Presentation on theme: "Introduction Francis Wellens 077/ Belgian"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction Francis Wellens email@example.com 077/45 09 81 Belgian 077/BelgianEngineer in Rural Constructions (1978)MBA (1997)Presentation of participants:Rules of the game- ParticipationQuestions throughout (feel free)Practical issues and examples
2 Introduction Workshops foreseen: Wednesday 21/7 Workshop on Project Cycle Management AMThursday22/7Friday23/7Wednesday4/8Workshop from EDF decision to Financing Agreement AMThursday5/8Friday6/8Wednesday18/8Workshop on Implementation modalities AMThursday19/8Friday20/8Wednesday1/9Workshop on Programme Estimates AMThursday2/9Friday3/9
5 Objectives of this Workshop ResultsAll principles of PCM are understoodYou all knowHow to use the LFA for all phases of the project cycleHow to assess the relevance, feasibility, and sustainability of a financing proposal/projectHow to best involve other actors during PCMProject Cycle Management Handbook:Project Cycle Management Guidelines:
6 Objectives of this Workshop Project PurposeAfter the course the participants have a full understanding of Project Cycle Management (PCM); they are able to integrate the principles and tools related to PCM in their daily practices related to project management.In the past:full management of project: Responsibility of EC DelegationPresently:Management of projects: left to the beneficiary countries (under supervision of the EC or not)In our country (the procedures and regulations are not very well known).Projects are funded lately (the planning and procurement are not very well organised).Sometimes payments are very much delayed or even recovery orders are sent (lack of documentation or, worse, unforeseen use of funding).
7 Objectives of this Workshop Overall Objectives:In Sierra LeoneEU aid is improvedManagement of EU aid is improvedThe effectiveness of EU aid is improvedAsk participants to give an example of a small problem
8 Some definitions Project Project is a combination of: Objectives Activities leading to outputsDurationInput: generally at least budget and resourcesAn undertaking for the purpose of achieving established objectives, within a given budget and time period.
9 Project in donor context Some definitionsProject in donor contextFinancing and contribution additional to ongoing activitiesLimited in time and resourcesContribution to a process of changeBut Processes of change take place in a contextAnd Context = very complex Context => changing continuously Context => many actors are involved and have an influence
10 Some definitions Project Management: a succession of challenges Structuring and facilitating of processes of change in order to define objectives in the most effective and efficient wayEnsuring that all major stakeholders are consulted, that their knowledge and insights are used to improve the quality of the project/programmeDealing with complexity and incertainties related to the context and to the human interactionsDealing with the subjective perceptions and values of each of the actors involved in projectsContinuous information collection, exchange and analysis in order to take decisions and to make continuously adaptations related to the quality of projects
11 ? Some definitions Quality Criteria Relevance relates to whether the project addresses the real problems of the intended beneficiaries and contributes significantly to long term development objectives.Feasibility relates to whether the project objectives can be effectively achieved.Sustainability relates to whether project benefits will continue to flow after the period of external assistance has ended.?
12 History of PCM approach Late 1960s Logical Framework (USAID)➢ International Agencies introduce the LogframeEarly 1980s ZOPP (GTZ)Objectives-Oriented Project Planning➢ European countries adapt the ZOPPEarly 1990s PCM
13 Merging PCM and Logframe How to enhance managementMerging PCM and LogframeProject CycleManagementLogframe ApproachThe decision making and implementation process defined by the organisationProject management methods and tools
14 How to enhance management Project Cycle ManagementDefines different phases in the project life with a well-defined process of involvement of different stakeholders, management activities and decision making proceduresLogframe ApproachA methodology for analysing, planning, managing and evaluating programmes and projects, using tools to enhance participation and transparency and to improve orientation towards objectives
15 The Project CycleThe generic project cycle has six phases. In practice the duration and importance of each phase may vary for different projects.The phases share three common baselines1. Key decisions, stakeholders, information requirements and responsibilities are defined at each phase.2. The phases in the cycle are progressive – each phase needs to be completed for the next to be tackled with success.3. New programming draws on evaluation to build experience as part of the institutional learning process.
