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Supernova shock breakout at high redshift and wide-field transient survey Nozomu Tominaga (Konan University/Kavli IPMU U. Tokyo) 23 rd Jul 2013 DARK MATTER,

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Presentation on theme: "Supernova shock breakout at high redshift and wide-field transient survey Nozomu Tominaga (Konan University/Kavli IPMU U. Tokyo) 23 rd Jul 2013 DARK MATTER,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supernova shock breakout at high redshift and wide-field transient survey Nozomu Tominaga (Konan University/Kavli IPMU U. Tokyo) 23 rd Jul 2013 DARK MATTER, DARK ENERGY AND THEIR DETECTION

2 Outline What are supernovae? Cosmology with transients –Issues to be addressed Ongoing/future transient surveys –Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) –Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey Reference NT et al. ApJ 2009 705 L10 NT et al. in prep.

3 Supernovae SN1987A Very bright L~10 42 erg/s~10 9 L  Energy source Shock heating 56 Ni- 56 Co radioactive decay Huge energy E K ~10 51 erg Gravitational energy GM 2  /R NS ~10 53 erg Nuclear energy  ( 12 C  56 Ni)M  ~10 51 erg

4 Two types of supernovae Core-collapse SNe (CCSNe) Explosions of massive stars Gravitational energy Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) Explosions of low-mass stars Nuclear energy ©MPA

5 “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae” Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)

6 Cosmology with CCSNe -Gamma-ray bursts- A part of CCSNe accompany Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs can be observed up to z~8. GRB090423 @ z=8.2 (Salvaterra + 09; Tanvir+09) © Masaomi Tanaka

7 High-z cosmology with Gamma-ray bursts Amati+08;Tsutsui+12 Expected GRBs could be a standard candle with Amati (E p -E iso ) and Yonetoku (E p -L p ) relations. Current

8 SNIa rate CCSN rate Hopkins & Beacom 06 CCSNe obs. GRB obs. Issues to be uncovered Progenitor system –SNe Ia: white dwarf + main-sequence or redgiant stars white dwarf + white dwarf –GRBs: rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star a tiny fraction (10 -5 ) of core-collapse SNe Relativistic jets Core collapse Double degenerate (White dwarf + white dwarf) Single degenerate (White dwarf + normal stars)

9 To clarify them, SNe Ia: –Early epoch observation GRBs: –SLSN and Shock breakout connect CCSNe and GRBs e.g, SN2011fe (Li+11;Nugent+11) Kasen 10 1M  Redgiant 6M  Main-sequence 2M  Main-sequence No companion NT+11 Superluminous supernova SN2006gy SN1987A GRB 080319B Supernova shock breakout Large luminosity gap We need observations with short cadence and continuous follow-up observations!! 3days 1days

10 Two optical transient surveys Nearby supernova survey –Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) from Apr 2012 –Characteristics: high cadence –Aim: detailed studies of nearby objects the progenitor system of Type Ia SNe the nature of shock breakout High-z supernova survey –Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey from Feb 2014 –Characteristics: the deepest survey with wide FoV –Aim: detection of various high-z supernovae and GRBs the cosmology with SNe Ia the nature of GRBs

11 Tomoki Morokuma (Tokyo), Nozomu Tominaga (Konan), Masaomi Tanaka (NAOJ), Emiko Matsumoto (Konan), Kensho Mori (Hiroshima), many other collaborators Nearby shock breakout survey -Kiso Supernova Survey- PI: Moromuka Tominaga Mori Tanaka Matsumoto Amateur collaborator

12 Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) Kiso Wide-Field Camera (KWFC) –Diameter: 1.05m FoV: 4deg 2 3min exposure (m lim,g ~21mag) with ~1hr interval 2deg x 2deg from Apr 2012 1.05m Schmidt telescope

13 Kiso Wide-Field Camera KWFC (Apr 2012 -) One of the cameras with wide field-of-view © Shigeyuki Sako

14 KISS strategy g-band observation of SDSS fields ~3min exposure with ~hour interval observe the same field every night © Masaomi Tanaka Previous surveys observe a field every several days.

