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The Cold War. What is a “cold” war? Oh if that little pug-nosed-mutt comes over here I am gonna go OFF on her! If she says anything to me I am SO going.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War. What is a “cold” war? Oh if that little pug-nosed-mutt comes over here I am gonna go OFF on her! If she says anything to me I am SO going."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 What is a “cold” war? Oh if that little pug-nosed-mutt comes over here I am gonna go OFF on her! If she says anything to me I am SO going to kick her butt!

3 Yalta Summit {February 1945} Attended by Churchill, Stalin, and F.D. Roosevelt. Stalin’s demands: Continued control of Outer Mongolia The Kurile Islands from Japan Recovery of rights and territory lost in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. Stalin’s concessions: Recognition of China’s control of Manchuria; a treaty with Chinese Nationalists free elections & democratic governments safeguards for freedom

4 Why would FDR make concessions to Joseph Stalin? Churchill FDR Stalin

5 The Factors Japan Roosevelt’s declining health {April 12, 1945}

6 Roosevelt to Truman November 7 1944: Truman is elected vice president of the United States. “Who the hell is Harry Truman?” – Roosevelt’s Chief of Staff 1944 April 12 1945: Harry Truman is sworn in as thirty-third president of the United States upon the death of President Roosevelt. “With Roosevelt you’d have known he was President even if you hadn’t been told. He looked imperial, and he acted that way, and he talked that way. Harry Truman, for God’s sake, looked and acted and talked like-well, like a failed haberdasher”

7 Potsdam Conference {July – August 1945} Participating: Stalin, Prime Ministers Churchill and later Clement Attlee, and President Truman. President Harry Truman demanded free elections in eastern Europe but Stalin refused Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war.

8 The Fate of Germany German’s surrender May 7 th and 8 th, 1945 (May 8 th V-E Day) Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR Berlin is jointly occupied Germany theoretically would be reunified once she was no longer a threat. After the war, the Soviets dominated their zone and did not allow the reunification


10 Germany 1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones U.S. and western Europeans believed the German economy was vital to the recovery of Europe The USSR refused to relinquish control.

11 The United Nations April 25 th 1945 - delegates from 50 nations at war with the Axis form the charter for the United Nations. Arrangements for ensuring peace. New members could be admitted by a 2/3 vote.

12 Containment By 1947, the US pledged to prevent the further spread of communism George F. Kennan (U.S. ambassador to USSR) wrote a memo to President Truman in 1946 claiming that the USSR believed “it is desirable and necessary that the internal harmony of our [American] society be disrupted, our traditional way of life be destroyed.” Later he wrote an article which claimed the greatest policy should be one of ‘containment’ of Russian tendencies.

13 Greece and Turkey The USSR was helping Communists in Greece and Turkey. U.S. gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey that helped those countries defeat communist insurgencies. Spurs the Truman Doctrine

14 The Truman Doctrine February 27, 1947 Established the U.S. policy of containment that would last four decades. U.S. pledged it would help any country financially that was struggling to defeat communism.

15 Marshall Plan {1949-51} George C Marshall (Secretary of State) U.S. sent a financial aid package ($13 billion) to help war-torn Europe recover from the war Containment of communism & to aid economically devastated regions (fostering trade between the U.S. and Europe) Western and central Europe recovered economically Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in eastern Europe

16 A political cartoon in the late-1940s illustrating Stalin’s opposition to the Marshall Plan.

17 The Berlin Crisis {1948-49} Soviets attempted to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access. Stalin ordered access to West Berlin be blocked by Soviet troops. U.S. organized a massive airlift into the city. (2.3 million tons of supplies over 324 days.) Food, medicine and other necessary supplies- At its peak, a flight landed every 45 seconds. Soviets agreed to lift the blockade in 1949 after 11 months.

18 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization {1949} Founded in response to the Berlin Crisis. Collective security organization of democracies in Europe, U.S. & Canada - prevent Soviet expansion in Europe. The first peacetime alliance in history for the U.S. If Soviets attack any of the member nations, the other nations would come to its defense :“an attack on one is an attack on all” NATO remains intact today, although its mission is being redefined now that the Cold War is over.