17 The Project Cycle, Programming PurposeAgreed framework on long term objectives and sector priorities for co-operation in the country/regionStakeholder involvementHigh level political decision makers from the partner country and the co-operating institution/agencyStepsGeneral analysis of the current situation and future prospectsAnalysis of national prioritiesReview of previous collaborationComplementary action with other actorsStrategic choices in collaboration with other stakeholdersPoverty focus: to reduce and, eventually, to eradicate povertyPolicy mix: account for all (EC) policies, resources and instruments (the EC ‘policy mix’), applied in a partner country (as trade policy, fisheries policy and Common Foreign and Security Policy).Country ownership: PRSP process and the country’s own policy agendaWork sharing and complementarityComprehensive country analysis: The approach to programming must be integratedConcentration of efforts on a limited number of areas: (trade and development; regional integration, macroeconomic policies including support to the social sectors, transport, food security/rural development and institutional capacity building).Cross-cutting and overarching policy issues: the promotion of human rights, equality between men and women, the en-vironmental dimension, etc.). Also conflict prevention and crisis management re-quire systematic attention.In addition to the areas of concentration and cross-cutting concerns,(i) communicable disease situation (such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis),(ii) information and communications technologies and(iii) supporting research in developing countries.Individual projects should be replaced by sector programme or policy-based approach (support to coherent national policies).Lessons of past experience and results of relevant evaluations shall systematically be taken into account and be fed back into the programming process.Focus on outcomes: use of a few key outcome indicators, showing impact of the EC resources committed.Open partnership: with civil society, private sector and local authorities.Product(Country) Strategy paper
18 The Project Cycle, Identification PurposeIdentification and selection of relevant areas of intervention and project ideas for further studiesStakeholder involvementSenior officials of the co-operating institution (NAO) and from line ministries of the partner country, consultantsStepsDraft ToR for Pre-feasibility (if necessary)Collect and evaluate information on areas of interventionReview/include lessons learned from previous experiencesIn fact sectoral, thematic or pre-feasibility study (stakeholder- problem- objectives- and strategy analysis), gives intervention logic and assumptions.Project identification Fiche = Brief project descriptions that will be further developed examining coherence with NIP, experience in the domain and next steps to be takenAlready a first idea about Relevance and FeasibilityDrafting TOR for the pre-feasibility study based on: (p12)• the Overall Objectives of co-operation with the concerned partner country,• background information about the country, sector, region concerned, in-cluding overall sector strategies or sector support programmes,• discussions with stakeholders likely to be concerned by the project,• experience in the country in the same or comparable sectors or regions,ProductPre-feasibility (if necessary)Project Identification Fiche (PIF): Relevance and feasibilityDecision for appraising or for rejection TOR for appraisal
19 The Project Cycle, Appraisal PurposeA well defined and formulated project according to the criteria of relevance, feasibility and sustainabilityStakeholder involvementProject formulation mission involving all stakeholdersStepsConduct a feasibility studyInvolve the different stakeholdersDefine implementation arrangementsElaborate solutions and achieve agreement on the project approach with all stakeholdersDesign logical framework, Activity and Resources schedulesProject appraisal: relevance, feasibility, sustainabilityThe term “ex ante” evaluation is now frequently used for “Appraisal” or “Feasibility Study”.Relevant project ideas are developed into project plans.Stress should be on feasibility and sustainability / quality of the suggested intervention. Checks need to ensure that cross-cutting issues and overarching policy objectivesBeneficiaries and other stakeholders participate in the detailed specification of the project idea that is then assessed for its feasibilityA detailed Logical Framework with Indicators, andImplementation, Activity and Resource Schedules, should be produced.ProductA detailed feasibility study (meeting the quality criteria) that is the basis for a financing proposalOutline for activity and resource schedule
20 The Project Cycle, Financing PurposeFinancing agreement and commitment for project resourcesStakeholder involvementDonor and beneficiary (country)StepsPreparation of the Action Fiche (financing proposal)Examination of the proposalFinancing decisionProductSigned financing agreement
