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CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT. INTRODUCTION CHINA TRN EVAL.

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Presentation on theme: "CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT. INTRODUCTION CHINA TRN EVAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT

2 INTRODUCTION

3 CHINA TRN EVAL

4 AIM TO ACQUAINT YOU WITH TRN OBTAINING ON OUR NORTHERN AND EASTERN BORDERS WITH CHINA AND CARRY OUT A BROAD TRN EVAL

5 PREVIEW l PART 1-TIBET GEN l PART 2-LADAKH l PART 3-HP - UP BORDER l PART 4-SIKKIM BORDER l PART 5-ALP BORDER

6 SCOPE

7 PART 1: TIBET

8 GEN l PLATEAU- 14,000 FT (3050 M) TO 16,000 FT (4875M) l AREA- 1,221,700 SQ KM l INTERNAL -XINJIANG, QINGHAI BORDERSSICHUAN, YUNNAN l EXTERNAL- INDIA,NEPAL BORDERSBHUTAN & M’MAR

9 TRN EVAL l Contains High Mtns. l Large Areas Not Surveyed. l Southern & Eastern Portions Have Maj Population & Agricultural Areas. l Undulating With Few Steep Rises & Obst. l Hard & Open, Suitable for Constr of Rds & Airfds.

10 TRN EVAL l East of Tsang Po bend, mtnous & unstable soil, prone to Landslides/ closure. l Entry difficult but within Tibet, mov easy. l Gradual slope towards India, Nepal

11 RELIEF OF TIBET l CHANGTHANG REGION l PO REGION l EASTERN TIBET

12 COMNS

13 WESTERN HIGHWAY l Length-2480 kms. l Kashgar to Lhasa via Aksai Chin, Gartok. l Cl 18 one way. l Lhasa to Laze Cl 50. l Closure period-60 days. l Capacity 800 T daily.

14 CENTRAL HIGHWAY l Cl 50 two way black top. l Length -1965 kms. l Xining to Lhasa via Gormo. l Gormo- Lhasa 1127 kms. l Closure pd-40 days. l Capacity -2700 T daily.

15 EASTERN HIGHWAY l Chengdu - Lhasa via Chamdo, Pangta. l Cl 18 one way. l Kangting - Pangta two alignments. –N Alignment via Chamdo - 2405 kms. –S Alignment via Mankang - 2085 kms. l Closure period-90 days. l Capacity 800 T daily.

16 EASTERN HIGHWAY l Tibet -Yunnan Highway from Mangkang. –700kms. –Cl 9. l Induction route from Chengdu MR

17 KARAKORAM HIGHWAY l Length-1225 Km. l Kashgar - Havelian via Khunjerab Pass l Kashgar - Khunjerab (395 km) Cl 18 two way. l Closure period-90 days. l Khunjerab-GilgitCl 40. l Gilgit-HavelianCl 70.

18 RAIL l Xinning - Gormo. l Capacity 1000 T/ 640 pers per train. l Daily eight trains (Four each way). l Now extended South 33 km.

19 OIL PPL l Length -1220 kms. l Gormo - Lhasa. l Oil Depots - 3 l Pumping stns - 12 l Annual capacity-5 Lakh T. l Present capacity-1.25 Lakh T. l Annual reqmt-6 Lakh T.

20 AIR FDS l Eastern & Central Sects. –Hoping –Kongka Dz –Donshoon –Nagchu ka –Pangta l Ladakh Sect –Khotan

21 TELE-COMNS l Line & Radio comn from Lhasa to all Adm dists & Mil sub dists. l Grnd Satl Earth stn at Lhasa on INTELSAT netwk. l Direct comn link via satl from Lhasa to Beijing.

22 EMP OF ARMR l Possible only in Southern Ladakh and North Sikkim.

23 EFFECTS OF HAA l Tps to be acclimatised, trained & motivated l Wpns & Eqpt - due care, calibration l Lack of natural cover l Considerable strain on lgs as area devoid of natural resources l Dply of arty has it own problems

24 PART 2 : LADAKH

25 TRN EVAL l Sparsely inhabited, barren & arid area. l Himalayas & Karakorams run NW to SE l Steep & sharp crested, 15,000 to 25,000 ft. l Separating the mtn massif are narrow valleys & gorges upto 7000 ft deep.

26 TRN EVALUATION l Least rugged portion from NE Ladakh Eastwards. l Permits ltd X country mov for tr & wh vehs in Southern Ladakh only. l Open space only in Indus Valley.

27 TRN EVAL l Climate –Low temp throughout the region. –Severe winters, temp upto (-) 79 deg C. l Vegetation. Barren & arid hence no cover available. l Population –Sparsely inhabited. –Imp places are Rudok, Churkang, Tashigong.

28 TRN EVAL l Rivers –R Indus. –Enters India at Demchock. –4 to 10 ft deep, fast flowing (2-5 kts) –Flows West to Leh. –Obst for inf & B veh (100- 300 ft wide) –Frozen in winter, Xg by B veh w/o eqpt is possible.

