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IPCC Mitigation of Climate Change IPCC Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report Bert Metz Co-chair IPCC WG III Risoe International.

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Presentation on theme: "IPCC Mitigation of Climate Change IPCC Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report Bert Metz Co-chair IPCC WG III Risoe International."— Presentation transcript:

1 IPCC Mitigation of Climate Change IPCC Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report Bert Metz Co-chair IPCC WG III Risoe International Energy Conference, Roskilde, Denmark, May 22, 2007

2 IPCC The process Three year process Assessment of published literature Extensive review by independent and government experts Summary for Policy Makers approved line-by-line by all 180 IPCC member governments (Bangkok, May 4) Full report and technical summary accepted without discussion

3 IPCC The people – Lead Authors: 168 from developing countries: 55 From EITs: 5 from OECD countries: 108 – Contributing authors: 85 – Expert Reviewers: 485

4 IPCC Between 1970 and 2004 global greenhouse gas emissions have increased by 70 % Total GHG emissions GtCO2-eq/yr

5 IPCC Carbon dioxide is the largest contributor

6 IPCC With current climate change mitigation policies and related sustainable development practices, global GHG emissions will continue to grow over the next few decades IPCC SRES scenarios: % increase of GHG emissions in 2030 relative to GtCO2eq/yr

7 IPCC Mitigation potential Mitigation potential: –Emission reduction, relative to emission baselines, that is economically attractive at a given “price of carbon” Market potential: –Based on private costs and private rates of return –Expected to occur under forecast market conditions –Including policies and measures currently in place –Barriers limit actual uptake Economic potential: –Takes into account social costs and benefits and social rates of return, –Assuming that market efficiency is improved by policies and measures and –Barriers are removed

8 IPCC Economic mitigation potential till 2030 could offset the projected growth of global emissions, or reduce emissions below current levels Both bottom-up and top-down studies Note: estimates do not include non-technical options such as lifestyle changes BOTTOM-UP TOP-DOWN Global economic potential in 2030

9 IPCC What does US$ 50/ tCO2eq mean? Crude oil: ~US$ 25/ barrel Gasoline: ~12 ct/ litre (50 ct/gallon) Electricity: – from coal fired plant: ~5 ct/kWh – from gas fired plant: ~1.5 ct/kWh

10 IPCC All sectors and regions have the potential to contribute (end-use based) Note: estimates do not include non-technical options, such as lifestyle changes.

11 IPCC World primary energy consumption by fuel type

12 IPCC Future energy supply Strong increase in energy demand projected (upto 100% by 2030) Increase in oil/gas price: both low and high carbon alternatives attractive Price volatility important barrier against investments Shortage of fossil fuel is not going to help to stabilise CO2 concentrations (IPCC TAR )

13 IPCC How can emissions be reduced? SectorKey mitigation technologies and practices currently commercially available. (Selected) Key mitigation technologies and practices projected to be commercialized before (Selected) Energy Supply efficiency; fuel switching; nuclear power; renewable (hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy); combined heat and power; early applications of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) CCS for gas, biomass and coal-fired electricity generating facilities; advanced nuclear power; advanced renewables (tidal and wave energy, concentrating solar, solar PV)

14 IPCC Electricity sector emissions, 2002 to 2030 (IEA/WEO 2004 baseline) 16,074 TWh 31,656 TWh

15 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional electricity saving in Building sector at

16 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional electricity saving in the industrial sector at

17 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional improved generation plant efficiency and fuel switching at

18 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional hydro, wind, geothermal, bioenergy, solar at

19 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional nuclear power at

20 IPCC Potential emission reductions from additional CCS in new coal and gas plants at

21 IPCC How can emissions be reduced? Sector(Selected) Key mitigation technologies and practices currently commercially available. Key mitigation technologies and practices projected to be commercialized before (Selected) TransportMore fuel efficient vehicles; hybrid vehicles; biofuels; modal shifts from road transport to rail and public transport systems; cycling, walking; land-use planning Second generation biofuels; higher efficiency aircraft; advanced electric and hybrid vehicles with more powerful and reliable batteries

22 IPCC Mitigation potential in the transport sector till 2030 Goods transport, public transport: not quantified Vehicle efficiency: net benefits (many cases), but big barriers Aviation: efficiency, but not offsetting growth Biofuel potential : –Depends on production pathway, vehicle efficiency, oil and carbon prices –3% of global transport energy in 2030; 5-10%, if cellulose biomass is commercialised –Watch out for: local land and water availability, competition with food

23 IPCC Sector(Selected) Key mitigation technologies and practices currently commercially available. Key mitigation technologies and practices projected to be commercialized before (Selected) IndustryMore efficient electrical equipment; heat and power recovery; material recycling; control of non-CO 2 gas emissions Advanced energy efficiency; CCS for cement, ammonia, and iron manufacture; inert electrodes for aluminium manufacture BuildingsEfficient lighting; efficient appliances and airconditioners; improved insulation ; solar heating and cooling; alternatives for fluorinated gases in insulation and appliances Integrated design of commercial buildings including technologies, such as intelligent meters that provide feedback and control; solar PV integrated in buildings How can emissions be reduced?

