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1 Core and Access Technologies www.slt.lk. 2 Content Introduction Voice Communication Data communication Data Computer Networks IP Services Copper Wire.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Core and Access Technologies www.slt.lk. 2 Content Introduction Voice Communication Data communication Data Computer Networks IP Services Copper Wire."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Core and Access Technologies

2 2 Content Introduction Voice Communication Data communication Data Computer Networks IP Services Copper Wire (DSL Services)

3 3 Content (contd.) Fixed Wireless Broadband Fibre Broadband Access Technologies

4 4 Introduction

5 5 Voice Communication Data Communication Voice Data

6 6 Voice Communication

7 7  Wired- Copper cable pair  Wireless- Radio signal

8 8  Fixed  Mobile

9 9 Fixed  Wired  Wireless (WLL) Exchange Local loop (Wired or wireless)

10 10 Fixed - Wired Exchange Copper pair loop

11 11 Fixed – Wireless (CDMA)

12 12 Mobile Network 1 G – 1 st Generation 2G – 2 nd Generation 3G – 3 rd Generation Mobile Voice Same as PSTN. Mobility Management

13 13 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

14 14 PSTN

15 15 Access Network Customer Premises Equipment (Telephone) Service Provider (operator) Premises Equipment (Exchange) Access Network

16 16 Core Network Exchanges Transmission link

17 17 Voice Signal Telephone Channel 0 – 4 kHz Analog Signal Sound Energy Electric Energy Speaker Mic

18 18 Voice Services  Normal Telephone Service (Plain Old Telephone System - POTS)  Voice Mail  Call Forwarding  Call Conferencing

19 19 Circuit Switching Telephone Exchange,Mobile Switching Centre - Connect users (Telephones) - Circuit Switching - Real Time Connection (No Delay)

20 20 Data Communication

21 21 Data Communication

22 22 Data Digital Signals Electrical Signal

23 23 1,0 - Bits Bits Bits Bits

24 24 Bit Rate - Measurement of Bit Speed Bits Per Second – How many Bits Travel in one second 1 b/s, 10 b/s Data Traveling

25 25 Bit Rate  k – kilo  M – Mega  G – Giga  T – Tera  1 kb/s b/s  1 Mb/s Kb/s  1 Gb/s Mb/s  1 Tb/s Gb/s

26 26 Data Services  World Wide Web (www)  Electronic Mail (E - mail)  Short Message Service (SMS)  Multi Media Services (MMS)

27 27 Data Packet Group of Bits

28 28 Packet Switching Exchange (PSE)

29 29

30 30 Packet Switching

31 31 IP data & Non - IP data  IP – Internet Protocol  Standards defined by internet society Data IP Non - IP

32 32 IP Data Services  World Wide Web  E - mail

33 33 Non – IP Data Services  SMS - Short Message Service  MMS – Multimedia Message Service

34 34  Access Network -IP Non – IP  Core Network -IP Non – IP

35 35 IP Core Network PSE is called Router

36 36 IP - MPLS Core Network PSE is called Router

37 37 TDM Core Network 37 Multiplexer TDM - Time Division Multiplexing

38 38 TDM (Non IP Core Network) MPLS (IP Core Network) PSTN Core Network Mobile Core Network

39 39 Can We send Data through PSTN?  Yes - Shall Convert to an analog signal Similar to Voice - Use a Modem Speed : 9.6 kbps, 14.4 kbps, 28.8 kbps, 56 kbps

40 40 Can We send Data through Mobile Network?  Yes - Same as PSTN - Use a Modem 1 G – 9.6 kb/s 2 G – GSM Circuit Switched Data (CSD) kb/s High Speed CSD ( HCSD) kb/s

41 41 Can Mobile Network send Packet Switched Data ?  Yes - 2 G and Upwards MSC – Mobile Switching Center DSE – Data Switch Exchange

42 42 GSM Packet Switch Data GPRS - General Packet Radio System EDGE - Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evaluation  GPRS – (Up to 60 kbps)  EDGE – (Up to 236 kbps)

43 43 Can CDMA Network send Packet Switched Data ?  CDMA Data - Data through circuit switch (9.6 kbps) - Data through Packet switch – (EV-DO) Download up to 2 Mb/s EV-DO – Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only

44 44 3 G Packet Switched Data Downlink Speed – upto 14 Mb/s  High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

45 45 Data through MPLS core network VPN – Virtual Private Network Bandwidth is shared Can use for IP data – upto 155 Mb/s

46 46 Data through TDM core network This is Called a “Leased Line” Dedicated Channel Speed : N x 64 kb/s, N = 1, 2, … kb/s, 128 kb/s, 192 kb/s, 2048 kb/s

47 47 Computer Networks

48 48  PAN -about 10m radius  LAN -within a building or within a campus  MAN -several km radius  WAN -countrywide, worldwide Computer Networks PAN - Personal Area Network LAN - Local Area Network MAN - Metropolitan Area Network WAN - Wide Area Network

49 49 LAN

50 50 WAN WAN link - Leased line - IP-VPN

51 51 WAN

52 52 IP Address Use to identify a computer or device. There are two types, Public IP address Private IP address

53 53 Internet LAN ISP Internet ISP – Internet Service Provider Public IP addresses are used

54 54 Intranet LAN Intranet  Private IP addresses are used.  Public cannot access.  Closed network.

