Presentation on theme: "Action Shots! Background vs Foreground : El pretérito imperfecto vs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Action Shots! Background vs Foreground : El pretérito imperfecto vs Choosing whento use the correct past tenseBackground vs Foreground :El pretérito imperfecto vsEl pretérito indefinido
2 When talking about the past, you must use the pretérito indefinido and the pretérito imperfecto, often simultaneously!The imperfecto is used for ongoingconditions andhabitual actions in the past.The indefinido is used forcompleted events in the past.Remember:
3 Translations: The indefinido is generally translated as the simple past in English.habló = he talked, he did talkhablaba = he was talking, he used to talk, he would talk & he talkedThe imperfecto has severalEnglish equivalents(including the English simple past).
4 Ejemplos: Llovía is an ongoing condition, whereas (imperfect)(preterite)Llovía cuando salí. =(It was raining when I went out.)Llovía is an ongoing condition, whereassalí is a completed action.
5 Caminaba por la calle cuando me caí. = (I was walking in the street when I fell.)Caminaba indicates a continuing action or ongoing state, the background interrupted by an event with a definite ending point, such as me caí.
6 Más… (I used to go every day, but that day I didn’t go.) Ejemplo:Iba todos los días, pero ese día no fui. =(I used to go every day, but that day I didn’t go.)The event in the pretérito indefinido is often signaled by avery specific time expression, such as ese día,indicating a single completed action.Time expressions used with the imperfecto,on the contrary, indicate habit, repetition orlong duration.
7 Review Use the imperfecto for: An ongoing or continuous past actions Setting the sceneTelling timeTelling your ageDescribing physical and mental statesDescribing the characteristics ofpeople, places, things or situations
8 Review Use the indefinido for: Actions that are single, completed eventsActions that happened a stated number of timesActions that were part of a series /sequence/succession of eventsTo state the beginning or end of an action
9 Ejemplo:Eran las doce de la noche y llovía. Un hombre abrió la puerta. Era viejo y muy delgado. Llevaba ropa negra y tenía la cara muy blanca. Lo miré por un segundo y corrí a mi casa. =(It was midnight and it was raining. A man opened the door. He was old and very thin. He was wearing black and his face was very white. I looked at him for a second and ran to my home.)
10 Check Your Knowledge! He was playing Scrabble™ with Judy. They ate ice cream every day.My teacher yelled (gritar)at me today.Where did you go after school?Jugaba al Scrabble™ con Judy.Comían helado todos los días.Mi profesor me gritó hoy.¿Adónde fuiste después de la escuela?
11 Q&A:The pretérito indefinido is used in Spanish to answer the question “What happened?”.On the other hand, you will usually put a verb in the imperfecto if it answers the questions “What was going on (when something else happened?)”, or “What was it like/How did things use to be?”.Generally, the pretérito indefinido is used to relate events that advance a plot/storyline while the imperfecto is used to describe what was going on in the past, states of being in the past, or past habits.
12 Telling stories…All this takes on special importance in narration of past actions, when both tenses often occur in the same story side-by-side.Narrating a story entails both describing a setting (habitual actions, atmosphere, places and people) using the imperfecto and recounting a plot or a series of events, actions, changes of feelings or thoughts using the indefinido.
13 El imperfecto: usually implies ongoing actions in the past Time:It was 2 o’clock…Date:…on a sunny Saturday in May.Weather:It was beautiful out – a truly perfect spring day!Background actions: was …ing, were …ingThe sun was shining, the birds were chirping, the flowers were blooming, and love was most definitely in the air…Feelings/Emotions:I was feeling happy, healthy, and good about life,…Habitual Actions:On such days, I used to go for walks in the park…
14 The following adverbs are commonly associated with the imperfecto to express an incomplete past: SpanishEnglishAntesBeforeÉrase/Había una vezOnce upon a time (used only in stories)GeneralmenteGenerallyFrecuentementeFrequentlyA menudoOftenConstantementeConstantlySiempreAlways
15 SpanishEnglishCada díaEach dayCada mesEach monthCada añoEach yearRaras vecesRarelyPor lo generalIn generalTodos los añosEvery yearTodos los mesesEvery monthTodos los díasEvery dayDe vez en cuandoOccasionallyNormalmenteNormallyUsualmenteUsuallyMientrasWhile
16 Act 1, Scene 1: Setting the stage w/ el imperfecto ¿Cuál era la fecha?¿Qué hora era?¿Qué tiempo hacía?¿Cómo era el medioambiente?¿Cuántos años tenía?¿Cómo se sentía?¿Qué más se pasaba en la escena?
17 Act 1, Scene 1: Setting the stage w/ el imperfecto What was the date?What time was it?What was the weather like?Describe the environment?How old was the person?How was the person feeling?Was there anything else going on in the background?
18 Repaso: el tiempo Hace/ Hacía… (very) hot (mucha) calor (very) cld (El) llover(El) nevar(very) hot(mucha) calor(very) cld(mucho) friocoolfresconice outbuen tiempobad weathermal tiempowindyvientosunnysolHace/Hacía…
19 Repaso: el tiempo Está/ Estaba… Hay/ Había… oscuro dark nublado cloudy lluviosorainynieblafoghumedadhumidityrelámpagoslightningEstá/Estaba…Hay/Había…
21 Act 1, Scene 2: The foreground w/ el indefinido An action on a specific date/point in time:On that sunny Saturday, the 24th of May, my life changed.Interrupting action:As I was strolling through the park, a beautiful specimen ran right into me, knocking me both literally and figuratively on my butt.Repetition of events:I got up, disoriented, but fell back down again 3 times.Series/sequence/succession of events:When I was finally able to stand, first I brushed myself off, then I straightened out my shirt, finally I got the nerve to approach her…
22 The following adverbs are commonly associated with the indefinido to express a completed action at a specific point in time.past:SpanishEnglishAyerYesterdayAnteayer/antierDay before yesterdayAnocheLast nightAntenocheThe night before lastLa semana pasadaLast weekEl año pasadoLast yearEl verano pasadoLast summer
23 Hace + tiempo + pretérito Ago En la mañana In the morning SpanishEnglishHace + tiempo + pretéritoAgoEn la mañanaIn the morningPor la mañanaEl otro díaThe other dayEl fin de semana pasadoLast weekendSiempre*AlwaysNunca*Never*For actions/events that never actually happened (as opposed to habitual events in the past that regularly did happen):i.e., Siempre quise ir a Disneyworld, pero nunca fui.I always wanted to go to Disneyworld, but I never went.
24 Imagina y describe la escena: (background & foreground)
25 1. Which tense should I use? IMPERFECTOAR = aba, abas, aba, ábamos, abais, abanER/IR = ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían1. DESCRIPTIONS:TimeDateWeatherFeelings/emotions/conditionsphysical2. HABITS (used to/would…)3. ONGOING actions (was/were …ing)4. NON-SPECIFIC DATE RANGE OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIMEPRETÉRITO INDEFINIDOAR = é, aste, ó, amos, asteis, aronER/IR = í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron1. EVENTS moving the plot forward(It usually interrupts an ongoing action in the Imparfait)2. SUCCESSION of events (1st, then, after, finally…)3. REPITITION of events (anytime you use “fois”) EXCEPT w/ “Il était une fois…” (once upon a time)4. SPECIFIC DATE/POINT IN TIMEsetting
26 Ahora, te toca a ti:In pairs, illustrate a scene and describe it, using both past tenses.The catch? You both interpret the same scene very differently…Specs: Write at least 3 sentences each to describe the background (imperfecto) and at least 7 sentences each to describe the foreground/developing events (pretérito indefinido).