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Introduction Francis Wellens 077/ Belgian

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1 Introduction Francis Wellens 077/45 09 81 Belgian
077/ Belgian Engineer in Rural Constructions (1978) MBA (1997) Presentation of participants: Rules of the game - Participation Questions throughout (feel free) Practical issues and examples

2 Introduction Workshops foreseen: Wednesday 21/7
Workshop on Project Cycle Management AM Thursday 22/7 Friday 23/7 Wednesday 4/8 Workshop from EDF decision to Financing Agreement AM Thursday 5/8 Friday 6/8 Wednesday 18/8 Workshop on Implementation modalities AM Thursday 19/8 Friday 20/8 Wednesday 1/9 Workshop on Programme Estimates AM Thursday 2/9 Friday 3/9

3 Background and documentation

4 Workshop 1, Project Cycle Management Main issues
Project Cycle Management (PCM) (day 1) Logical Frame-work Approach (LF or LFA) (day 1 – 2) Activity and resources scheduling (day 2) Managing project quality (day 3) Evaluation (day 3)

5 Objectives of this Workshop
Results All principles of PCM are understood You all know How to use the LFA for all phases of the project cycle How to assess the relevance, feasibility, and sustainability of a financing proposal/project How to best involve other actors during PCM Project Cycle Management Handbook: Project Cycle Management Guidelines:

6 Objectives of this Workshop
Project Purpose After the course the participants have a full understanding of Project Cycle Management (PCM); they are able to integrate the principles and tools related to PCM in their daily practices related to project management. In the past: full management of project: Responsibility of EC Delegation Presently: Management of projects: left to the beneficiary countries (under supervision of the EC or not) In our country (the procedures and regulations are not very well known). Projects are funded lately (the planning and procurement are not very well organised). Sometimes payments are very much delayed or even recovery orders are sent (lack of documentation or, worse, unforeseen use of funding).

7 Objectives of this Workshop
Overall Objectives: In Sierra Leone EU aid is improved Management of EU aid is improved The effectiveness of EU aid is improved Ask participants to give an example of a small problem

8 Some definitions Project Project is a combination of: Objectives
Activities leading to outputs Duration Input: generally at least budget and resources An undertaking for the purpose of achieving established objectives, within a given budget and time period.

9 Project in donor context
Some definitions Project in donor context Financing and contribution additional to ongoing activities Limited in time and resources Contribution to a process of change But Processes of change take place in a context And Context = very complex  Context => changing continuously  Context => many actors are involved and have an influence

10 Some definitions Project Management: a succession of challenges
Structuring and facilitating of processes of change in order to define objectives in the most effective and efficient way Ensuring that all major stakeholders are consulted, that their knowledge and insights are used to improve the quality of the project/programme Dealing with complexity and incertainties related to the context and to the human interactions Dealing with the subjective perceptions and values of each of the actors involved in projects Continuous information collection, exchange and analysis in order to take decisions and to make continuously adaptations related to the quality of projects

11 ? Some definitions Quality Criteria
Relevance relates to whether the project addresses the real problems of the intended beneficiaries and contributes significantly to long term development objectives. Feasibility relates to whether the project objectives can be effectively achieved. Sustainability relates to whether project benefits will continue to flow after the period of external assistance has ended. ?

12 History of PCM approach
Late 1960s Logical Framework (USAID) ➢ International Agencies introduce the Logframe Early 1980s ZOPP (GTZ) Objectives-Oriented Project Planning ➢ European countries adapt the ZOPP Early 1990s PCM

13 Merging PCM and Logframe
How to enhance management Merging PCM and Logframe Project Cycle Management Logframe Approach The decision making and implementation process defined by the organisation Project management methods and tools

14 How to enhance management
Project Cycle Management Defines different phases in the project life with a well-defined process of involvement of different stakeholders, management activities and decision making procedures Logframe Approach A methodology for analysing, planning, managing and evaluating programmes and projects, using tools to enhance participation and transparency and to improve orientation towards objectives

15 The Project Cycle The generic project cycle has six phases. In practice the duration and importance of each phase may vary for different projects. The phases share three common baselines 1. Key decisions, stakeholders, information requirements and responsibilities are defined at each phase. 2. The phases in the cycle are progressive – each phase needs to be completed for the next to be tackled with success. 3. New programming draws on evaluation to build experience as part of the institutional learning process.

