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Off-grid Hydropower Status of Myanmar

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Presentation on theme: "Off-grid Hydropower Status of Myanmar"— Presentation transcript:

1 Off-grid Hydropower Status of Myanmar
The NEP Workshop on Off-Grid Electrification in Myanmar Grand Ball Room, Thingaha Hotel, Nay Pyi Taw January 28-29, 2015 P G Ajith kumara

2 Outline Visited Hydro power projects
Categories of hydro power projects Characteristics of Hydro power Technical status Hydro power service providers Comparison with Sri Lanka off grid Hydro power

3 35kW 200 HH Private own 200W 1 HH

4 300kW 2000> HH ESE owned Mechanical power Small industry runs
Private owned

5 7kW 130HH DRD Funded Unknown power 80 HH DRD funded

6 Distribution line 300VA voltage stabilizer

7 Visited Hydro power projects
Shan, Chin, Mandalay and Sagaing states 22 hydro projects visited Capacity range 0.1kW to 1,500kW 6 nos. of service providers interviewed Individual, community based, private ,government owned and government funded projects

8 Categories of hydro power projects
Domestic HPP (06 nos.) 1 – 5 HH <500W power Village HPP (12 nos.) Upto 100kW Few hundreds HH Private, community and DRD funded Operate by Community or owner Government (DHPI, ESE) HPP (03 nos.) Upto 1,500kW National grid tariff structure O & M by ESE

9 Domestic HPP Available in Shan and Sagaing states
Low head turbine technology Unit cost Ks. 500,000 – 800,000 Fix in Irrigation channels Output power 100W – 400W PowerPal ( Canadian design (available upto 75kW)


11 Water wheel

12 Domestic HPP… Not required any form of approval/ permission
Can be acquired only well income and water sources owned families Owners may supply electricity for few neighbors at Ks. 2,000 per bulb Owners use light as well as TV and audio system No significant bad impact on environment Equipments can be purchased by cash only

13 Domestic HPP… Monthly O & M cost Ks. 3,000 – 6,000 Very poor power
Bearing life span 1 to 3 months Very poor power Voltage varies 150V – 260V Frequency varies 35Hz – 65Hz Not use controller Tube bulb with magnetic ballast and Incandescent bulb only use Ready made (PMG) generator available in market Turbine and housing manufacturing by local technicians

14 Village HPP Invested by Private entrepreneur, community and DRD or two of these Capacity range is 3kW to 75kW Actual output is less than 50% of the designed power Locally manufactured turbines use Monthly energy cost is Ks. 300 to 3,000/= ( one project15,000) Project implementation cost upto ks250,000 per HH Energy demand 2 to 5 bulbs, TV Audio systems, mobile phone and Rice cooker Financing management not much transparent




18 Village HPP... Private owned
Started targeting own industry 2 projects in Shan state based on grain crusher, rice mill and oil expeller One project from Sagaing state based on turbine manufacturing Owners have technical capacity for O & M Do not deal with banks

19 Village HPP... Community based
Project starting By practicing neighbour village HPP or By encouraging hydro power developer or manufacturer Per house invest up to Ks. 250,000 All advices are taken from developer/ machine suppliers Electricity consumer society run with mutual understand Written approval not required Social, financial or technical record are not maintaining

20 Village HPP... DRD developed
DRD fully funded and contractor selected by tender calling Capacity less than 20kW O & M by community Beneficiaries have little aware on income Very poor specification in tender documents

21 Village HPP general comment- policy
DRD has been started 100% funded HP development last couple of years No recording/ registration methods of projects Local governments have supported for some projects in financing and technically Monthly charge based on nos. of appliances or fix rate

22 Village HPP general comment- Social
Over 80% of beneficiaries are farmers and the balance is retails seller, labours(skilled, unskilled) Businessmen, labours(skilled, unskilled) Monthly energy consumption 4kWh- 75kWh Major electricity usages are Lighting, Audio/ video, Phone.(rice cooker) Freely electricity supply for community centres, School and monastery Project manage with mutual understand and no record minutes Project developing and purchasing through a single person or a company Very poor safety level (not use RCCBs, MCBs or fuses)