21 The Project Cycle, Implementation PurposeImplementing the project towards its objectivesStakeholder involvementProject implementation team, counterpart institution, beneficiaries and eventually external monitoringStepsTendering and contract awardDetailed work planExecuting activitiesAdapting project activitiesOngoing monitoring and mid-term evaluationOther definition of implementation periods (more related to monitoring)1. Inception period (inception report)2. Main implementation (progress reports e.g. quarterly – annual comparison with financing agreement)3. Final period (final report)TasksPreparing the tender documents for service, works and supply contracts, including TOR for technical assistance (contractor), if required.Monitoring of implementation, suggesting corrective measures if required to sup-port assurance of the quality of the outcome of the projectSupporting timeliness of means, where relevant, and facilitating communication and information flow between and feedback to parties involvedManage evaluations and audits, if requiredEnsuring successful decision-making process concerning whether or not to pursue the objectives of the project in a further phase (and to launch further preparatory action) or to abandon the objectives of the projectDocumentsE.g. project monitoring reports, annual reports
22 The Project Cycle, Evaluation PurposeAccountability and formulation of lessons learnedConclusions for programming and future actionStakeholder involvementExternal neutral party and all relevant stakeholdersStepsTerms of reference for the evaluation (questions to be asked)Organise evaluation exercise with appropriate methodsAnalyse relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainabilityDraw lessons from experiencesProvide recommendationsCharacteristics of a good evaluation:Impartiality & independenceof the evaluation process in its function from the process concerned with policy making, the delivery and management of assistance (= separation of evaluation and responsibility for the project/ programme/policy)Credibilitydepending on expertise and independence of the evaluatorstransparencyto be sought through an open process, wide availability of results, distinction between findings and recommendationsUsefulness:relevant, presented in a clear and concise way, reflecting the interests and needs of the parties involved, easily accessible, timely and at the right moment (leading to improved decision-making)Participation of stakeholders (donor, recipient...);if possible: views and expertise of groups affected should form integral part of the evaluation; involving all parties ( support to capacity building)Types of evaluationsInterim or mid-term (propose enhancements)Final or end- (lessons for future project)Ex post (analyse of impact)ProductEvaluation report
23 Logframe Approach ANALYSIS PHASE PLANNING PHASE Stakeholder Analysis identifying & characterising major stakeholders, target groups & beneficiaries, defining whose problems will be addressed by a future intervention, and which potentials can be usedProblem analysisidentifying key problems, constraints and opportunities; determining cause and effect relationshipsAnalysis of objectivesdeveloping objectives from the identified problems; identifying means to end relationshipsStrategy analysisidentifying the different strategies to achieve objectives; selecting the most appropriate strategy(ies); determining the major objectives (overall objectives and project purpose)Logframedefining the project/ programme structure, testing its internal logic, formulating objectives in measurable terms, defining means and cost (overall)Activity schedulingdeter-mining the sequence and depen-dency of activities; estimating their duration, setting milestones and assigning responsibilityResource schedulingfrom the activity schedule, developing input schedules and a budgetIdentify stakeholdersDefine the project logicIdentify/problemsSpecifying and operationalisingDeductSelect the option
24 Logframe ApproachStakeholdersAny individuals, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project/ programmeThey may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and outcomes of projects or programmes
25 Logframe ApproachTypes of StakeholdersFinal beneficiaries, target group(s):Those ultimately positively affected by the project and the quality of the services produced by it –Project partners: The intermediairies in the aid delivery – direct and intermediate beneficiaries,Groups, organisations and institutions that can provide additional insights and services (universities, NGOs, consultancy firms, etc.)Those who may be or feel negatively affected by the projectKey stakeholders are those who participate directly in the various phases of PCMAt different phases of PCM, different stakeholders can and will have to participate
26 Why Stakeholder Participation? Logframe ApproachWhy Stakeholder Participation?Allows that interventions are adjusted to the social, economic and political realitiesImproves ownershipIncreases relevance, feasibility and sustainability of the interventionEnhances local capacitiesStrengthens civil society and democratic processesThe stakeholder analysis must systematically identify all gender differences, as well as the specific interests, problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups.
