proper legislation; and piloting and gradually making FCE compulsory) paved the way for RtE Act Focused Interventions Special incentives for all girls upto grade 8 , all dalit, and Karnali (remote area)children and children with disability up to grade 12 School feeding program (day meal program) ensured not only enrolment of the children but also their retention for the whole day and for the whole year Oil for mothers for daughter’s enrolment and retention worked well in increasing girls’ enrolment residential programs in remote district help girls complete secondary education Alternative schooling programs for children in difficult circumstances

20 Interventions for efficient management
Quality Measures: Free textbooks to all public children up grade 10 to helped enrolment as well as learning Pilot approaches like Community ownership & management of schools to raise quality of public schools School buildings, toilets (with water), furniture IT expansion for learning 8500 secondary schools receive fund for 5 computers, power, connectivity, learning material Interventions for efficient management PCF, block grants, training, Teachers (female), reservations Administrative and Instructional support structure in place (local and centre) Textbooks (opened to private), multiple sets, digitization Collaboration and partnerships (national and global)

21 3.3 Some of the Encouraging Achievements
Significant improvement in enrolment : Pri. Level NER from 80% (2000) to 95.6% (2013) Female teachers from 30% (2006) to 42% (2013) Licensing of teacher profession has been undertaken successfully ECD enrolments increased (GER from 10% (2000), and 41.4% (2006) to 73.7% (2013) Gender parity reached to 0.99 (2013) Initiation to institutionalize of decentralized governance and management systems as a result schools took part in community managed school (CMS) program robust planning, implementation, reporting and monitoring mechanisms through the ASIP process at the centre and through SIPs, VEPs and DEPs at the local level. Well Established EMIS – regular bi-annual school census and reporting in the form of Flash reports I and II VDC wise database of out of school children and illiterate people (from National Census 2011 and household survey of NFEC) Visible Systemic readiness: RtE Act in progress

22 4. Issues 4.1 Access of hardcore group is a point to begin with
Still some children (>4%) are not in school – who are they? Where are they? Identification of OOSC is an issue. How they could be brought to school? How to Bring the children of marginalized community, Musahar, Chepang, , Chamar, Dom, Halkhor and Dusadh, Raute, working and street children, the hardcore groups Girls due to social barriers, Muslim communities, Rural mountain, children with special needs are out of easy access to schooling Guaranteeing equitable access to those out-of-school 4.2 Student learning/quality in schools is at the core Learning achievement of the students is low as reported by several research studies and external examinations Curricular intents and expected outcomes of curriculum should be further disseminated Synchronization of textbooks, CAS and teacher training with curriculum is a need Integration life skill/soft skills into teaching learning requires more efforts Need to shift the focus on assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning

23 4.3 Infrastructure and holistic coordination mechanism is needed
Ensuring Prioritized Minimum Enabling Conditions (PMECs) in each school Making schools and classrooms sensitive to needs of disadvantaged children Coordination among govt (MOE, MOWCSW, MOFALD, MOHA, MOHP, local governments) as well non-govt agencies Institutionalization of coordination - statutory provision to be created under the coordination of NPC 4.4 Teacher management is a complicated issue Mandatory provision of training and licensure, qualification upgrading of teachers, reservation policy, need based TPD program is in place, Crucial concerns in the area of teacher management and devt Redeployment and management to address the disparity in STR across the regions Teacher time on task (time with children) and irregularities The proportional share of female, Dalit, Janajati, disadvantaged popn A strong and transparent teacher performance monitoring and evaluation system with clear standards is needed for teacher accountability Teachers are not in a position to see their needs for demand driven TPD in certain critical areas, such as CAS, reading skills, or the new curriculum so needs further response to teacher development effort

24 4.5 Resource is a basic requirement to reach the goal
Current Arrangements of resources for education: Education as a largest sector of public funding Donor's commitment The pooling development partners include the Asian Development Bank, Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Finland, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and the World Bank including funds from the Fast Track Initiative, FTI and Non-pooling: JICA, USAID, UNESCO and WFP FTI/GPE (received 120m USD in 2012 and next round in place) Local government legally bound to invest in education Growing investment of private sectors and I/NGO's Community and parents’ investment