23 Village HPP general comment- Technical
Turbine are not match for the site specification Not use a control system (fix load/ sluice gate control)very poor quality power (150V- 260V and 35Hz to 70Hz) Hidden cost to maintain appliances Voltage stabilizer has to be used with TV and audio system Project failure rate is unacceptable level and maintenance cost is very high Over all efficiency is less than 30% Machines life time is 3 – 10 year

24 Village HPP....Technical Locally made turbines
Little knowledge on critical aspects on turbine (speed matching, controlling, bearing selection, finishing or turbine) Some projects abandoned due to endless failures Poor workshop facility (very old lathe and drills)

25 Energy pricing Energy cost vary Ks. 40 -250 per kWh
Energy consumption 5kWh to 70kWh per month Major electricity demand for 2 to 5 bulbs, TV/ Audio, phone charge , Rice cooker

26 Government Hydro power projects
DHPI has developed in 1980s and1990s ESE tariff structure apply Capacity is 200kW to 1500kW Imported machineries use 11kV transmission line with multiple nos. Of step down transformers Regularly fail bearing, generator and electronics components

27 Government Hydro power ....
Var HPP bearing fail 5 time per year Laiva HPP diode fail few times per year Very poor attention on maintenance activities(non of flow controller functioning)


29 Service providers(Domestic and village HPPs)
Hydro power developer Acting as an intermediary linking villagers with equipment suppliers Advice on technical, social and financial aspects Supply all equipment and earn profit Contribute for maintenance work Machine manufacturer Manufacture turbines, penstock(steel) panel board Act as a developer also

30 15yrs LCC @10% discount rate (ks/kWh) Capacity cost @ 20yrs (Ks/kW)
LCC analysis Project Actual power Investment 15yrs discount rate (ks/kWh) Capacity 20yrs (Ks/kW) Amount(Ks) Year 10% discounted Domestic HPP 0.25 600,000 2014 220 6,000,000 Pan Oo Tang 25 60,000,000 2002 188,305,703 380 7,900,000 Mong In 1 5,000,000 550 12,000,000 Owe Kong 15 50,000,000 200 6,650,000 Ming In 3 500,000 860 7,500,000 Laouk Lon 10 10,000,000 2011 13,310,000 376, 4,100,000 35Ks

31 LCC analysis... By practicing advance technology (use in developing countries) Energy cost(ks/kWh) can be reduced up to 20% -50% Capacity cost(Ks/kW) can be reduced upto 20% to 50% (based on 20years LCC) Cost variation Project cost increases 20% - 50% Life time increase over 20 years (3 times) O and M cost reduce upto 50% Energy generation increase about 50%

32 Comparison with Sri Lanka HP
Community based concept Project implementation cost Technology Project O & M expenses

33 Community based concept
Registering in local government as a welfare society(Electricity consumer society, ECS) Main posts of society are adviser, president, secretary, treasurer and working committee Maintain minutes of each meeting General meeting calls quarterly and emergency meeting call to get special occasions Pass the annual budget 20% to 40% project cost is in-kind labour and materials All construction doing by members with guidance of the developer

34 Community based.. Maintain bank account and monthly saving deposits
Two of president, secretary and treasurer have to be present to withdraw money from account ECS management has to be change annually Knowledge sharing between ECS



37 Technology Developer Manufacturer Main components
Facilitate between villages and all other stakeholder Manage technical, project, social and financial areas Manufacturer Design and manufacture according to site specification Install and commissioning Maintenance Mechanical and electrical parts manufacturers Main components Water intake, Head race, Forebay tank Penstock, Turbine, Generator, Controller, Distribution panel, Distribution line

38 Forebay tank Short wall Trash rack Spill way Penstock Flush outs

39 Forebay tank...

40 Control system

41 Controller – ballast load


43 Project O & M expenses 10kW project, 50 HH
Monthly income (LKR 300x50) =15,000($115) Operator salary = 6,000($46) Monthly saving =9,000($70) Annual saving =108,000($830)

44 Thank you

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