16 The Programme Cycle, main events

17 The Project Cycle, Programming
Purpose Agreed framework on long term objectives and sector priorities for co-operation in the country/region Stakeholder involvement High level political decision makers from the partner country and the co-operating institution/agency Steps General analysis of the current situation and future prospects Analysis of national priorities Review of previous collaboration Complementary action with other actors Strategic choices in collaboration with other stakeholders Poverty focus: to reduce and, eventually, to eradicate poverty Policy mix: account for all (EC) policies, resources and instruments (the EC ‘policy mix’), applied in a partner country (as trade policy, fisheries policy and Common Foreign and Security Policy). Country ownership: PRSP process and the country’s own policy agenda Work sharing and complementarity Comprehensive country analysis: The approach to programming must be integrated Concentration of efforts on a limited number of areas: (trade and development; regional integration, macroeconomic policies including support to the social sectors, transport, food security/rural development and institutional capacity building). Cross-cutting and overarching policy issues: the promotion of human rights, equality between men and women, the en-vironmental dimension, etc.). Also conflict prevention and crisis management re-quire systematic attention. In addition to the areas of concentration and cross-cutting concerns, (i) communicable disease situation (such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis), (ii) information and communications technologies and (iii) supporting research in developing countries. Individual projects should be replaced by sector programme or policy-based approach (support to coherent national policies). Lessons of past experience and results of relevant evaluations shall systematically be taken into account and be fed back into the programming process. Focus on outcomes: use of a few key outcome indicators, showing impact of the EC resources committed. Open partnership: with civil society, private sector and local authorities. Product (Country) Strategy paper

18 The Project Cycle, Identification
Purpose Identification and selection of relevant areas of intervention and project ideas for further studies Stakeholder involvement Senior officials of the co-operating institution (NAO) and from line ministries of the partner country, consultants Steps Draft ToR for Pre-feasibility (if necessary) Collect and evaluate information on areas of intervention Review/include lessons learned from previous experiences In fact sectoral, thematic or pre-feasibility study (stakeholder- problem- objectives- and strategy analysis), gives intervention logic and assumptions. Project identification Fiche = Brief project descriptions that will be further developed examining coherence with NIP, experience in the domain and next steps to be taken Already a first idea about Relevance and Feasibility Drafting TOR for the pre-feasibility study based on: (p12) • the Overall Objectives of co-operation with the concerned partner country, • background information about the country, sector, region concerned, in-cluding overall sector strategies or sector support programmes, • discussions with stakeholders likely to be concerned by the project, • experience in the country in the same or comparable sectors or regions, Product Pre-feasibility (if necessary) Project Identification Fiche (PIF): Relevance and feasibility Decision for appraising or for rejection TOR for appraisal

19 The Project Cycle, Appraisal
Purpose A well defined and formulated project according to the criteria of relevance, feasibility and sustainability Stakeholder involvement Project formulation mission involving all stakeholders Steps Conduct a feasibility study Involve the different stakeholders Define implementation arrangements Elaborate solutions and achieve agreement on the project approach with all stakeholders Design logical framework, Activity and Resources schedules Project appraisal: relevance, feasibility, sustainability The term “ex ante” evaluation is now frequently used for “Appraisal” or “Feasibility Study”. Relevant project ideas are developed into project plans. Stress should be on feasibility and sustainability / quality of the suggested intervention. Checks need to ensure that cross-cutting issues and overarching policy objectives Beneficiaries and other stakeholders participate in the detailed specification of the project idea that is then assessed for its feasibility A detailed Logical Framework with Indicators, and Implementation, Activity and Resource Schedules, should be produced. Product A detailed feasibility study (meeting the quality criteria) that is the basis for a financing proposal Outline for activity and resource schedule

20 The Project Cycle, Financing
Purpose Financing agreement and commitment for project resources Stakeholder involvement Donor and beneficiary (country) Steps Preparation of the Action Fiche (financing proposal) Examination of the proposal Financing decision Product Signed financing agreement