25 … Resource is a basic requirement to reach the goal
Issues: Fragmentation and weak links in programmes Unplanned spread of settlements in rural areas and overlapping catchments areas in cities Declining DP support Ensuring proper distribution and utilization of resources provided to schools Yet to explore multiple sources of funds Way Ahead 20% share of govt’s annual budget expected Concrete cost sharing approach to be instituted (GoN : regular cost including teacher salary, Local body/community : space, infrastructure and matching grants, non-state Partners I/NGOs - technical aspects, capacity building, learning materials and child friendly environment) Mobilization of adequate funds – multiple non-state actors to be intensified

26 5. Non-state Actor’s (I/NGOs, Private sector) role in education
Non-State actors (I/NGOs, NGOs, Private sector, CSOs etc) have played a major part in supporting the GON to improve children’s access to quality education and enhance the delivery system ranging from ECD level to higher education and for access, quality, HRD, Teacher Development. Private sector holds 14% of education share (in terms of school, student and teachers) Red Book support and direct support in practice Partnership guideline prepared jointly and approved by the government guides the collaboration Expansion of collaboration with exiting as well as with new partners is desirable (and always feasible in Nepal) Partnership at national level (e.g. Unicef, USAID, UNESCO, Plan Nepal, Save the Children, Seto Gurans, Good Neighbors, Room to Read, UMN, Action Aid, World Education etc.) and international level (e.g. Kangnam University, S Korea; NEUPA, India; KOICA, JICA, AIT, Thailand; SEAMEO Innotech the Philippines; DFC Denmark) in place. The process of establishing new linkage with other relevant institutions is underway (for example Changwon National University S. Korea, World Teach USA etc)

27 I/NGOs area of expertise in Nepal
Locally connected: Intervention at very grassroots level and hard core areas Working in line with the principle of Neutrality, Impartiality and Independence Fulfilling gaps in specialized areas through TA support Quick response at disaster situations Regular meetings and loose networks are in place for regular coordination Essential partners for advocacy or policy lobbying Some Issues still exist Duplication in investment Report requirement not matching government’s ones (additional burden at school level) Replicability /sustainability Transparency Can duplicate services Replicability /sustainability = over commitment

28 6. Nepal's view on Post-2015 Development Agenda
A team led by MOE and supported by UNESCO working on this with the objectives of Assessing the progress made in past in 7 goals of EFA (One additional goal of Nepal is to Mother Tongue and multilingual education) identifying the remaining challenges in meeting MDG’s and EFA’s goals Developing holistic vision for post-15 agenda Progress to date 7 separate thematic groups led jointly by a Joint Secretary of MOE and an expert from academia formed and work in progress Table work Wider consultation with stakeholders such teacher unions, students, parents, local bodies, dalit/woman/janjati commissions, I/NGOs, Private sectors, Journalists, youth, CSOs and other govt agencies) We have yet to finalize Nepal’s position in this discourse, however some of the priority areas identified are Putting education first in the post-15 development agenda Quality Education for All Student learning is at the core

29 Some other priority area for post-15 Era
Free and Compulsory Basic Education Right to education in mother tongue Equity strategy to ensure equitable access to hard core group Special provision for disadvantaged children to bring remaining OOSC from core hard group; Multi-disciplinary intervention (Formal and Flexible) Better addressing the pedagogical issues relating to language, gender, social and economic to ensure completion of schooling meaningfully and beneficially Special intervention for Early grade reading Life skills and value of local wisdom Ensuring Minimum Enabling Conditions (MECs) at all school ICT applications in education with coonectivity, digital contents and alternatives energy schemes Continuous assessment system

30 Investing more in children (midday meal in needy pockets, more resource for quality 70:30)
Focus on strong partnership (INGOs, NGOs, DPs, private and public sectors) to work on a common ground in achieving both qualitative and quantitative aspects of FCE Enhanced Partnerships (DPs, I/NGOs, private sectors and other government agencies) Sharing at local, regional and global levels, Making local governments more responsive with explicit role of local governments, VDC, municipality, Legal responsibilities of local bodies municipalities – enlargement and enrichment to be ensured Strong governance: Dissemination of the Legislation to the lowest possible unit: Accountability frameworks and responsiveness Proper acknowledgement of people’s livelihood, parental literacy and mother’s engagement in education Parenting education to empower & mobilize parents for quality FCE