27 Stakeholder Analyse? Logframe Approach The stakeholder analysis must systematically identify all gender differences, as well as the specific interests, problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups.
28 Problem Analysis (problem tree) Logframe ApproachProblem Analysis (problem tree)Establishing cause-effect relations between problemsDecreasing in-comes of artisanal fisherfolkEffectsDecreasing fish stocksLow price received by artisanal fisherfolk in the villageWe are fishermen living on the estuary of river localised in a tropical environment.No electricity and ice is difficult to find (cost). Fish is dried in the sun on clays.50 km away on the river there is a growing town with increasing workshops garages and other official and parallel commerce and workshops.The roads are degrading fast, in and around town, traffic jam is permanent, and transport to town is difficult. Waste is simply thrown on the streets but also in the rivers and on the sea. Mangrove is cut and sold for construction purposes.Sewers are blocked in all parts of the town and waste waters are dumped in the rivers.On sea, fishing is practised by important foreign boats having no licence but large nets.We fish less and less fish and prices are decreasing. Youth leaves the village hoping to find work in town but most of them don’t succeed.Destruction of coral & mangrove habitatsIllegal fishing methods appliedProcessed fish is of bad qualityLimited access to marketsCauses
29 Analysis of Objectives (tree of objectives) Logframe ApproachAnalysis of Objectives (tree of objectives)Turning the negative aspects into future desired, but realistic situationsIncomes of artisa-nal fisherfolk increasedEndsRate of decline in fish stocks arrestedPrice received by artisanal fisher-folk increasedCoral & man-grove habitats conservedIncidence of illegal fishing reducedQuality of fish processing improvedAccess to markets improvedMeans
30 Analysis of Objectives Logframe ApproachAnalysis of ObjectivesVerify if it is possible to change the identified problems into feasible project aimsDeveloping a set of criteria which will guide the selection of the strategy
31 Analysis of Strategies Logframe ApproachAnalysis of StrategiesThe purpose is:to identify possible alternative options or ways to contribute to the overall objectivesto agree on priority strategies based on an assessment of the relevance, the feasibility and the sustainability of each of themto concentrate the means of the project on what is really important, effective and feasibleStrategies are (different) ways, issues and options addressing the problems and leading to the objectives.• Should all the identified problems and/or objectives be tackled, or a selected few?• What are the positive opportunities that can be built on (i.e from the SWOT analysis)?• What is the combination of interventions that are most likely to bring about the desired results and promote sustainability of benefits?• How is local ownership of the project best supported, including development of the capacity of local institutions?• What are the likely capital and recurrent costs implications of different possible interventions, and what can realistically be afforded?• What is the most cost effective option(s)?• Which strategy will impact most positively on addressing the needs of the poor and other identified vulnerable groups?• How can potential negative environmental impacts best be mitigated or avoided?
32 Analysis of Strategies Logframe ApproachAnalysis of StrategiesFor each of the defined strategies to study:The relevance of the strategy in relation to the overall objectivesThe feasibility of the strategy taking into account the means of each of the actors involvedThe chances that the strategy will continue to produce effects after major funding is finished
33 Analysis of Strategies Logframe ApproachAnalysis of StrategiesImportant to take into account:the points of view of the different stakeholders especially the beneficiaries and target groupsthe contribution, potential and capacities of other stakeholders and donorsobjectives pursued by other projects or interventionsThe factors influencing the sustainability of the project (policies, economic and financial, socio-cultural, organisational and institutional capacities, environmental and technical factors, etc.)