29 COMNS l Western highway passes through Aksai Chin. l Two laterals –Lhasa to Gartok (Cl 18) –Anto to Giamuk (Cl 9) l Nine feeder rds upto IB / LAC and can be linked to own rds at Chushul & Demchok.

30 EFFECTS OF TRN l Favourable period for launching ops ltd from Apr to Nov. l X country mov restd to ft travel in all areas other than apchs from Spanggur & Tashigong where dply of mech forces is possible. l Deployability upto two Divs.

31 PART 3 : HP - UP BORDER

32 TRN EVAL l GEN l CLIMATE l VEGETATION l POPULATION l RIVERS l COMNS

33 CL 9 FEEDER RDS EX WESTERN HIGHWAY l Gartok - Shipki (280 km) l Gartok - Tholingmath - Poling - Sarang ( 172 km ) l Missar - Kunglung - Dapa - Tholingmath - Poling - Sarang (310 km ) l Porkha - Silangtar (91 km ) l Porkha - Taklakot (95 km)

34 RD H TO BORDER l SHIPKI 6 KM l SARANG15 KM l TICHAMUR19 KM l POLING12 KM l JINDU10 KM l KUNGLUNG59 KM l SILANGTAR14 KM l PALA (TAKLAKOT) 8 KM

35 IMP PASSES l SHIPKI LA13,300 FT l THAG LA16,500 FT l MANA18,394 FT l NITI17,387 FT l KUNGRI BINGRI LA18,250 FT l NUWE DHURA18,450 FT l LIPU LEKH16,800 FT

36 CHINESE CLAIM AREAS l KAURIK - SHIPKI- 303 SQ KM l PULAM SUMDA-1336 SQ KM l BARAHOTI- 460 SQ KM

37 TRN : OWN SIDE l HP SECT l UP SECT

38 EFFECTS OF TRN l Large scale mil ops over prolonged period difficult l Campaigning season - Oct to Nov l Ft and AT mov difficult l Lgs sp problematic

39 PART 4 SIKKIM

40 TRN EVAL GEN

41 N SIKKIM l East Nepal tri junc to Khungyame La l Northern portion high alt plateau

42 IMP PASSES IN NORTH SIKKIM l NAKU LA17,290 FT l KONGRA LA16,840 FT ( OPEN PERENIALLY) l CHOMDO17,180 FT l SE SE LA17,920 FT (OPEN PERENIALLY ) l KHUNGYAME LA18,390 FT

43 IMP PASSES IN NE SIKKIM l GORA LA17,220 FT l PHIMKARU LA16,160 FT l TANGKAR LA16, 060 FT

44 EAST SIKKIM l Tangkar La to Batang La on Bhutan border l IB runs along Chumbi valley l Rugged and difficult trn l Land slide prone l Bad weather l No vegetation astride IB

45 IMP PASSES IN EAST SIKKIM l Cho La14534 ft l Nathu La14042 ft (perenially open) l Jelep La14410 ft-do- l Batang La14817 ft-do-

46 CHUMBI VALLEY l Moderate alt l Comfortable weather conditions l Good forest cover l Adequate water l X countrry mov feasible l Passes –Agla La, Goche La, Kayarang La, Thang La

47 EFFECTS OF TRN l Mov off the rd difficult except in plains opposite North Sikkim & North Chumbi valley l North-South X country mov difficult l Chumbi valley East -West X country mov difficult l Passes are key trn features l Apch from Tibetan side easier

48 EFFECTS OF TRN l Entry into Chumbi valley restd to four passes l Devp of comns particularly to East difficult and time consuming l Rd blocked for 60 to 90 days l High alt problems for men and mtrl

49 TRN : OWN SIDE l No of East - West rgs, hence rd constr dificult l Inter valley mov difficult

50 TRN : OWN SIDE l Strat imp of Siliguri corridor –Chumbi valley to BD border 90 km –Chumbi valley to plains30 km –Nepal to BD22 km –Comn and oil ppl from NE

51 RD COMNS l Cl70 NH TO GUWAHATI AND FURTHER EAST l NH SILIGURI - GANGTOK (CL 24 UPTO TEESTA, CL 9 TO GANGTOK) l SILIGURI-KALIMPONG (CL 9 AW) l GANGTOK- NATHU LA (CL 9AW ) l KALIMPONG - JELEP LA (CL 9 AW )

52 RD COMN l FWD RDS (CL 9) –LACHEN - GIAGONG - 54 Km –LACHUNG - SAMDONG - 42 Km

53 ALP : TRN EVAL l Lofty mtns and habitable valleys l Moderate to severe climate l Valley flats sp vegetation South and SW of Namcha Barwa l Tsang Po Valley runs West to East l Passes over 13000 ft closed in winter

