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The Technology in E- government PAD 6710: Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Technology in E- government PAD 6710: Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Technology in E- government PAD 6710: Lecture 3

2 M, E, P government  Four levels of e-government E-gov information  Providing govt. info. online E-gov Automation  Automating manual work E-gov reengineering  Redesign of existing processes P-gov innovation  Performance government  311 (Customer Relationship Management)

3 Technologies  Computers: Smart Machines?  Communication systems  Communications infrastructure  Emerging technology trends RFID GIS

4 Computer systems  First generation computers (1951-58) Vacuum tube circuits [ENIAC to UNIVAC] Machine Language  Second generation (1959-63) Transistors; mainframe computers Compiler Programs (FORTRAN/ COBOL)  Third generation (1964-75) Minicomputers (DEC); Integrated circuits (LSI) BASIC, ALGOL  Fourth generation (1970s-) Microprocessors (VLSI) Industry specific softwares

5 Computers  Laptops 1979-87: Emerging period 1987-95: Diversification period (Apple) 1995-2001: Standardization period (of Operating Systems) 2001-: Growth period (Netbooks included)  Smart machine: Turing test Logic; enumeration; artificial intelligence  Moore’s law: Increasing density

6  Landlines based Telegraph (1844); Telephone (1876) Extensive infrastructure  PBX/ PABX/ EPABX  Circuit switching  Wireless based Mass media (Radio/ TV) Mobile phone Generations  1G: Analog Cellular phones (1981-90)  2G: Digital cellular phones (1991-01) [GSM; CDMA; TDMA]  3G: Digital data phones (2001-now) [UMTS; EVDO  4G?: Faster data phones [LTE; WiMax;UMB] Communications: Phones

7 Communication: Internet  Federal Network systems ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) NSFNET  University Consortiums BITNET  Browser/ Network Protocols File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 1971 Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Domain Name System (DNS) [Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers]

8 Communications: IP based  Digital Infrastructure Packet switching  Voice Over IP  Internet Protocol TV

9 IP based services

10  Podcasts; Really Simple Syndication (RSS)  Collective intelligence: blogs, wikis, twitter  Multimedia (Youtube)  Peer to Peer networks [Trading (ebay), Lending] (  Social networking(LinkedIn; Xanga) Transaction-oriented communities Interest-oriented communities Fantasy-oriented communities Relationship-oriented communities

11 Digital will replace Analog  IP based TV will replace Cathode Ray tube TV  Digital Personal Communications Service (PCS) phones will replace Cell phones  Multipurpose Digital phones VoIP E-conferencing Multimedia (Cellywood) GPS  Data mining techniques  If anything can be digitized, it will

12 Gov 2.0

13 Virtual World Simulations  Life imitating … (art, comic books,…)  3D Internet  Video/ Electronic/ Virtual Gaming Pachinko Play money (QQ coins)  Second Life/ Active Worlds Virtual currency (Linden) Virtual real estate Virtual persona  Uses Libraries Museums Colleges and universities The media

14 Virtual Worlds

15 Cloud computing  Also, distributed/grid computing Computing services are delivered over the Internet, on demand, from a remote location, rather than residing on one’s own desktop, laptop, mobile device, or even on an organization’s servers  Benefits Rapid scalability and deployment capabilities Decreased maintenance/upgrades Improved economies of scale

16 Cloud computing

17 Communications Infrastructure  Network Telephone Modems [56.6 kbps] Broadbands >200  Digital Subscriber Line (256 Kbps to 6 Mbps) [20 to 1 contention ratio]  Cable Modems (1 – 6 Mbps) [50 to 1 contention ratio]  T1/ T2 lines [10- 100 Mbps]  Network infrastructure Wired or Wireless

18 Wired communications  Fiber to the Home (FTTH) Delivery of communications over optical fiber About 1.2% of homes have FTTH connections. Dallas, Jackson (TN), Sacramento

19 Broadband over Power Line  Power Line Communications (PLC), Power Line Telecommunications (PLT)  Manassas, VA deployed the nation's first citywide BPL system recently  The National Association for Amateur Radio opposes the idea due to interference with radio waves

20 BPL

21 Wireless infrastructure  Licensed vs unlicensed frequency  Personal Area Networks (e.g.Bluetooth, Ultra Wide Band) 2.4 Ghz; 720 kbps  Medium Range Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)  Range upto 300’; 2.4 GHz  IEEE 802.11 standard  Long Range WiMax (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access) Range upto 30 miles  IEEE 802.16 standard Mesh Networks  Satellite

22 Wireless Infrastructure  Wireless is the future of broadband.  Electromagnetic radio waves is the next REAL ESTATE FCC auctioning of 700 MHz band spectrum  Need for transmitters Bluetooth, UWB; Wi-Fi; WiMax; Mesh  Hybrid Telephone lines; Electrical lines (BPL); Optical Fibers (FTTH)

23 Technology Progress: ISPs, 2000

24 Technology Progress: ISPs, 2004

25 Technology Progress: ISPs, 2006

26 Municipal Wi-Fi

27 Emerging technology trends

28 RFID  RFID tags: Active; Passive; Semi-passive  RFID receivers  Electronic product codes  Uses: Supply Chain Management Asset (Inventory) Management Maintenance of materiel



31 RFID Sensor Devices  RFID tags (with EPC) will become cheap enough to tag objects & persons  Alternative: Smart cards  Are RFID tags SPY CHIPS?

32 Location based service: GIS  Desktop GIS  Proprietary GIS software  Accessible to one person at a time  Developer = User  Steep learning curve  Web-GIS  Proprietary GIS software  Accessible over internet  Separation of developers and users  Flatter learning curve for users  Geospatial Web (Where 2.0?)  Tagging content and data with geographic metadata  Open access to GIS  GIS combined with Web 2.0 tools (mashups)  Multiple developers as well as users  Uses  Emergency management; Surveillance; Transit  Loopt; Google’s Latitude; Foursquare; Hot Potato; Whrrl; Gowalla

33 GIS: Virtual Alabama



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