34 Analysis of Strategies (IV) Logframe ApproachAnalysis of Strategies (IV)OUTINIncomes of artisa-nal fisherfolk increasedOVERALLOBJECTIVERate of decline in fish stocks arrestedPrice received by artisanal fisher-folk increasedPROJECTPURPOSECoral & man-grove habitats conservedIncidence of illegal fishing reducedQuality of fish processing improvedAccess to markets improvedRESULTSDecision based on: budget, priorities, human resources available, social acceptability, urgency, ...
35 Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Logframe MatricsIntervention LogicObjectively Verifiable IndicatorsSources of VerificationAssumptionsOverall ObjectivesLonger-term benefits to final beneficiaries and the wider benefits to other groups.OVI Describe the projects achievements in measurable terms.Crucial factors outside project control.Sources directly related to the OVI.Project PurposeSustainable benefits for the target group(s) as part of the beneficiaries.Results“Products” of the Activities undertaken.The vertical logic identifies what the project intends to do, clarifies the causal relationships and specifies the important assumptions and risks beyond the project manager’s control.A good OVI should be SMART:• Specific: measure what it is supposed to measure• Measurable and• Available at an acceptable cost• Relevant with regard to the objective concerned• Time-boundChecking Quality factors (page 51)How to build OVI (page 54), also indicators for each post of the Project cycleActivitiesMeansCostIntervention Logic“Actions” necessary to produce the Results.Pre-conditions“physical and non-physical inputs” to carry out the planned Activities.
36 Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Logframe BasicsIntervention LogicObjectively Verifiable IndicatorsSources of VerificationAssumptionsOverall ObjectivesProject PurposeResultsThe horizontal logic relates to the measurement of the effects of, and resources used by the project through the specification of key indicators, and the sources where they will be verified.ActivitiesMeansCost‘... IF results are delivered, AND assumptions hold true,THEN the project purpose will be achieved ...’Pre-conditions
37 Interlocking Logframes ActivitiesResultsOverall ObjectivesProject PurposeProgrammeProjectProject componentIn principle, each Logical Framework can be worked out in sub-logframes.
38 Interlocking Logframes Example: from sector programme to componentIn principle, each Logical Framework can be worked out in sub-logframes.
39 Logframe: An Example INTERVENTION LOGIC OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORSSOURCES OF VERIFICATIONASSUMPTIONSOVERALL OBJECTIVE Incomes of artisan fishermen increasedThe net income of 75% of the fishermen member of the fish co-operatives in region X has increased by 25 % at the end of the project.The number of radios and motorcycles increased in the area.Enquiry among members of the co-operativesPROJECT PURPOSEPrices received by artisan fishermen increasedBy the end of the project the prices for one ton of processed fish paid to the small fishermen organised in co-operatives in region X has increased: for Mackerel with 20%, for sardines with 35%, for salmon with 25%Statistics and accountability of the different co-operativesThe production costs will not increase faster than the inflationRESULTS1. Quality of fish processing improvedThe quantity of processed fish not accepted by the market decreased with 10% after 1 year and with 50% at the end of the projectRecords of the co-operativesThe government remains in favour of the development of the artisan fishery sector2. Access to markets improvedFish processed by the artisan fishermen of region X can be found on all markets and they can sell 25% of their products on the international market in the capitalSurvey on the marketsACTIVITIES1.1 invest in processing units1.2 train the artisans in making good use of the processing units1.3 install a cold chain for fish storage and transport 2.1 strengthen the bargaining power of the co-operatives2.2 organise a representation of the co-operatives in the national fishery board2.3 organise advertisements for the products of the co-operativesMEANS 5 processing units4 training sessions (10 days) for 5 people3 cold chains10 leadership trainingAdvertissementsCOSTS 40 00050 000total
40 Logframe: Final Check • the vertical logic is complete and accurate; • Indicators and Sources of Verification are accessible and reliable;• the Pre-conditions are realistic;• the Assumptions are realistic and complete;• the risks are acceptable;• the likelihood of success is reasonably strong;• quality issues have been taken into account and, where appropriate, trans-lated into Activities, Results or Assumptions;• the benefits justify the cost;• if additional studies are needed they are included.