24 IPCC Mitigation potential in the industry and buildings sector till 2030 Industry: –Potential predominantly in energy intensive industries. –Many efficient installations in developing countires –Barriers include slow stock turnover and (for SMEs) lack of financial resources, inability to absorb technical information Buildings: –About 30% of projected GHG emissions by 2030 can be avoided with net economic benefit. –New buildings: >75% savings compared to current (at low to zero additional cost) –Barriers include availability of technologies, financing, cost of reliable information and limitations in building designs

25 IPCC Changes in lifestyle and behaviour patterns can contribute to climate change mitigation Changes in occupant behaviour, cultural patterns and consumer choice in buildings. Behaviour of staff in industrial organizations in light of reward systems Reduction of car usage and efficient driving style, in relation to urban planning and availability of public transport

26 IPCC What are the macro-economic costs in 2030? Trajectories towards stabilization levels (ppm CO 2 -eq) Median GDP reduction[1][1] (%) Range of GDP reduction [2][2] (%) Reduction of average annual GDP growth rates [3][3] (percentage points) – 1.2< – 2.5< [4][4]Not available< 3< 0.12 [1][1] This is global GDP based market exchange rates. [2][2] The median and the 10 th and 90 th percentile range of the analyzed data are given. [3][3] The calculation of the reduction of the annual growth rate is based on the average reduction during the period till 2030 that would result in the indicated GDP decrease in [4][4] The number of studies that report GDP results is relatively small and they generally use low baselines. Costs are global average for least cost appoaches from top-down models Costs do not include co-benefits and avoided climate change damages

27 IPCC Illustration of cost numbers GDP without mitigation GDP with stringent mitigation GDP Time 80% current 77% ~1 year

28 IPCC There are also co-benefits of mitigation Near–term health benefits from reduced air pollution may offset a substantial fraction of mitigation costs Mitigation can also be positive for: energy security, balance of trade improvement, provision of modern energy services to rural areas, sustainable agriculture and employment

29 IPCC Stabilisation of GHG concentrations (radiative forcing) in the atmosphere and emission reductions The lower the stabilisation level the earlier global CO2 emissions have to peak Multigas and CO2 only studies combined

30 IPCC Stabilisation and equilibrium global mean temperatures Equilibrium temperatures reached after 2100 Uncertainty of climate sensitivity important Multigas and CO2 only studies combined

31 IPCC Long term mitigation (after 2030) [1] [1] The best estimate of climate sensitivity is 3ºC [WG 1 SPM]. [2][2] Note that global mean temperature at equilibrium is different from expected global mean temperature at the time of stabilization of GHG concentrations due to the inertia of the climate system. For the majority of scenarios assessed, stabilisation of GHG concentrations occurs between 2100 and [3][3] Ranges correspond to the 15 th to 85 th percentile of the post-TAR scenario distribution. CO 2 emissions are shown so multi-gas scenarios can be compared with CO 2 -only scenarios. Stab level (ppm CO2-eq) Global Mean temp. increase at equilibrium (ºC) Year global CO2 needs to peak Year global CO2 emissions back at 2000 level Reduction in 2050 global CO2 emissions compared to – – to – – to – – to – – to – – to – – to +140 Mitigation efforts over the next two to three decades will have a large impact on opportunities to achieve lower stabilization levels

32 IPCC Technology The range of stabilization levels can be achieved by –deployment of a portfolio of technologies that are currently available and –those that are expected to be commercialised in coming decades. This assumes that appropriate and effective incentives are in place for development, acquisition, deployment and diffusion of technologies and for addressing related barriers

33 IPCC What are the macro-economic costs in 2050? Trajectories towards stabilization levels (ppm CO 2 -eq) Median GDP reduction[1][1] (%) Range of GDP reduction [2][2] (%) Reduction of average annual GDP growth rates [3][3] (percentage points) – 2< Slightly negative - 4< [4][4]Not available< 5.5< 0.12 [1][1] This is global GDP based market exchange rates. [2][2] The median and the 10 th and 90 th percentile range of the analyzed data are given. [3][3] The calculation of the reduction of the annual growth rate is based on the average reduction during the period till 2050 that would result in the indicated GDP decrease in [4][4] The number of studies that report GDP results is relatively small and they generally use low baselines.