21 The Project Cycle, Implementation
Purpose Implementing the project towards its objectives Stakeholder involvement Project implementation team, counterpart institution, beneficiaries and eventually external monitoring Steps Tendering and contract award Detailed work plan Executing activities Adapting project activities Ongoing monitoring and mid-term evaluation Other definition of implementation periods (more related to monitoring) 1. Inception period (inception report) 2. Main implementation (progress reports e.g. quarterly – annual comparison with financing agreement) 3. Final period (final report) Tasks Preparing the tender documents for service, works and supply contracts, including TOR for technical assistance (contractor), if required. Monitoring of implementation, suggesting corrective measures if required to sup-port assurance of the quality of the outcome of the project Supporting timeliness of means, where relevant, and facilitating communication and information flow between and feedback to parties involved Manage evaluations and audits, if required Ensuring successful decision-making process concerning whether or not to pursue the objectives of the project in a further phase (and to launch further preparatory action) or to abandon the objectives of the project Documents E.g. project monitoring reports, annual reports

22 The Project Cycle, Evaluation
Purpose Accountability and formulation of lessons learned Conclusions for programming and future action Stakeholder involvement External neutral party and all relevant stakeholders Steps Terms of reference for the evaluation (questions to be asked) Organise evaluation exercise with appropriate methods Analyse relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability Draw lessons from experiences Provide recommendations Characteristics of a good evaluation: Impartiality & independence of the evaluation process in its function from the process concerned with policy making, the delivery and management of assistance (= separation of evaluation and responsibility for the project/ programme/policy)􀀩 Credibility depending on expertise and independence of the evaluators transparency to be sought through an open process, wide availability of results, distinction between findings and recommendations Usefulness: relevant, presented in a clear and concise way, reflecting the interests and needs of the parties involved, easily accessible, timely and at the right moment (leading to improved decision-making) Participation of stakeholders (donor, recipient...); if possible: views and expertise of groups affected should form integral part of the evaluation; involving all parties ( support to capacity building) Types of evaluations Interim or mid-term (propose enhancements) Final or end- (lessons for future project) Ex post (analyse of impact) Product Evaluation report

23 Logframe Approach ANALYSIS PHASE PLANNING PHASE Stakeholder Analysis
identifying & characterising major stakeholders, target groups & beneficiaries, defining whose problems will be addressed by a future intervention, and which potentials can be used Problem analysis identifying key problems, constraints and opportunities; determining cause and effect relationships Analysis of objectives developing objectives from the identified problems; identifying means to end relationships Strategy analysis identifying the different strategies to achieve objectives; selecting the most appropriate strategy(ies); determining the major objectives (overall objectives and project purpose) Logframe defining the project/ programme structure, testing its internal logic, formulating objectives in measurable terms, defining means and cost (overall) Activity scheduling deter-mining the sequence and depen-dency of activities; estimating their duration, setting milestones and assigning responsibility Resource scheduling from the activity schedule, developing input schedules and a budget Identify stakeholders Define the project logic Identify/ problems Specifying and operationalising Deduct Select the option

24 Logframe Approach Stakeholders Any individuals, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project/ programme They may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and outcomes of projects or programmes

25 Logframe Approach Types of Stakeholders Final beneficiaries, target group(s):Those ultimately positively affected by the project and the quality of the services produced by it – Project partners: The intermediairies in the aid delivery – direct and intermediate beneficiaries, Groups, organisations and institutions that can provide additional insights and services (universities, NGOs, consultancy firms, etc.) Those who may be or feel negatively affected by the project Key stakeholders are those who participate directly in the various phases of PCM At different phases of PCM, different stakeholders can and will have to participate

26 Why Stakeholder Participation?
Logframe Approach Why Stakeholder Participation? Allows that interventions are adjusted to the social, economic and political realities Improves ownership Increases relevance, feasibility and sustainability of the intervention Enhances local capacities Strengthens civil society and democratic processes The stakeholder analysis must systematically identify all gender differences, as well as the specific interests, problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups.

27 Stakeholder Analyse? Logframe Approach
The stakeholder analysis must systematically identify all gender differences, as well as the specific interests, problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups.