55 55 Extranet Intranet Extranet

56 56 IP Services

57 57 IP Services Services access through Internet Services access through Intranet, Extranet Data travels as IP packets Egg : www

58 58 How to access Internet Connection – PSTN- Dial-up TDM- Leased line MPLS- IP-VPN

59 59 IP Services –

60 60 Advantages of IP Services  Transmit as IP packets  All IP packets are similar pattern. Therefore, treats them equally in the network.  Can differentiate the services at computer/terminal

61 61 Other IP Services  Since IP is very flexible, non data (e.g. Voice) also convert to IP packets E.g. VoIP, IPTV, Video streaming, Audio streaming,Games

62 62 Broadband More services together More Information More bandwidth required (Broadband required)

63 63 Narrowband and Broadband  Narrowband – Less than 256 kb/s  Broadband – More than 256 kb/s  There is no User definition  Change from Time to Time  May be after several Years, Broadband…..  More than 10 Mb/s

64 64 Converged Services  All IP Packets travel together  No guaranteed bandwidth per service  This is called “ Best Effort services”

65 65 Disadvantage of Best Effort Service  Not prioritize the traffic  Not suitable for interactive services such as Voice, Games etc

66 66 Quality of Services  Guaranteed bandwidth  Prioritize packet at Router  Less delay for high priority services

67 67 IP Services - www

68 68 Access to WWW Service  Dial-up 68

69 69 Dial – up Disadvantages Upload or Download Cannot upload and download simultaneously 69

70 70 Dial-up Disadvantages 70  C annot access internet and telephone line simultaneously.  Telephone charges while using internet.  Dial and Connect to Internet  Speed is bellow 56 Kbps.  Cannot Upload and Download simultaneously.

71 71 Characteristics of WWW Upload Download Download needs more bandwidth than upload. Upload bandwidth ≠ Download bandwidth - Asymmetric 71

72 72 Copper Loop (DSL Technologies) DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

73 73 Bandwidth of Copper Loop POTS Total bandwidth about 8000 kHz POTS (normal telephone) uses only 4kHz. Hence, bandwidth wastage 73

74 74 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Download Upload POTS D U 4 kHz Download has more bandwidth Residential Package ; upload=128 kb/s, download=512 kb/s Corporate Package ; upload=512 kb/s, download=2048 kb/s 74

75 75 Advantages of ADSL 75  Simultaneous access to Internet and telephone  No additional telephone charges while using internet.  24 hour Internet connectivity  Very High Speed

76 76 Disadvantages of ADSL  Maximum distance – about 5 km  Distance increase – Download speed decrease 76

77 77 ADSL for WWW ADSL is an access technology 77

78 78 DSL Improvements ADSL2+ Downloading speed - 16 Mbps Uploading Speed – 1 Mbps Very high speed DSL VDSL Downloading speed - 24 Mbps xDSL x = A, V,S, H

79 79 Fixed Wireless Broadband Access

80 80 WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. 80

81 81 WiMAX Features  Broadband radio access technology  IP based data  Converge service  QoS  Line of sight (LOS) about 15 km.  Non-LOS (NLOS) about 3 km  3.5 GHz operating frequency 81

82 82 WiMAX Services  Leased line  WWW   Voice over IP  Games  Video streaming  Audio streaming 82

83 83 WiMAX standards IEEE d - Fixed WiMAX IEEE e - Mobile WiMAX IEEE – Institution of Electric & Electronic Engineering WiMAX Forum – 83

84 84 Differences between WiFi and WiMAX  WiFi- Wireless LAN Operates in 100m radius  WiMAX - Access technology - LOS about 15km - NLOS about 3km 84

85 85 WiMAX (Contd…) 85

86 86 Fibre Broadband Access Technologies

87 87 Access technology – Metro Ethernet Bandwidth per user – upto 100 Mbps 87

88 88 Access network – Passive Optical Network (PON) 88 Upto 1Gb/s

89 89 FTTH FTTH (Fibre To The Home) 89

90 90 FTTN FTTN (Fibre To The Neighborhood) 90

91 91 Access Technology Summary  Copper – Dial-up – (PSTN) ADSL (8 Mbps/1 Mbps), ADSL2+ (16 Mbps), VDSL (24 Mbps)  Wireless (Fixed) – CDMA/EVDO WiMAX 91

92 92 Access Technology Summary (Contd..)  Wireless (Mobile) – CSD, HCSD (Circuit Switching) GPRS EDGE HSDPA  Fibre – Metro Ethernet PON FTTH FTTN 92

93 93 Core Network summary Voice Circuit Switching Voice – Circuit Switching Data – Packet Switching 93

94 94 Core Network summary (Cont…) Shared IP bandwidth Broadband IP QoS Dedicated bandwidth Non - IP 94


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