42 Activity Scheduling An activity schedule: Maintains objective-oriented approach of logframeBreaks activities down into operational detailClarifies sequence, duration and precedence of activitiesIdentifies key milestonesAssigns management responsibility and implementing responsibilities and should include management tasksWorkplan
43 Steps in the Preparation of an Activity Schedule
44 Resource Scheduling A resource schedule: Maintains objective-oriented approach of logframeFacilitates results-based budgeting and monitoring of cost-effectivenessProvides basis for planned mobilisation of resources (external & local)Identifies cost implicationsCounterpart funding requirementPost-project financial sustainability55001750425075040011003100BudgetSalariesAllowancesVehicle Op.OfficeTel/FaxSeedsFertiliser
45 Steps in the Preparation of a Resource Schedule
46 Monitoring of Implementation Is a systematic management activityActual progress is compared to plan in order to identify necessary remedial actionsTakes place at all levels of managementUses both formal reporting & informal communicationsFocuses on resources, activities & results in the logframeMONITORINGMonitoring is the way in which projects are measured, managed and kept on track according to the plans: if a project cannot be monitored and measured, it cannot be managed. Project management must keep asking the questions 'have the funds been disbursed on schedule, will this activity lead to the planned Output, are there any important Assumptions that need attention and will the Outputs lead to achieving Project Purpose?' Within PCM, monitoring uses a planned and actual format with explanations of why any variance between the two occurred and what action the project management took to bring the plans back on track. Sometimes it is not possible to bring plans back on track and the results of the project will be delayed. Knowing this in advance is part of good management and these changes to the plans must be made at this point.The key points in monitoring: It is an internal management responsibilityMeasures progress against Objectives, Indicators and Assumptions established in the Logical FrameworkMeasures the budget planned against actual expenditure.Identifies problems and highlights potential solutionsKeep the broad project picture and the stakeholders in focusUses both formal and informal data gathering methodsEVALUATIONEvaluation is when the assessment of the project is undertaken and any lessons learnt can be identified and disseminated widely. A decision about Evaluation is taken at the Formulation stage and the initial points to be included should have been drafted by the project design team. Evaluation is undertaken at a time when the flow of benefits should start to be gained and lessons can be learnt. It should also be undertaken by an independent evaluator. The Evaluation conclusions, recommendations and lessons learnt should be clearly presented and disseminated widely to other agencies and the programme co-ordinators.The key points of evaluation:clarity about the purpose of the project as stated in the project proposalfocus on the flow of benefits and the outcome of the projectreview the monitoring reports and Logical Frameworkprepare statement of actual achievements against planned targetsidentify lessons learnt and disseminate the findings widely to futureprojects and policy
47 Evaluation: Major Issues What for?AccountabilityLearning34
48 Sustained benefits and impact Types of EvaluationDesired situationSustained benefits and impactPROJECTTimePresent situationEx-post orimpact evaluationEnd-of project or final evaluationMid-term review34
49 Managing Project Quality Project ProposalIdentify Information NeedsFinancing ProposalFormulate questions concerning project relevance, feasibility & sustainabilityEnsure that information collection & analysis is effectively plannedEnsure that draft Financing Proposal meets PCM requirementsThe ProcessManagement TasksRelevanceFeasibilitySustainabilityStudy objectivesIssues to be StudiedWorkplanFormat for Feasibility Study TORAssessing the Quality of a Financing ProposalManagement ToolsFormulate Feasibility Study TORAssess document qualityDraft Financing Proposal
51 Managing Project Quality Analysing sustainabilityThe contextMacro-economic situationrelevant policieslevel of institutional developmentSocio-political and cultural contextecological situationunexpected incidentsFactors of the project / programme implementation systemCharacteristics of the project / programmepartnertarget groupregion and sectordegree of innovationdurationscale and complexityproject plan (preparation, objective system, relationship between local and external elements)project execution (management and organisation, participation and institutional set-up, financial factors)the phase after the end of the project