34 IPCC Policies are available to to governments to realise mitigation of climate change Effectiveness of policies depends on national circumstances, their design, interaction, stringency and implementation –Integrating climate policies in broader development policies –Regulations and standards –Taxes and charges –Tradable permits –Financial incentives –Voluntary agreements –Information instruments –Research and development

35 IPCC Selected sectoral policies, measures and instruments that have shown to be environmentally effective SectorPolicies [1], measures and instruments shown to be environmentally effective [1] Key constraints or opportunities Energy supplyReduction of fossil fuel subsidies Resistance by vested interests may make them difficult to implement Taxes or carbon charges on fossil fuels Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy technologies May be appropriate to create markets for low emissions technologies Renewable energy obligations Producer subsidies [1][1] Public RD&D investment in low emission technologies have proven to be effective in all sectors.

36 IPCC Selected sectoral policies, measures and instruments that have shown to be environmentally effective SectorPolicies, measures and instruments shown to be environmentally effective Key constraints or opportunities TransportMandatory fuel economy, biofuel blending and CO 2 standards for road transport Partial coverage of vehicle fleet may limit effectiveness Taxes on vehicle purchase, registration, use and motor fuels, road and parking pricing Effectiveness may drop with higher incomes Influence mobility needs through land use regulations, and infrastructure planning Particularly appropriate for countries that are building up their transportation systems Investment in attractive public transport facilities and non-motorised forms of transport [1][1] Public RD&D investment in low emission technologies have proven to be effective in all sectors.

37 IPCC An effective carbon-price signal could realise significant mitigation potential in all sectors Policies that provide a real or implicit price of carbon could create incentives for producers and consumers to significantly invest in low-GHG products, technologies and processes. Such policies could include economic instruments, government funding and regulation For stabilisation at around 550 ppm CO2eq carbon prices should reach US$/tCO2eq by 2030 (5-65 if “induced technological change” happens) At these carbon prices large shifts of investments into low carbon technologies can be expected

38 IPCC Investments Energy infrastructure investment decisions, (20 trillion US$ till 2030) will have long term impacts on GHG emissions. The widespread diffusion of low-carbon technologies may take many decades, even if early investments in these technologies are made attractive. Returning global energy-related CO2 emissions to 2005 levels by 2030 would require a large shift in the pattern of investment, although the net additional investment required ranges from negligible to 5-10% It is often more cost-effective to invest in end-use energy efficiency improvement than in increasing energy supply

39 IPCC The importance of technology policies The lower the stabilization levels (550 ppm CO2-eq or lower) the greater the need for more efficient RD&D efforts and investment in new technologies during the next few decades Government support is important for effective technology development, innovation and deployment through financial contributions, tax credits, standard setting market creation. BUT, government funding for most energy research programmes has been declining for nearly two decades: now about half of 1980 level.

40 IPCC International agreements Notable achievements of the UNFCCC/Kyoto Protocol that may provide the foundation for future mitigation efforts: –global response to the climate problem, –stimulation of an array of national policies, –the creation of an international carbon market and –new institutional mechanisms Future agreements: –Greater cooperative efforts to reduce emissions will help to reduce global costs for achieving a given level of mitigation, or will improve environmental effectiveness –Improving, and expanding the scope of, market mechanisms (such as emission trading, Joint Implementation and CDM) could reduce overall mitigation costs –Assessed literature on future agreements on basis of criteria for enevironmental/ cost effectiveness, distributional/ institutional feasibility

41 IPCC Climate policy can have positive or negative effects on other aspects of SD Non-climate policies can influence GHG emissions as much as specific climate policies Two-way Relationship Between Climate Change and Sustainable Development Climate change mitigation Sustainable development

42 IPCC Examples of side-effects of climate mitigation OPTIONS Energy: efficiency, renewables, fuel- switching SYNERGIES air quality supply security employment costs (efficiency) TRADEOFFS particulate emissions (diesel) biodiversity (biofuels) costs (renewables) waste: landfill gas capture, incineration health & safety employment energy advantages ground water pollution costs

43 IPCC Non-climate policies can influence GHG emissions as much as specific climate policies SectorsNon-climate policies -- Candidates for integrating climate concerns Possible influence (% of global emissions) Macro-economyTaxes, subsidies, other fiscal policiesAll GHG emissions (100%) ElectricityDiversification to low-carbon sources, demand management, limit distribution losses Electricity sector emissions (20 %) Oil-importsDiversification energy sources/decrease intensity -> enhance energy security GHGs from oil product imports (20 %) Insurance (buildings, infrastructure) Differentiated premiums, liability insurance exclusion, improved conditions for green products GHG emissions buildings, transport (20%) Bank lendingSector/ country strategies, avoid lock-in into old technologies in developing countries Notably development projects (25%) Rural energyPolicies promoting LPG, kerosene and electricity for cooking Extra emissions over biomass (<2 %)

44 IPCC The Summary for Policy Makers, the Technical Summary and the full Report (subject to editing) can be downloaded from Further information: IPCC Working Group III Technical Support Unit at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency:


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