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Robert Feranec Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, NYSM TOTALLY AWESOME: Extreme Evolution in Mammals—YEAH!! (with fist pump)

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Presentation on theme: "Robert Feranec Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, NYSM TOTALLY AWESOME: Extreme Evolution in Mammals—YEAH!! (with fist pump)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Robert Feranec Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, NYSM TOTALLY AWESOME: Extreme Evolution in Mammals—YEAH!! (with fist pump)

2 EXTREME!!! Who’s the Biggest? Who’s the Smallest? Who’s the Baddest? Best Common Name? Best Scientific Name?

3 Who’s the Biggest?: Paraceratherium Age: 30 million years ago Height: upto 23 feet tall (15 feet at shoulder) Weight: upto 20 tons EXTREME!!!

4 Who’s the Smallest?: Batodonoides Age: 53 million years ago Height: small Weight: 1.3 grams EXTREME!!!

5 Best Scientific Name?: Sunkahetanka pahinsintewakpa Age: 28 million years ago Weight: 20 kgs EXTREME!!! Hesperocyonidae (distant canid relative)

6 Best Common Name?: Gunther’s Dik Dik Age: Modern Height: upto 40 cm Weight: upto 5 kgs EXTREME!!!

7 EXTREME?

8 Head Gear EXTREME!!!

9 Why Head Gear? Defense: Combat: Mate Recognition: Ornamentation: EXTREME!!!

10 Natural Selection Differential survival and reproduction

11 Sexual Selection Certain evolutionary traits are the result of intraspecific competition Intrasexual Competition: Generally Male- Male competition, female mates with the “winner” Intersexual Competition: Female Choice EXTREME!!!

12 Types of Head Gear? Ossicones: Horns: Antlers: Pronghorns: EXTREME!!!

13 Head Gear: Ossicones EXTREME!!!

14 Head Gear: Ossicones Fossils Sivatherium ~8,000 years ago Samotherium ~4 million years ago EXTREME!!!

15 Head Gear: Horns EXTREME!!!

16 Head Gear: Horns Fossils Hoplitomeryx Syndoceras Synthetoceras Bison latifrons EXTREME!!! Cranioceras

17 Head Gear: Horns Fossils Arsinoitherium (from Egypt) Age: 35 Ma Height: ~7 feet at shoulder EXTREME!!!

18 Head Gear: Horns Fossils EXTREME!!!

19 Head Gear: Horns Fossils: Brontotheriidae EXTREME!!!

20 Mylagaulid rodents Why do they have those crazy horns? 30-5 Ma North America EXTREME!!!

21 Mylagaulid Ecology Herbivorous Body size: ~ kg. Fossorial (burrowing), but how? One of the only fossorial animals with horns Millions of years ago EXTREME!!!

22 Fossorial adaptation in rodents Figure from Stein 2000 Scratch digging Chisel tooth digging Head lift digging EXTREME!!!

23 Head digging in mylagaulids Features consistent with head- digging: Thickened, projecting nasal bones Tall, forward-tilted occipital plate Shortened skull Powerful forelimbs EXTREME!!! Likely evolved from head-lift diggers

24 Why horns? Possible uses of horns: Species recognition Digging Sexual display/combat Defense EXTREME!!!

25 Horns : digging implement In favor: Higher occipital plate with taller horns Against: Position, orientation of horns Change in horns through time Increases force needed to dig CONCLUSION: unlikely EXTREME!!!

26 Horns : sexual display/combat Not sexually dimorphic Lack of visual ability Display useless underground Orientation of horns CONCLUSION: unlikely EXTREME!!!

27 Horns : defense Passive or active defense Predator diversity: mustelids (weasels and stoats), snakes? CONCLUSION: Likely, consistent with available evidence. EXTREME!!!

