Presentation on theme: "Mammal Classes and Orders Biology Two Section 27-2."— Presentation transcript:
Mammal Classes and Orders Biology Two Section 27-2
Class of Monotremes Egg layers Only six species of monotremes Cannot control body temperature as well as other mammals. Duckbilled platypus—live in a burrow, flat beaver like tail, webbed feet, eats shellfish, insects, and worms in the muddy bottoms of lakes/streams Echidnas or spiny anteaters—live in forests, mountains and plains of Australia. Long snout, thick coat of hair and spines. When threatened it burrows so only spines show.
Class of Marsupials Pouched mammals Kangaroos are herbivores, can hop 8 meters in one hop, koalas eat the leaves of eucalyptus trees Opossums are the only marsupial in North America, the others live in Australia Active at night, eat insects, birds and small mammals. When born, marsupials will crawl into mother’s pouch to finish growing.
Placental Mammals (New Card—No Picture) Can be broken down into eighteen orders. 95% of all mammals are placental. They reproduce differently than monotremes/marsupials. They have a higher metabolic rates than other mammals.
Order Insectavora Insect eaters Tree shrews, hedgehogs, shrews, and moles. Very high metabolic rates, eat constantly. Sharp claws for digging.
Order Chiroptera Bats—second largest order, 925 species. One quarter of all mammal species. Eat all kinds of things, insects, fruit, blood (vampire bats) Night bats use echolocation to find food. Many bats live in colonies, sleeping together upside down with wings wrapped around their body.
Order Edentata Means without teeth Sloths, anteaters, armadillos Sloth--slow-moving, nocturnal mammal that spends most of its life hanging upside-down in trees. The sloth is an herbivore. The sloth's main defense against predators is to claw and nip at an attacker. Armadillo are timid, armored mammals Armadillos can jump 3 ft straight up into the air. Armadillos have peg-like teeth. Anteaters are good swimmers and tree climbers. The anteater very long, thin tongue. Anteaters walk on their knuckles; they have long, hook-like claws that do not retract, but curve under the paws when the anteater walks. They catch insects using their long tongue, flicking the tongue in and out up to 160 times each minute.
Order Rodentia Largest Order of Mammals, more than 1700 species Mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, porcupines, chipmunks and gophers Have two long front teeth, used for chewing. They grow throughout their life. Herbivores Short gestation periods
Order Lagomorpha Rabbits, pikas and hares Consists of 65 species Sharp front teeth Eat plant material Short gestation period, produce a lot of young Pikas have rounded ears and legs of equal length.
Order Carnivora Meat eaters—exception Panda Bear 240 species Cats, dogs, wolves, bears, weasels, hyenas, lions, coyotes and seals Sharp teeth and claws Strongest and most intelligent groups of mammals
Order Carnivora Suborder Pinnipeds Walruses, sea lions, otters, and seals Swimmers Thick layer of fat Return to land to reproduce
Order Cetacea Aquatic Mammals: whales, dolphins, and porpoises Torpedo shaped body with a long pointed head and no neck No gills but have lungs and circulatory system designed for deep, long dives Subcutaneous fat—blubber, for warmth. Lost both their external ears and their hind legs Bear young in water Most are carnivores, some are plankton eaters.
Order Sirenia Related to the elephant Slow moving, barrel shaped body Herbivores Live in rivers and streams, some in ocean Manatee, sea cow, dugongs Inspired legends about mermaids
Ungulates Order Artiodactyla Grazing animals Cattle, sheep, goats, hippos, giraffes, and pigs. Two toes on the foot, known as even toed ungulates (hoofed mammal) Flat teeth for grinding food Have rumen, special structure for to break down cellulose.
Ungulates Order Perissodactyla Horses, zebras, tapirs, and rhinoceroses Odd toed ungulates Grazers Flat teeth for grinding food Have rumen, special structure for to break down cellulose.
Order Proboscidea Include the African and Indian elephant African elephant is larger and taller and has larger ears than does the Indian (Asian) elephant. Large head broad flat ears, thick skin with little hair Boneless trunk transfers food and water to mouth Tusks dig up plant roots or pry bark Herbivores
Order Primates 175 species Have an opposable thumb –enables them to grasp branches and other objects. Large eyes that face forward Omnivores Most developed cerebrum and the most complicated behaviors. Live in organized social groups.
Order Primates New World Monkeys—live in tees and have long arms for swinging and they use their prehensile tails that they use for grasping Old World Monkeys—Chimps, gorillas: lack tail and many still enjoy the trees. Humans are also considered in this group.
Scaly Anteater Last three cards: Aardvark Hyrax Scaly Anteater
Odd Orders Order Tubulidentata—aardvarks "Earth pig" It is solitary, shy, nocturnal animal. Aardvarks are 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 m) long, including a 2 foot (0.6 m) long tail. They weigh about 140 pounds (64 kg ). Order Hyracoidea—Hyraxes, small shrew like animals—close relative to the elephant. Order Pholidota—scaly anteater, covered with tough, protective scales made of keratin There are 7 species in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The long tail is prehensile (grasping); the pangolin can even hang from its tail. When in danger, the pangolin curls into a ball, protecting its soft belly and face. It may also hit an enemy with its tail or spray it with urine.