31 Potential Areas for Regional Cooperation
Regional Forum – Create a regional or bilateral cooperation mechanism to share RtE experience and to offer a common post-15 agenda in the global education Community Sharing Technical Expertise – Share experience and expertise of governments and non-governmental professional bodies in meetings to be organized on a periodic/regular basis And lastly Nepal welcomes multilateral or bilateral funding support, technical assistance, sharing of expertise/best practice from participating governments and non-govt agencies

32 Sagarmatha: the Top of the World
In 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary and his Sherpa guide, Tenzing Norgay ascended the very top of Mount Everest. Climbers try to reach the peak every year. However, the mountain is treacherous and already this year, 11 persons have died on Mount Everest. Thank you

33 Annexes Status in terms of major EFA Indicators
No Indicators Achievement 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2012 Target 2015 1 Gross Enrolment Rate of Early Childhood / Pre School 12.8 19.8 19.9 39.4 69.9 41.4 73.7 80 2 Percentage of New entrants at Grade 1 with ECD 7.8 9.6 13.7 10.9 NA 18.3 55.6 3 Gross Intake Rate at Grade 1 122.9 101.3 117.1 125.9 148.1 148 138 102 4 Net Intake Rate at Grade 1 - 74.0 76.1 86 90.7 98 5 Gross Enrolment Rate 124.7 118.4 126.7 130.7 145.4 138.8 130 105 6 Net Enrolment Rate 81.1 82.4 83.5 84.2 86.8 87.4 95.6 100 7 % GNP channeled to Primary edu 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.5 8 % of Education Budget channeled to Primary Edu. 56.7 60 63 57+3 65 9 % of teachers with required qualification & training 15 17.4 30.5 44.9 98.2 10 Percentage of teachers with required Certification/License --

34 No Indicators Achievement 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2012 11 39.9
Target2015 11 Pupil Teacher Ratio 39.9 35.7 35.8 39.7 49.8 47.3 37 30 12 Repetition Rate: 10.6 12.1 -- Grade 1 38.7 36.8 34 NA 28.3 30.0 19 10 12.2 -- Grade 5 9 13.5 10.4 10.0 8 13 Survival rate to Grade 5 65.8 67.6 67.7 76.2 79.1 80 84.1 90 14 Coefficient of Efficiency 60.0 60 63 15 Percentage of Learning Achievement at Grade 5 40 <50 16 Literacy Rate 16.1 -- Age Group 15-24 70 90.1 76 84.7 95 16.2 -- Age Group 6+ years 54 60? 65.9 17 Adult Literacy Rate (15+ years) 40.7 48 52? 59.6 75 18 Literacy Gender Parity Index (15+ years) 0.6 0.67 0.7 0.99 1.0

35 Abbreviations used ID = Identification Card
MDG = Millennium Development Goal MEC = Minimum Enabling Conditions MOE = Ministry of Education MOF = Ministry of Finance MOFALD = Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development MOHA = Ministry of Home Affairs MOHP = Ministry of Health and Population MOLJ = Ministry of Law and Justice MOWCSW = Ministry of Woman, Child and Social Welfare NER = Net Enrolment Rate NFEC = Non-formal Education Centre NPC = National Planning Commission NVT = Non – Violence Teaching OOSC = Out of School Children PMEC = Prioritized Minimum Enabling Conditions RtE = Right to Education SSRP = School Sector Reform Plan SZOP = School as a Zone of Peace TPD = Teacher Professional Development UN = United Nation CAS = Continuous Assessment System CFS = Child Friendly School Framework CRC = Convention on Children Rights CSO = Community Social Organization DDC = District Development committee Devt = Development DP = Development Partner ECED = Early Childhood Development EFA = Education for All EMIS = Educational Management Information System FCBE = Free and Compulsory Basic Education FCE = Free and Compulsory Education FTI = Fast trach Initiative GER = Gross Enrolment Rate GON = Government of Nepal Govt = Government GPE = Global Partnership for Education VDC = Village Development Committee GPI = Gender Parity Index HR = Human Right HRD = Human Resource Development I/NGO = International/National Non- Governmental Organization

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