28 Horns…or Not Horns Coelodonta Late Pleistocene (~20,000 years ago) Europe EXTREME!!!

29 NOT “true” horns Coelodonta Late Pleistocene (~20,000 years ago) Europe EXTREME!!!

30 Horns…or Not Horns EXTREME!!!

31 Horns EXTREME!!!

32 Horns…or Not Horns Narwhal (modern) EXTREME!!!

33 NOT Horns EXTREME!!!

34 Head Gear: Pronghorns Antilocapra americana EXTREME!!!

35 Head Gear: Pronghorns Fossils Merycodus 15 Mya Ramoceros 12 Mya Ilingoceros 8 Mya EXTREME!!!

36 Head Gear: Antlers EXTREME!!!

37 Head Gear: Antlers EXTREME!!!

38 Head Gear: Antlers Fossils Megaloceros giganteus ~10000 years ago Each antler is 6ft long EXTREME!!!

39 Antlers and… EXTREME!!!

40 Antlers and… Saberteeth!!! Moschus Modern EXTREME!!!

41 Why Head Gear? Defense: Combat: Mate Recognition: Ornamentation: EXTREME!!!

42 Evolution of saberteeth Thylacosmilus Smilodon Eusmilus Machaerodus Machaeroides Homotherium EXTREME!!!

43 From Akersten 1985 EXTREME!!! Eating!

44 Homotherium Smilodon Is the evolution of the sabertooth convergent evolution or parallel evolution?

45 Convergent Evolution vs. Parallel Evolution? Convergent Evolution: describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages. Parallel Evolution: the development of a similar trait in different not closely related species (that is in species of a different clade), but descending from the same ancestor.

46 Question: How do we distinguish how closely an organism is related? How to Solve this? Hall (2003) Biological Reviews

47 Question: How do we distinguish how closely an organism is related? How to Solve this? Convergence: Similarity arising through independent evolution having different developmental pathways Parallelism: A feature present in closely related organisms but not present continuously in all members of the lineage, and uses similar developmental pathways. Hall (2003) Biological Reviews

48 Evolution of saberteeth How do they develop? Thylacosmilus Machaerodus EXTREME!!!

49 You are what you eat…and drink

50 Isotopes in modern precipitation  18 O SMOW August January FLAGSTAFF, AZ From IAEA GNIP Database +  18 O -  18 O Oxygen Isotopes (Isotope: same # of P, E- but different # of N)

51 +  18 O -  18 O Summer Winter Predicted cyclicity in oxygen isotope values of enamel carbonate TipBase

52 +  18 O -  18 O TipBase 12 months Predicted cyclicity in oxygen isotope values of enamel carbonate 25mm 85mm 60 mm

53  18 O value Isotope values for S. fatalis Distance from enamel-root contact (mm) Average: 66 mm / 12 months = 5.5 mm per month Feranec, in prep

54 Panthera tigris 2 Panthera leo 1 Smilodon gracilis ~12 months 18 months 9-14 months 6.7 mm/month 3 mm/month 9 mm/month Comparison in Felid canine development 1. Smuts et al., Mazak, 1981 Smilodon fatalis ~18 months5-7 mm/month Homotherium serum ~15 months 2.5 mm/month Panthera leo >18 months2.8 mm/month Panthera atrox >18 months 2.9 mm/month TAXON DURATION OF GROWTH RATE Feranec. 2004, 2005, 2008

55 EXTREME!!! Convergent Evolution

56 EXTREME!!! Who’s the Biggest? Who’s the Smallest? Who’s the Baddest? Best Common Name? Best Scientific Name?

57 Who’s the Baddest?: 2010 Championship Winner 4. Smilodon populator 1. Ursus maritimus tyrannus 2. Andrewsarchus mongoliensis 3. Daeodon hollandi EXTREME!!!

58 Who’s the Baddest?: V. 6 ft. tall at shoulder Weighs up to 2000 lbs 4ft. tall at shoulder Weighs up to 1300 lbs 4. Smilodon populator 1. Ursus maritimus tyrannus EXTREME!!!

59 Who’s the Baddest?: EXTREME!!!

60 Who’s the Baddest?: Polar Bear Wins!! EXTREME!!!

61 Who’s the Baddest?: 2. Andrewsarchus mongoliensis3. Daeodon hollandi Height: up to 8 ft at shoulder Length: 11 feet long Weight: up to 2200 lbs. Age: 40 Ma Height: up to 7 ft at shoulder Length: 12 feet long Weight: up to 2200 lbs. Age: 25 Ma V. EXTREME!!!

62 Who’s the Baddest?: EXTREME!!! Andrewsarchus mongoliensisDaeodon hollandi

63 Who’s the Baddest?: Andrewsarchus Wins!! EXTREME!!!

64 Who’s the Baddest?: Winner 1. Ursus maritimus tyrannicus 4. Smilodon fatalis 1. Ursus maritimus tyrannicus 2. Andrewsarchus mongoliensis 2. Daeodon hollandi EXTREME!!!

65 Who’s the Baddest?: V. 6 ft. tall at shoulder Weighs up to 2000 lbs Can stand up to 11 feet tall 1. Ursus maritimus tyrannus 2. Andrewsarchus mongoliensis Height: up to 8 ft at shoulder Length: 11 feet long Weight: up to 2200 lbs. EXTREME!!!

66 Who’s the Baddest?: Size Comparison EXTREME!!!

67 Who’s the Baddest?: EXTREME!!! Ursus maritimus tyrannus!!!

68 Thank you EXTREME!!!


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