28 Problem Analysis (problem tree)
Logframe Approach Problem Analysis (problem tree) Establishing cause-effect relations between problems Decreasing in-comes of artisanal fisherfolk Effects Decreasing fish stocks Low price received by artisanal fisherfolk in the village We are fishermen living on the estuary of river localised in a tropical environment. No electricity and ice is difficult to find (cost). Fish is dried in the sun on clays. 50 km away on the river there is a growing town with increasing workshops garages and other official and parallel commerce and workshops. The roads are degrading fast, in and around town, traffic jam is permanent, and transport to town is difficult. Waste is simply thrown on the streets but also in the rivers and on the sea. Mangrove is cut and sold for construction purposes. Sewers are blocked in all parts of the town and waste waters are dumped in the rivers. On sea, fishing is practised by important foreign boats having no licence but large nets. We fish less and less fish and prices are decreasing. Youth leaves the village hoping to find work in town but most of them don’t succeed. Destruction of coral & mangrove habitats Illegal fishing methods applied Processed fish is of bad quality Limited access to markets Causes

29 Analysis of Objectives (tree of objectives)
Logframe Approach Analysis of Objectives (tree of objectives) Turning the negative aspects into future desired, but realistic situations Incomes of artisa-nal fisherfolk increased Ends Rate of decline in fish stocks arrested Price received by artisanal fisher-folk increased Coral & man-grove habitats conserved Incidence of illegal fishing reduced Quality of fish processing improved Access to markets improved Means

30 Analysis of Objectives
Logframe Approach Analysis of Objectives Verify if it is possible to change the identified problems into feasible project aims Developing a set of criteria which will guide the selection of the strategy

31 Analysis of Strategies
Logframe Approach Analysis of Strategies The purpose is: to identify possible alternative options or ways to contribute to the overall objectives to agree on priority strategies based on an assessment of the relevance, the feasibility and the sustainability of each of them to concentrate the means of the project on what is really important, effective and feasible Strategies are (different) ways, issues and options addressing the problems and leading to the objectives. • Should all the identified problems and/or objectives be tackled, or a selected few? • What are the positive opportunities that can be built on (i.e from the SWOT analysis)? • What is the combination of interventions that are most likely to bring about the desired results and promote sustainability of benefits? • How is local ownership of the project best supported, including development of the capacity of local institutions? • What are the likely capital and recurrent costs implications of different possible interventions, and what can realistically be afforded? • What is the most cost effective option(s)? • Which strategy will impact most positively on addressing the needs of the poor and other identified vulnerable groups? • How can potential negative environmental impacts best be mitigated or avoided?

32 Analysis of Strategies
Logframe Approach Analysis of Strategies For each of the defined strategies to study: The relevance of the strategy in relation to the overall objectives The feasibility of the strategy taking into account the means of each of the actors involved The chances that the strategy will continue to produce effects after major funding is finished

33 Analysis of Strategies
Logframe Approach Analysis of Strategies Important to take into account: the points of view of the different stakeholders especially the beneficiaries and target groups the contribution, potential and capacities of other stakeholders and donors objectives pursued by other projects or interventions The factors influencing the sustainability of the project (policies, economic and financial, socio-cultural, organisational and institutional capacities, environmental and technical factors, etc.)

34 Analysis of Strategies (IV)
Logframe Approach Analysis of Strategies (IV) OUT IN Incomes of artisa-nal fisherfolk increased OVERALL OBJECTIVE Rate of decline in fish stocks arrested Price received by artisanal fisher-folk increased PROJECT PURPOSE Coral & man-grove habitats conserved Incidence of illegal fishing reduced Quality of fish processing improved Access to markets improved RESULTS Decision based on: budget, priorities, human resources available, social acceptability, urgency, ...

35 Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification
Logframe Matrics Intervention Logic Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions Overall Objectives Longer-term benefits to final beneficiaries and the wider benefits to other groups. OVI Describe the projects achievements in measurable terms. Crucial factors outside project control. Sources directly related to the OVI. Project Purpose Sustainable benefits for the target group(s) as part of the beneficiaries. Results “Products” of the Activities undertaken. The vertical logic identifies what the project intends to do, clarifies the causal relationships and specifies the important assumptions and risks beyond the project manager’s control. A good OVI should be SMART: • Specific: measure what it is supposed to measure • Measurable and • Available at an acceptable cost • Relevant with regard to the objective concerned • Time-bound Checking Quality factors (page 51) How to build OVI (page 54), also indicators for each post of the Project cycle Activities Means Cost Intervention Logic “Actions” necessary to produce the Results. Pre- conditions “physical and non-physical inputs” to carry out the planned Activities.

