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Sex and Gender Chapter 11 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach (Rubinfield and Zumpetta)

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Presentation on theme: "Sex and Gender Chapter 11 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach (Rubinfield and Zumpetta)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex and Gender Chapter 11 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach (Rubinfield and Zumpetta)

2 Gender Stratification
The unequal access to power, prestige and property on the basis of sex

3 We are all born either male or female.
Sex as a Master Status: One’s sex cuts across all aspects of social life. It is a biological fact. We are all born either male or female. Gender is a socially constructed ‘label’ ascribed to males and females, carrying with it images and expectations about how we should act. Gender consists of the social characteristics that a society considers ‘proper behavior’ for it’s male/female members as masculine and feminine.

4 Gender Definitions Vary From One Society to Another…
Gender roles are a form of societal control. The Nature vs. Nurture Debate continues… Are biological differences the reason for male dominance in most societies?

5 Cynthia Fuchs Epstein (1986/1988/1989)
Studied the types of work that men and woman do in each society and concluded that they are determined by social arrangements. She found that the behavior of males and females are solely the result of social factors, socialization and social control. She found that biological differences were only relevant in limited activities such as childbirth and certain strength focused sports. Points to females crime rates increasing recently in many parts of the world, indicating increased aggressiveness in woman.

6 Steven Goldberg: (1974/1986/1993) Goldberg found in his studies that Anthropologists have only found evidence of male dominated societies, and believes that stories about female dominated societies are myths. He found that the highest social status was associated only with men. He concluded that men dominated because they have a stronger tendency to do whatever is needed to dominate. He also concluded that exceptional individuals do not refute physiological roots of behavior.

7 Societies dominated by males are called Patriarchies
Societies dominated by females are called Matriarchies

8 Goldberg believed that…
‘Social institutions merely reflect and sometimes exaggerate inborn tendencies.’ And so the debate goes on….

9 The Case of the Medical Accident…
At first –Experts believed that gender was clearly the result of social orientation. Later – found that ‘maleness’ was a combination of genetics and social orientation.

10 The Impact of Social Environment:
Vietnam Veteran’s Study: A study was conduced of over 4500 men who served in the military in Vietnam. It found that higher levels of testosterone were not the only determinants of gender identified behaviors. The study found that men in high social classes. were less likely to be involved in antisocial. behaviors than men with high testosterone. levels men in lower social class.

11 George Murdock (1937) Studied 324 pre-modern societies and found that in all of these societies, work was sex typed. With the exception of metalworking, which was always done by males, sex did not determine work roles, gender socialization did and these work roles varied from society to society.

12 Linton (1976) and Rosaldo (1974)
Performed studied that found that universally, male activities are always assigned more prestige in societies, regardless of what the activity is.

13 Origins of Patriarchy:
Reproductive responsibilities are primarily female, therefore many cultures assigned tasks based on mothering and domestic considerations. Men became responsible for hunting and more aggressive duties. This lead to a separation between male roles and female roles in many societies. As these inherent beliefs in dominance became ingrained, males protected their roles of power and controlled the development of societal rules, norms and values.

14 Gender Inequalities in the US:
The gender gap is not accidental: Customs/traditions reinforce, justify and maintain the social arrangements in society.

15 Feminism in the US: The first wave of feminism (1916) focused on the argument that biology is NOT destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted, met with strong opposition by both males and females. They believed in radical reform of institutions in society and fort for women’s right to vote, which was achieved in 1920.

16 Second Wave of Feminism:
In the 1960s, a second wave of feminism brought a struggle against gender inequities in work roles and public policies. This struggle continues today…

17 Third Wave in Feminism:
Recently, there has been a focus on equal opportunity to impact policies and values within society. With power, competition, and autonomy. representing ‘male values’ being replaced or supplemented with ‘female values’ of tenderness, compassion and cooperation.

18 Gender Gaps: In Education- Woman globally experience a higher rate of illiteracy and many cultural hurtles to achieving higher education based on their gender. In Politics- In most nations, woman equal 11% or less of the legislature. In some nations, woman still cannot vote (Kuwait, United Arab Emirates). In Pay Gaps- In US, woman make 70% of the wages males are earning for equal work. In S. Korea woman make less than 50% of their male counterparts. In Violence- Violence against woman is not considered criminal in many areas of the world.

19 What Are Minority Groups:
A minority group is any group that is discriminated against on the basis of physical or cultural characteristics Even though woman compromise over 50% of the American population, they are still considered a minority group on this basis.

20 What is Feminism? Feminism is the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal

21 College Completion in the US:
Recent statistics show that overall in the US, 28% of men have completed college compared to 23% of women.

22 Gender Tracking: When sociologists study that…
Men earn 81 percent of bachelor's degrees in engineering while women earn 88 percent of bachelor's degrees in library science. They are Gender Tracking, showing that degrees tend to follow gender, reinforcing male/female distinctions.

23 Another example of gender tracking…
In 1970, 5% of law degrees were earned by women; In 1996, women earned 44% of law degrees

24 The state with the lowest percentage of women in the workforce is West Virginia

25 What Is the “Glass Ceiling”?
The Glass Ceiling is the term used to describe the invisible barriers encountered by woman in the workplace that bar them from achieving the executive level of accomplishment.

26 What Is the Glass Escalator?
The term for the phenomenon where men who enter traditionally female occupations are accelerated into higher-level positions faster than women.

27 Felice Schwartz’s Zigzag Track:
Schwartz attempted to define a ‘Mommy Track’ that would offer both Mothers and Fathers the opportunity to spend some quality time with their children while putting their ‘fast track’ careers on hold temporarily. She called this system, a ‘Zig Zag Track’.

28 Can be found in many forms
Sexual Harassment: Can be found in many forms always involving … The Abuse of Power

29 Rape: Violence Against Woman/Men
Forcible Rape – Happens to over 8.3% of American woman per 10,000 and only 1/3 are reported. 15-20% of men in prisons are forcibly raped. Only one forth of rapes are committed by strangers. Date Rape – Recently, a college was studied and it was found that ‘date rape’ occurred at a 2.5% rate and that most of these rapes were going unreported because the victims felt somehow responsible, because the woman voluntarily went out with the rapist.

30 Woman in Positions of Authority:
In Canada, Great Britain, India, Poland, and Israel all have or had a woman president or prime minister

31 Social Sanctions: Negative sanctions deter. unwanted behaviors.
Positive sanctions are used. to reinforce good and desired behaviors.

32 Workplace Stereotypes:
In corporate America, sexism continues… Woman are not taken as seriously as their male counterparts. Masculinity = Strength/Success. Femininity = Weakness and Less Accomplishments.

33 Pay Gap; The Million Dollar Difference
Woman continue to be paid at considerably lower levels than males, ranging to as much as $2000 per month at some levels of employment. While advanced education has raised incomes for females, they are still earning far less than their male contemporaries.

34 Hurtles and Possible Solutions:
Increased female governmental representation will improve the codification of stronger laws protecting woman’s rights. As the number of woman in the fields of law and business increase, the female pool for political candidates will increase as well, leading to more balanced representation. Many woman lack supportive spouses who are willing to accommodate the pressures and involvement of a political wife. Woman have not organized as a political power group as yet. This would dramatically increase their bargaining abilities if accomplished, because woman comprise over 51% of the American population in 2003. The struggle continues…

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