54 ALP : TRN EVAL l Eastern part has denser netwk of streams and greater precipitation hence prone to floods and landslides l Rds run East to West l Two maj axes –Tsona DZ - Bumla in West –Rima - Tatu in East

55 TRN POTENTIAL ALONG IB l TRI JUNC TO TULUNG LA l TULUNG LA TO LONG JU l LONGJU TO KANGRI KARPO LA (KKL) l KKL TO EAST TRI JUNC

56 TRI JUNC - TULUNG LA l Avenue used in 1962 l Border along watershed (14000-18500 ft) l Passes –Khinzemane (7874 ft) - perennial –Bum La (14694 ft) –Tulung La (16995 ft)

57 TRI JUNC - TULUNG LA ROUTES OF INGRESS – TSONA DZ - LE - KHINZEMANE – TSONA DZ - BUM LA (CL 9) – SL MBI - TULUNG LA (FT TR)

58 TULUNG LA - LONGJU l Sharp ridge line with alt 18500-21000 ft l Permt snow over 15000 ft l Prone to avalanches l Scrub type vegetation in lower valleys l Tp mov along streams and ridge lines possible l Passes –Asaphi La (9995 ft) perennial –Long ju (9597 ft)perennial

59 LONG JU - KANGRI KARPO LA (KKL) l Difficult trn due to escarpment and permt snow l Tsang Po enters India at Kepang La l Valley slopes covered with mixed jungles l Xg over Tsang Po difficult

60 LONGJU TO KKL l Numerous passes exist. l Imp passes –Lola (13,000 ft) –Kepang La (4710 ft) perrenially open –Shiyung La (6265 ft) - do - –Darjitdnya (9250 ft) - do - –KKL (12,790 ft)

61 KKL - TRI JUNC l Alt 12000 - 16000 ft l Permt snow above 14000 ft l Upper half is rugged trn l Rima - Walong axis is in lower half l Thick forest cover in lower valleys l Few high alt flats exist above 14000 ft l Passes –Guyor La (5610 ft) –Dichu (4500 ft) - Perennial

62 COMNS RAU - TATU (200 km Cl 9 ONE WAY ) CHUSHUL DZ- TSE LA (560 kmCl 9 ONE WAY) EASTERN HIGHWAY

63 COMNS KAMENG SECTOR l Tsethang - Bum La ( 230 km Cl 9 one way ) l Tsona Dz - Le ( 26 km Cl 9 one way ) l Ft Tr to Tulung La from both sides

64 RDS IN KAMENG l Tezpur - Tenga - Tawang ( 341 km Cl 9 AW) l Missamari - Ft hills - Tenga (Cl 9 AW in a state of disuse ) l Tawang - Lum La (Cl 9 AW ) l Tawang Bum La (Cl 9 FW, last 8 km Cl 5 op tr)

65 COMNS OPPOSITE SUBANSIRI SECTOR l Tsethang - Sanga Choling - Lung (Cl 9 one way, 10 km from Asaphi La ) l Slimbi - Lung ( 137 km Cl 9 lateral ) l Li lung - Lung

66 COMNS OPPOSITE SIANG SECT l Number of ft and AT tr to the IB l Imp trs from Tsang Po to Shoka La and Kempang La

67 COMNS OPPOSITE LOHIT SECT l Rd Rima - Tatu l Number of ft tr upto IB astride Dichu

68 RDS IN SUBANSIRI, SIANG AND LOHIT l North Lakhimpur - Ziro - Daporijo - Taliha (239 km Cl 9 AW) l Lekhabali - Bame - Along -Yinkiyong (256 km Cl 9 AW) l Along - Kaying -Tato (Under constr) l Bame - Daporijo (115 km Cl 9 lateral) l Tezu - Walong (250 km Cl 9 AW )

69 CLIMATE

70 IMP DEDUCTIONS l Maj routes of ingress and deployability in ALP – Kinzemane - Div – Bumla - Upto Two Div –Tulung La- Upto Two Regts – Long Ju - Regt – Menchuka & Tuting - Regt Each – Walong - Div

71 IMP DEDUCTIONS l Minor ingress routes - self contained bn gps l Campaigning Season - mid Aug to mid Dec l Inter valley mov difficult - pre loc res l Own def plans must expl weaknesses and lgs difficulties

72 CONCLUSION

73 IMP FACETS OF TRN l SEVERE EFF OF CLIMATE ON MEN & MTRL l PRESENT RD CAPACITY FOR INDUCTION & MAINT l LACK OF LGS INFRASTRUCTURE IN TIBET

74 l CHINESE PRIORITY OF BLDG COMN NETWK TOWARDS THEIR CLAIM LINES l IMP OF PERENNIAL PASSES l DEPLOYABILITY ALONG VALLEYS & OTHER AVENUES OF INGRESS l WIDE GEOGRAPHIC SEPARATION BETWEEN WESTERN & EASTERN THEATRE CAUSED BY THE NEPAL BORDER

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