15 KISS collaboration Japan/Taiwan team –Kanata(1.5m)/HOWPol, MITSuME(0.5m), Lulin(1m) Rochester Institute of Technology (KPNO 0.9-m) –Michael W. Richmond Indian Institute of Astrophysics (HCT) –Devendra Sahu Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP; NOT) –Eric Hsiao, Maximilian Stritzinger, Mark Phillips, Nidia Contreras, Francesco Taddia Morrell, Carlos Contreras Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG/DOLORES; 3.5m) –Paolo Mazzali, Emma Walker, Elena Pian SNFactory (UH88/SNIFT) –Greg Aldering Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Crimea, Moscow) –Dmitry Tsvetkov, Nikolay Pavlyuk

16 Follow-up observation Google We can obtain a light curve for 24 hours.

17 Type Ia SN with KISS © Tomoki Morokuma SN 2012cm z=0.0282 phase: -9days

18 Shock breakout with KISS -not discovered yet- ~3 shock breakout in the 3 year project m plateau ~20mag, m tail ~22mag –It is easy to be followed up with other telescope. –Multicolor light curve, spectroscopy g u r i z 20M  E 51 =1 z=0.05

19 HSC-transient group Tomoki Morokuma (Tokyo), Naoki Yasuda (Kavli IPMU), Yuji Urata (NCU, Taiwan), Kuiyun Huang (ASIAA), Masaomi Tanaka (NAOJ), Jun E. Okumura (Kyoto), Tomonori Totani (Kyoto), Nozomu Tominaga (Konan), Takashi J. Moriya (Kavli IPMU), Robert Quimby (Tokyo/Kavli IPMU), Keiichi Maeda (Kavli IPMU), Shigehiro Nagataki (Kyoto), Ching-Hsuan Shen (NCU, Taiwan), Cheng-Hsien Tang (NCU, Taiwan), Meng-Feng Tsai (NCU, Taiwan), Min-Feng Wang (NCU, Taiwan), Naoki Yoshida (Tokyo) HSC transient survey

20 Hyper Suprime Cam on Subaru telescope Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) –Diameter: 8.2m, FoV: 1.77deg 2 –m lim (5  ) w/ 1hr: 27.5(g) 27.2(r) 26.7(i) HSC 1.5deg Suprime-Cam HST from Feb 2014

21 First image (M31) -1 st Feb 2013- ©HSC blogi-band 2min exposure

22 HSC strategic program Primary science –Weak lensing –Galaxy evolution 300nights/5yrs 3 layers –Wide, Deep, Ultradeep Transient science is free!!

23 Objectives Type Ia SN Core-Collapse SN Shock Breakout Superluminous SN GRB Orphan Afterglow QSO

24 Type Ia SNe SDSS: 0.05 < z < 0.4 SNLS: 0.3 < z < 1.0 HST: z > 1.0 DES: 0.3 < z < 1.0 –~5000 SN Ia SN Ia at z > 1 is still small number. HSC-UD survey ~130 SN (~60 at z > 1) for S/N>5 ~80 SN (~20 at z > 1) for S/N>10 (3 bands detection) z=1.2 (deep)/UD

25 Type Ia SNe -cosmology- Suzuki et al. (2011) If we can use all S/N>5 sample in addition to UNION2 sample, error on Ω M and w will be decreased by a factor of 2.

26 Core-collapse SNe Available for free with SNe Ia cadence (deep)/UD SurveyTel.Redshi ft # of SNe SNLSCFHT~0.3120 GOODSHST0.1-1.345 HSC- UD Subaru0.2-1.0~165

27 Shock breakout -detectable up to z>1.4- NT+11 1% 10% 50% 90% g-band limiting mag. w/ 10min exposure 50% of detection is at z>0.7 and 10% is at z>1.4.

28 Super Luminous Supernova Rare extremely bright SNe CCSN detection @ z~4 deep/UD Gal-Yam+12 Slow follow-up obs. Spectroscopic follow-up is possible even at half a year after the detection

29 GRB orphan afterglow Direct evidence that GRB consists of relativistic jets Granot+02 GRB ! No GRB, but an optical flare. Redshift range: 0.5 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/3818579/slides/slide_29.jpg", "name": "GRB orphan afterglow Direct evidence that GRB consists of relativistic jets Granot+02 GRB .", "description": "No GRB, but an optical flare. Redshift range: 0.5

30 SNIa rate CCSN rate SN rate history with HSC Hopkins & Beacom 06 and references therein HSC SNe Ia HSC SLSNe HSC CCSNe HSC SN shock breakout GRBs HSC GRB orphan AG

31 Summary Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are bright so as to be useful for cosmology. However, the progenitor systems are still unclear. To address them, we perform two optical surveys. –KISS: the progenitor of Type Ia SNe the nature of shock breakout –HSC: the detection of high-z and/or rare transients Many transient science cases are available with HSC strategic survey. –Cosmology with SNe Ia upto z~1.5 –A ladder of CCSNe upto z~4 connecting to GRBs –Improvement of GRB cosmology


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