36 Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification
Logframe Basics Intervention Logic Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions Overall Objectives Project Purpose Results The horizontal logic relates to the measurement of the effects of, and resources used by the project through the specification of key indicators, and the sources where they will be verified. Activities Means Cost ‘... IF results are delivered, AND assumptions hold true, THEN the project purpose will be achieved ...’ Pre- conditions

37 Interlocking Logframes
Activities Results Overall Objectives Project Purpose Programme Project Project component In principle, each Logical Framework can be worked out in sub-logframes.

38 Interlocking Logframes
Example: from sector programme to component In principle, each Logical Framework can be worked out in sub-logframes.

39 Logframe: An Example INTERVENTION LOGIC
OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS SOURCES OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS OVERALL OBJECTIVE  Incomes of artisan fishermen increased The net income of 75% of the fishermen member of the fish co-operatives in region X has increased by 25 % at the end of the project. The number of radios and motorcycles increased in the area. Enquiry among members of the co-operatives PROJECT PURPOSE Prices received by artisan fishermen increased By the end of the project the prices for one ton of processed fish paid to the small fishermen organised in co-operatives in region X has increased: for Mackerel with 20%, for sardines with 35%, for salmon with 25% Statistics and accountability of the different co-operatives The production costs will not increase faster than the inflation RESULTS 1. Quality of fish processing improved The quantity of processed fish not accepted by the market decreased with 10% after 1 year and with 50% at the end of the project Records of the co-operatives The government remains in favour of the development of the artisan fishery sector 2. Access to markets improved Fish processed by the artisan fishermen of region X can be found on all markets and they can sell 25% of their products on the international market in the capital Survey on the markets ACTIVITIES 1.1 invest in processing units 1.2 train the artisans in making good use of the processing units 1.3 install a cold chain for fish storage and transport  2.1 strengthen the bargaining power of the co-operatives 2.2 organise a representation of the co-operatives in the national fishery board 2.3 organise advertisements for the products of the co-operatives MEANS  5 processing units 4 training sessions (10 days) for 5 people 3 cold chains 10 leadership training Advertissements COSTS  40 000 50 000 total

40 Logframe: Final Check • the vertical logic is complete and accurate;
• Indicators and Sources of Verification are accessible and reliable; • the Pre-conditions are realistic; • the Assumptions are realistic and complete; • the risks are acceptable; • the likelihood of success is reasonably strong; • quality issues have been taken into account and, where appropriate, trans-lated into Activities, Results or Assumptions; • the benefits justify the cost; • if additional studies are needed they are included.

41 Activity & Resource Scheduling
Logframe Results-based ressource schedule Results-based Workplans 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Budget Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser Workplan 30

42 Activity Scheduling An activity schedule:
Maintains objective-oriented approach of logframe Breaks activities down into operational detail Clarifies sequence, duration and precedence of activities Identifies key milestones Assigns management responsibility and implementing responsibilities and should include management tasks Workplan

43 Steps in the Preparation of an Activity Schedule

44 Resource Scheduling A resource schedule:
Maintains objective-oriented approach of logframe Facilitates results-based budgeting and monitoring of cost-effectiveness Provides basis for planned mobilisation of resources (external & local) Identifies cost implications Counterpart funding requirement Post-project financial sustainability 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Budget Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser

