Presentation on theme: "Akshay Ahuja Business Analyst India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF) 12 Oct 2014 ENERGY STORAGE FOR SMART GRIDS."— Presentation transcript:
Akshay Ahuja Business Analyst India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF) 12 Oct 2014 ENERGY STORAGE FOR SMART GRIDS
2 Need for Energy Storage Balance supply-demand mismatch Utilize storage for peak periods Renewable Integration Frequency support Reliable power supply Defer/reduce the need for new generation capacity and transmission upgrades Microgrids Electric Vehicles Emergency support
4 Large Scale Energy Storage Technologies Pumped Hydro (PHS) Employs off-peak electricity to pump water from a reservoir up to another reservoir at a higher elevation Can be sized up to 2 GW; Discharge duration 6-30 hours Efficiency: 80-85%; Life: 50-60 years Siting/Permitting/Env. Impact issue Projects in India: 1.45 GW Sardar Sarovar Pumped Storage Power Station in Gujarat; 900 MW Purulia Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant in WB Compressed Air Energy Storage Use off-peak electricity to compress air and store it in a reservoir Above ground : up to 400 MW Discharge Duration: upto 30 hours Efficiency: 65%; life: 30 years Geological/siting issue
5 Batteries Lead-Acid Capacity range: upto few MW’s, Discharge duration: upto 4 hours Cheap Suitable for short duration application. Efficiency: 75% Disposal issue – toxic; less life Projects in India: 40 kW Khareda Lakshmipura Microgrid in Rajasthan Lithium-ion Capacity range: upto few MW’s; Discharge duration: upto 4 hrs Fast growing, commercial and mature Leading technology platform for EV and PHEV Short and medium duration applications Life: 15 years; Efficiency: 90-95% 40 MW LiB Project in Sendai, Japan
6 Batteries Sodium-Sulphur Capacity range: upto few MW’s; Discharge duration: upto 8 hours Suitable for grid support application Life: 15 years; Efficiency: 75% Requires operating temperature 300-350 degree Celsius, which makes it hazardous and combustible 34 MW NaS Project in Rokkasho, Japan Flow Batteries Capacity range: few MW’s; Discharge duration: 5-6 hours Electrolytes stored in separate tanks which prevents deposition Suitable for utility scale applications Life: 20 years; Efficiency: 75-80% Complexity of the design due to pumps and power control systems Projects in India: 40 kW Sun-carrier Omega Net Zero Building in Bhopal 25 MW Flow battery Project in California, USA
Other Technologies 7 Flywheel Rotational energy is stored in a large rotational cylinder where the energy is maintained by keeping its speed constant. A vacuum chamber is used to reduce friction, and the rotors are made of carbon fibre composites suspended by magnetic bearings. Although flywheels have power densities 5 to 10 times that of batteries—meaning they require much less space to store a comparable amount of power—there are practical limitations to the amount of energy (kWh) that can be stored. Typical flywheel applications include power quality and UPS uses, as seen in commercial products. Research is under way to develop more advanced flywheel systems that can store large quantities of energy. Thermal Energy Storage Systems use cold water, hot water or ice storage to store the heat and use for later. The efficiencies vary with the material. They are important for integrating large scale renewable energy as concentrated solar thermal technology can be used as a reliable and despatchable source of energy to balance the supply and demand.
8 Overview of Possible Applications Some technologies such as pumped hydro storage, compressed air energy storage, hydrogen and thermal storage are characterised by their ability to store energy over time (several hours) Others, e.g. batteries and flywheels, are characterised by their ability to deliver power very fast Storage duration Several hours to several days or weeks Several seconds to several minutes PHS, CAES, H 2 and thermal storage Batteries and flywheels » Many new technologies, but what are the applications?
9 Generation Ancillary Services – Frequency Regulation – Spinning Reserves Capacity – Peak Energy Reliability – Frequency Response Transmission & Distribution Upgrade deferral – Reduce circuit and line overload Grid resiliency – Back-up power Voltage support/power quality End-users Power Quality/UPS Onsite renewables Overview of Possible Applications
Capital Cost Trend 11 Source: India Energy Storage Alliance (IESA)
12 New Business Models AES Energy Storage has commissioned over 100 MW of energy storage for grid services around the globe in past 4 years Projects include – Supporting Coal Generation unit for synchronous reserves – Frequency regulation in Chile – Also exploring direct contracting with utilities for energy storage as service in California and Long Island, NY
13 New Business Models ESSCO: Energy Storage Solution Companies; BEMS/FEMS: Building/Factory Energy Management System
14 Opportunities in Indian Market India plans to integrate 50GW renewables (30 GW wind and 20 GW Solar) between 2014-2020. Proposed ancillary service introduction by CERC could create a 3-4 GW opportunity for frequency regulation by 2018 600,000 telecom towers – 70% + utilize DG for backup / primary source have been mandated by regulators to reduce diesel consumption Over 100,000 Bank ATMs that need backup solutions India Plans to Install 26 Million Solar-powered Water Pumps (over 9 Million diesel powered water pumps in operation) Over 300 million people currently do not have access to grid electricity and India’s National Mission for energy access aims to provide at least 8 hours of access by 2017 India’s National Electric Mobility Mission aims to get 6 million EV / HEVs (including 2 wheelers) on road by 2020 Indian railways is 5 th largest rail network with over 65,000 km of rail network and is driving integration of energy storage for public transportation systems
15 Some Initiatives in India Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has identified high potential application areas. Looking at the increasing importance of energy storage for integrating renewable energy, the MNRE propose to support demonstration projects for energy storage to assess feasibility of energy storage technologies for small scale and grid connected MW scale renewable energy applications. MNRE is looking to support demonstrations of energy storage technologies in each of the following categories: Integrating large-scale wind and solar generation into the transmission grids. Rural Micro Grids Micro grids in commercial, industrial, residential, defense or other applications Large scale standalone systems
16 Some Initiatives in India Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) To find suitability of battery technologies for grid scale storage system in India, Power Grid Corporation is India (PGCIL) is inviting bids for energy storage demonstration projects. PGCIL is inviting tenders for energy storage systems under 3 categories: Lithium Ion batteries Advanced lead Acid batteries & Sodium Nickel Chloride / Alkaline/ Flow Battery This demonstration project could establish the criteria for integration of large scale energy storage for grid integration of renewable as well as ancillary services in India State Governments Initiatives The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) introduced the country’s first electric zero-emission bus in the Bangalore city Gujarat Government will soon introduce a pilot project to run ‘electric buses’ for public transport between the state capital Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad