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ASEAN-India Workshop on Cooperation in New and Renewable Energy Nov 06, 2012 New Delhi Small Hydro Resource Assessment ARUN KUMAR Ph.D. Alternate Hydro.

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Presentation on theme: "ASEAN-India Workshop on Cooperation in New and Renewable Energy Nov 06, 2012 New Delhi Small Hydro Resource Assessment ARUN KUMAR Ph.D. Alternate Hydro."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASEAN-India Workshop on Cooperation in New and Renewable Energy Nov 06, 2012 New Delhi Small Hydro Resource Assessment ARUN KUMAR Ph.D. Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee email :, 1

2 TypeStation Capacity Pico/WatermillUpton 5 kW and below MicroUp to 100 kW Mini101 kW to 2000 kW Small2001 to 25000 kW Classification of Micro, Mini & Small Hydro Projects in India Different countries follow different norms, the upper limit ranges between 5 to 50 MW. India follows as :

3 Schemes CEA (1997 June) Upto 15 MW PFC/AHEC ( Mar 2003) Upto 15 MW MNRE/AHEC Mar-2010 Upto 25 MW No. of Schemes Potential (MW) No. of Schemes Potential (MW) No. of Schemes Potential (MW) Small streams (ROR) 977615423966172348411492 Dam Toe99641755993791645 Canal Falls4365641407156519522953 Total1,5126,7823,9788,3375,81516,090 Earlier Power Load Factor for potential Assessment = 75% Deregulated market PLF is being adapted as low as 25% resulting to higher installed capacity Total Hydro Potential about 150,000 MW, SHP after reassessment is expected to be 25,000 MW Potential Assessment in Chronological

4 SHP potential of different states in India (2010)

5 Resource Assessment for SHP For a systematic, time bound, duly shared between Government, Social and Private Sectors, resource assessment is required. Inventory of all possible sites. Provide priority or ranking. Provide clusters. Provide financial requirement. Provide – grid network strengthening.

6 Existing irrigation dams and canals. Run of river Several opportunities where hydro power potential is yet to be assessed and shall help environment  Residual potential in pipelines for drinking and industrial use.  Effluent outfall at water treatment plants and sewage treatment plants  Hydro kinetics in flowing channels/streams  Small scale pumped storage plants to reduce diesel consumption for peak hours or load scheduling Resource Assessment to cover

7 POWER POTENTIAL & ENERGY GENERATION Basic Equation for Power Power in kW = Q. H. 9.81. n where, QDischarge in cumecs HHead in metres nOverall efficiency of turbine, gear-box & generator

8 Hydropower Sustainability 11 sensitive issues  Hydrological regimes  Reservoir creation  Water quality  Sedimentation  Biological diversity  Barriers for fish migration and navigation  Involuntary population displacement  Affected people and vulnerable groups  Public health  Cultural heritage  Sharing development benefits

9 Potential assessment to provide information on various features and aspects of a technically feasible site Warranting further investigations. Requires a high level of experience and expertise. A variety of computer-based assessment tools have been developed under various programmes by different groups globally for initial resources assessment However, a reliable assessment of real economically feasible potential implies only when some ground truthing surveying of possible sites is done Resource Assessment Techniques

10 HYDROPOWER ASSESSMENT METHOD Planning conventional Planning resource evaluationDesign studies  Published topographic map  Published discharge records  Field measurements and field surveys Conventi onal software tools Software with GIS interface Interactive web based map with GIS  Conventional designs  Conventional software tools  Software with GIS interface

11 Geographic Information System (GIS) software supported with Remote Sensing (RS) – highly useful for capturing, storing and retrieving the range of information required for such assessment. Can store spatial catchment information of a proposed SHP site on a GIS platform with good database for assessment the potential development. Resource Assessment Techniques


13 River network – segmented and over laid with other GIS based details like DEM (remote sensing), land use, soil type, weather etc. Potential head with integrating time series and derived flow duration curves and annual flow data in GIS based models, power and energy assessment is made. GIS integrated software for preliminary SHP assessment  NVE Atlas - Potential for SHP -Norway,  Virtual Hydropower Prospector (VHP) – INL USA,  RHAM Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd (KWL),  Hydrobot -Nick Forrest Associates Ltd. et al  VAPIDRO ASTE – ERSE Spa. GIS Applications for Assessing Hydropower Potential

14 Modern packages have integrated GIS tools and some of them are a part of GIS software. River discharge is assessed using flow duration curve (FDC) and the simulated stream flow (model) approach. IMP form Natural Resources Canada and POWEL RETScreen® form Natural Resources Canada PEACH form ISL Bureau d’Ingénieurs Conseils, France Hydrohelp, Gordon J.L and OELHydroSys, Canada and SMART Mini Idro from ERSE SpA, Italy (Source: Punys et all (2011)) Software Tools for SHP Assessment



17 SOI toposheets references Number Name of the stream Name of the river basin Catchment area (in km 2 ) Length of main channel (in km) Catchment perimeter (in km) Highest point elevation of the catchment Elevation at stream meeting point with the major river Stream meeting point with the main river Latitude and Longitude Information about the snow/glacier/rain fed Name of the state Name of the district Major contour lines crossing the stream Major road network available Locations of villages and town were also marked Latitude and longitude grid on all sides of the drawing were also marked. Information associated with individual catchments were also extracted from the toposheets: UNDP GEF Hilly Hydro Project Zonal Plan -Activity

18 Development of Regional and Sub Regional Flow duration curves for ungauged catchments The discharge data for streams with varying length and quality were collected from various sources in the 13 hilly states for gauged small streams. Discharge data of 102 catchments could be collected. Based on gauged stream date, flow duration estimates have been prepared for ungauged streams. UNDP GEF Hilly Hydro Project Zonal Plan -Activity

19 Hydro Power Potential For each catchment, hydropower potential has been computed. The Hydro Power Potential has been calculate for 50%, 75% And 90% dependable flows for each site in all the 13 states. UNDP GEF Hilly Hydro Project Zonal Plan -Activity

20 Information about State and District boundaries Rivers Road and Railway networks location of major cities of all thirteen states were digitized using Graphtec KD 4610 digitizer. Using ILWIS GIS Software the identified SHP Sites were overlaid the digitised maps. UNDP GEF Hilly Hydro Project Zonal Plan -Activity

21 Cluster Map UNDP GEF Hilly Hydro Project Zonal Plan -Activity

22 Prospects for technology improvement and innovation Variable speed technology Matrix technology Fish-friendly turbines Hydrokinetic turbines Abrasive resistant turbines Tunnelling technology Dam technology Optimization of operation

23 New technologies are being developed to take advantage small water elevation changes/ head, but mostly rely on the kinetic energy of stream flow compared to potential energy due to hydraulic head "Free Flow" or "hydrokinetic" generation captures energy from moving water without requiring a dam or diversion While hydrokinetics includes generation from ocean tides, currents and waves; application in the near future is likely to be in rivers and streams

24 Set up initially by MNRE government of India in 1982 Exclusive academic center of IIT Roorkee working with focus on SHP development and recognized as National Resource Centre for Small Hydropower. Large national database and resource assessment for shp development and rural electrification. Preparing the National Standards/ Code of Practices for SHP development. Systematic state master plans for shp and remote village electrification Training and education in shp at all levels and related field as per requirement. Two Masters of Techonlogy and PhD programmes are offered Independent performance and efficeincy testing and evaluation of shp stations International training and technical support. AHEC, IIT Roorkee

25 Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) for Small Hydropower Plant at Alternate Hydro Energy Centre IIT Roorkee



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