45 Steps in the Preparation of a Resource Schedule

46 Monitoring of Implementation
Is a systematic management activity Actual progress is compared to plan in order to identify necessary remedial actions Takes place at all levels of management Uses both formal reporting & informal communications Focuses on resources, activities & results in the logframe MONITORING Monitoring is the way in which projects are measured, managed and kept on track according to the plans: if a project cannot be monitored and measured, it cannot be managed. Project management must keep asking the questions 'have the funds been disbursed on schedule, will this activity lead to the planned Output, are there any important Assumptions that need attention and will the Outputs lead to achieving Project Purpose?' Within PCM, monitoring uses a planned and actual format with explanations of why any variance between the two occurred and what action the project management took to bring the plans back on track. Sometimes it is not possible to bring plans back on track and the results of the project will be delayed. Knowing this in advance is part of good management and these changes to the plans must be made at this point. The key points in monitoring:  It is an internal management responsibility Measures progress against Objectives, Indicators and Assumptions established in the Logical Framework Measures the budget planned against actual expenditure. Identifies problems and highlights potential solutions Keep the broad project picture and the stakeholders in focus Uses both formal and informal data gathering methods EVALUATION Evaluation is when the assessment of the project is undertaken and any lessons learnt can be identified and disseminated widely. A decision about Evaluation is taken at the Formulation stage and the initial points to be included should have been drafted by the project design team. Evaluation is undertaken at a time when the flow of benefits should start to be gained and lessons can be learnt. It should also be undertaken by an independent evaluator. The Evaluation conclusions, recommendations and lessons learnt should be clearly presented and disseminated widely to other agencies and the programme co-ordinators. The key points of evaluation: clarity about the purpose of the project as stated in the project proposal focus on the flow of benefits and the outcome of the project review the monitoring reports and Logical Framework prepare statement of actual achievements against planned targets identify lessons learnt and disseminate the findings widely to future projects and policy

47 Evaluation: Major Issues
What for? Accountability Learning 34

48 Sustained benefits and impact
Types of Evaluation Desired situation Sustained benefits and impact PROJECT Time Present situation Ex-post or impact evaluation End-of project or final evaluation Mid-term review 34

49 Managing Project Quality
Project Proposal Identify Information Needs Financing Proposal Formulate questions concerning project relevance, feasibility & sustainability Ensure that information collection & analysis is effectively planned Ensure that draft Financing Proposal meets PCM requirements The Process Management Tasks Relevance Feasibility Sustainability Study objectives Issues to be Studied Workplan Format for Feasibility Study TOR Assessing the Quality of a Financing Proposal Management Tools Formulate Feasibility Study TOR Assess document quality Draft Financing Proposal

50 Managing Project Quality
Factors Affecting Sustainability End of Project Flow of Benefits Project Sustainable (impact) Purpose Result Unsustainable Result Result Time Policy support Appropriate technology Environmental protection Gender & socio-cultural issues Institutional & management capacity Economic & financial viability

51 Managing Project Quality
Analysing sustainability The context Macro-economic situation relevant policies level of institutional development Socio-political and cultural context ecological situation unexpected incidents Factors of the project / programme implementation system Characteristics of the project / programme partner target group region and sector degree of innovation duration scale and complexity project plan (preparation, objective system, relationship between local and external elements) project execution (management and organisation, participation and institutional set-up, financial factors) the phase after the end of the project

52 Managing Project Quality
Integrated Approach Linked objectives Standardised documentation National / sectoral objectives NIP Feasibility studies Basic Format 1. Summary Financing proposals 2. Background 3. Sectoral and problem analysis 4. Project/programme description Logframe Annual reports 5. Assumptions, risks and flexibility 6. Implementation arrangements 7. Quality factors Evaluation reports Annex: Logframe Results-based work plans and budgets Workplan 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Budget 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Budget Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser 5000 5500 1250 1750 3750 4250 750 400 850 1100 2300 3100 Budget

53 Managing Project Quality
Standardised Documents 1. Summary 2. Background 3. Sectoral and problem analysis 4. Project/programme description 5. Assumptions, risks and flexibility 6. Implementation arrangements 7. Quality factors Annex: Logframe Standard format & terminology during all phases of the project cycle Objectives: aide mémoire of key issues common understanding transparency institutional memory

54 Managing Project Quality Basic Format for all documents
Summary 1. Background: Overall EC and Government policy objectives, and links with the Commission’s country programme or strategy, commitment of Government to over-arching policy objectives of the EC such as respect of human rights 2. Sectoral and problem analysis, Including stakeholder analysis and their potentials 3. Project / programme description, objectives, and the strategy to attain Including lessons from past experience, and linkage with other donors’ activities Description of the intervention (objectives, and strategy to reach them, including Project Purpose, Results and Activities and main Indicators) 4. Assumptions, Risks 5. Implementation arrangements Physical and non-physical means Organisation and implementation procedures Timetable (work plan) Estimated cost and financing plan Special conditions and accompanying measures by Government / partners Monitoring and Evaluation 6. Quality factors Participation and ownership by beneficiaries Policy support Appropriate technology Socio-cultural aspects Gender equality Environmental protection Institutional and management capacities Financial and economic viability Annex: Logframe (completed or outline, depending on the phase)

55 PCM Principles Project cycle phases - structured & informed decision-making Partner / stakeholder orientation - involve-ment of stakeholders in decision-making Logframe planning - comprehensive & consistent analysis Sustainability - mechanisms to ensure continued flow of benefits Integrated approach - vertical integration & standardised documentation Basic format

56 Why Project Cycle Management
Results-oriented – not activity driven Consistency Logically sets objectives and actions Participatory stakeholder involvement Transparency Comprehensive approach Shows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators (for M&E) Framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainability Describes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks

57 Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance
Relevance Efficiency Effectiveness Impact Sustainability

58 Evaluation of Relevance
Overall Objectives Analysis appropriateness of project objectives to the problems that it was supposed to address Controls somehow the logic and completeness of the project planning process, and the internal logic and coherence of the project design change Project Purpose + Assumptions utilisation Results + Assumptions action Activities + Assumptions The appropriateness of project objectives to the problems that it was supposed to address, and to the physical and policy environment within which it operated. It should include and including an assessment of the quality of project preparation and design – i.e. the logic and completeness of the project planning process, and the internal logic and coherence of the project design. allocation Means + Preconditions Relevance 34

59 Relevance Possible questions:
= The extent to which the aid intervention is suited to the priorities and policies of the target group, partner country and donor Possible questions: To what extent are the objectives of the programme valid for the beneficiaries? Are the activities and results of the programme consistent with the overall objectives?

60 Evaluation of Efficiency
Overall Objectives Analysis on how successful the project has been in transforming the means Provides the stakeholders with information on inputs / costs per unit produced change Project Purpose + Assumptions utilisation Results + Assumptions action Activities + Assumptions allocation Efficiency Means + Preconditions 34

61 Efficiency Possible questions: Were the activities cost-efficient?
= Efficiency measures the outputs – qualitative and quantitative – in relation to the inputs. It is a term which signifies that the aid uses the least costly resources in order to achieve the desired results. This generally requires comparing alternative approaches to achieving the same outputs, to see whether the most efficient process has been adopted Possible questions: Were the activities cost-efficient? Are the unit costs comparable to …

62 Evaluation of Effectiveness
Analysis on how well the production of project results contributes to the achievement of the project purpose Overall Objectives change Project Purpose + Assumptions utilisation Results Effectiveness + Assumptions action Activities + Assumptions allocation + Preconditions Means 34

63 Effectiveness Possible questions:
= A measure of the extent to which an aid intervention attains its objectives Possible questions: To what extent was the project purpose achieved/is likely to be achieved? What were the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of the project purpose?

64 Evaluation of Impact Analysis of the overall effects of the project
Analysis of the contribution of the project purpose to the overall objectives Also analysis of unintended impacts (negative and positive) Overall Objectives change Impact Project Purpose + Assumptions utilisation Results + Assumptions action Activities + Assumptions allocation + Preconditions Means 34

65 Impact = The positive and negative changes produced by an intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. Possible questions: What real difference has the activity made to the beneficiaries? How many people have been affected?

66 Evaluation of Sustainability
Analyses likelihood of benefits produced by the project to continue to flow after external funding has ended with particular reference to factors of ownership by beneficiaries Overall Objectives change Sustainability Project Purpose + Assumptions utilisation Results + Assumptions action Activities + Assumptions An assessment of the likelihood of benefits produced by the project to continue to flow after external funding has ended, and with particular reference to factors of ownership by beneficiaries, policy support, economic and financial factors, socio-cultural aspects, gender equality, appropriate technology, environmental aspects, and institutional and management capacity. allocation + Preconditions Means 34

67 Sustainability = Sustainability is concerned with measuring whether the benefits of an activity are likely to continue after donor funding has been withdrawn. Possible questions: To what extent did the benefits of a programme or project continue after donor funding ceased? What were the major factors which influenced the achievement or non-achievement of sustainability of the programme or project?

68 Problem Analysis (problem tree)
Establishing cause-effect relations between problems

69 Analysis of Objectives (tree of objectives)
Turning the negative aspects into future desired, but realistic situations

70 Analysis of Strategies (IV)

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