19 Warsaw Pact {1955} In response to West Germany joining NATO in 1954 the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact Similar to NATO in that it provided for collective security for Eastern Bloc countries controlled by the USSR. People's Republic of Albania People's Republic of Bulgaria Czechoslovak Republic (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic since 1960) German Democratic Republic (withdrew in September 1990, before German reunification) People's Republic of Hungary People's Republic of Poland People's Republic of Romania Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

20 China becomes Communist {1949} Mao Zedong led the Chinese Communist take over of the country "Peoples Republic of China“ ("Red China") Blow policy of containment; the world’s most populous country was now communist Chinese & Soviets become rivals fight over territory & diplomatic influence US exploits rivalry in 1970’s under Richard Nixon, who warms up to the Chinese at the height of the Cold War

21 Soviets and the atomic bomb {1949} U.S. no longer had a nuclear monopoly Knowledge necessary for Soviet bomb came from espionage on the U.S. atomic program. "First Lightning," a 22-kiloton nuclear bomb, exploded at 7 a.m. local time on August 29, 1949, at the Semipalatinsk testing site in northern Kazakhstan.

22 The Soviet Spies The Manhattan Project: Klaus Fuchs: Physicist at Los Alamos Alger Hiss August 1948- Whittaker Chambers testified under subpoena before the House Committee on Un-American Activities that Hiss had been a communist while in federal service. Hiss denied the charge. Hiss indicted for espionage-statute of limitations had expired Convicted of perjury. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Julius was American engineer involved in industrial espionage Ethel was also a devoted communist brother David Greenglass worked at Los Alamos-sent information regarding the a-bomb to Julius who turned it over to Soviets Greenglass received only 15 years Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed on June 19, 1953.

23 The Korean War

24 North and South After WWII, Korea divided at 38th parallel: north was communist, south was not Republic of Korea (ROK), supported by the United Nations Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union.

25 The Korean War {1950-1953} 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea In three days they had taken over most of S.K. United Nations (led by the U.S. military & Gen.Douglas MacArthur) sent forces to push back communists UN Security council voted for military action against North Korea Soviets boycotting the UN in protest of refusal to allow the People’s Republic of China into the UN Security Council

26 China in the war China sent hundreds of thousands of troops to push back UN forces in North Korea.

27 The Effects of War Prisoners killed by retreating DPRK, South Korea, October 1950. An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist- held post in February 1951.

28 The Korean War was the first war in which jet aircraft played a central role

29 Conclusion to the war Cease-fire reached in 1953 and the border was restored at the 38th parallel The cease-fire is still in existence today

30 The DMZ 2.5 miles wide Runs at an angle across the 38 th parallel Most heavily militarized border in the world

31 “We Like Ike” {1953-1961}

32 Dwight D. Eisenhower Graduated from West Point in the 1915 known as "the class the stars fell on” 59 members eventually became general officers. Commanded the Allied Forces landing in North Africa in November 1942; On D-Day, 1944, he was Supreme Commander of the troops invading France. President of Columbia University Supreme command over NATO forces being assembled in 1951.

33 Massive Retaliation {1953-1955} Policy of increase production of nuclear weapons in order to deter Soviet attack. Under President Eisenhower, the U.S. policy temporarily shifted to helping eastern European countries remove communism. U.S. vowed to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if it tried to expand

34 Fusion and Fission bombs “the gadget” 18,000 tons of TNT Hydrogen bomb-energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes Atomic bomb-uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms The first thermonuclear (hydrogen) bomb was exploded in 1952 by the United States The second in 1953 by Russia (then the USSR).

35 Hydrogen Bomb Hydrogen bomb developed by the U.S. in 1952 & USSR in 1953 Far more destructive than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan at the end of World War II. The world now had two nuclear superpowers

36 A-bomb

37 H-bomb

38 Sen. Joseph McCarthy The House Committee on Un-American Activity Goal- to find Communists in the U.S. Government 1948-Alger Hiss Senator Joseph McCarthy: plays on American fears of Communism by recklessly accusing many government officials & average citizens of being (“the list”) 1950- McCarthy speech; claimed to know the names of 205 Communists in the State Department McCarthyism-means the policy of falsely accusing people of working against the government based on rumor or guilt by association

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