52 Managing Project Quality Integrated ApproachLinked objectivesStandardised documentationNational / sectoral objectivesNIPFeasibility studiesBasic Format1. SummaryFinancing proposals2. Background3. Sectoral and problem analysis4. Project/programme descriptionLogframeAnnual reports5. Assumptions, risks and flexibility6. Implementation arrangements7. Quality factorsEvaluation reportsAnnex: LogframeResults-based work plans and budgetsWorkplan55001750425075040011003100Budget55001750425075040011003100BudgetSalariesAllowancesVehicle Op.OfficeTel/FaxSeedsFertiliser500055001250175037504250750400850110023003100Budget
53 Managing Project Quality Standardised Documents1. Summary2. Background3. Sectoral and problem analysis4. Project/programme description5. Assumptions, risks and flexibility6. Implementation arrangements7. Quality factorsAnnex: LogframeStandard format & terminology during all phases of the project cycleObjectives:aide mémoire of key issuescommon understandingtransparencyinstitutional memory
54 Managing Project Quality Basic Format for all documents Summary1. Background:Overall EC and Government policy objectives, and links with the Commission’s country programme or strategy, commitment of Government to over-arching policy objectives of the EC such as respect of human rights2. Sectoral and problem analysis,Including stakeholder analysis and their potentials3. Project / programme description,objectives, and the strategy to attainIncluding lessons from past experience, and linkage with other donors’ activitiesDescription of the intervention (objectives, and strategy to reach them, including Project Purpose, Results and Activities and main Indicators)4. Assumptions, Risks5. Implementation arrangementsPhysical and non-physical meansOrganisation and implementation proceduresTimetable (work plan) Estimated cost and financing planSpecial conditions and accompanying measures by Government / partnersMonitoring and Evaluation6. Quality factorsParticipation and ownership by beneficiariesPolicy support Appropriate technologySocio-cultural aspects Gender equalityEnvironmental protection Institutional and management capacitiesFinancial and economic viabilityAnnex: Logframe (completed or outline, depending on the phase)
55 PCM PrinciplesProject cycle phases - structured & informed decision-makingPartner / stakeholder orientation - involve-ment of stakeholders in decision-makingLogframe planning - comprehensive & consistent analysisSustainability - mechanisms to ensure continued flow of benefitsIntegrated approach - vertical integration & standardised documentationBasic format
56 Why Project Cycle Management Results-oriented – not activity drivenConsistencyLogically sets objectives and actionsParticipatory stakeholder involvementTransparencyComprehensive approachShows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators (for M&E)Framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainabilityDescribes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks
57 Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance RelevanceEfficiencyEffectivenessImpactSustainability
58 Evaluation of Relevance Overall ObjectivesAnalysis appropriateness of project objectives to the problems that it was supposed to addressControls somehow the logic and completeness of the project planning process, and the internal logic and coherence of the project designchangeProject Purpose+ AssumptionsutilisationResults+ AssumptionsactionActivities+ AssumptionsThe appropriateness of project objectives to the problems that it was supposed toaddress, and to the physical and policy environment within which it operated. Itshould include and including an assessment of the quality of project preparation anddesign – i.e. the logic and completeness of the project planning process, and theinternal logic and coherence of the project design.allocationMeans+ PreconditionsRelevance34
59 Relevance Possible questions: = The extent to which the aid intervention is suited to the priorities and policies of the target group, partner country and donorPossible questions:To what extent are the objectives of the programme valid for the beneficiaries?Are the activities and results of the programme consistent with the overall objectives?…
60 Evaluation of Efficiency Overall ObjectivesAnalysis on how successful the project has been in transforming the meansProvides the stakeholders with information on inputs / costs per unit producedchangeProject Purpose+ AssumptionsutilisationResults+ AssumptionsactionActivities+ AssumptionsallocationEfficiencyMeans+ Preconditions34
61 Efficiency Possible questions: Were the activities cost-efficient? = Efficiency measures the outputs – qualitative and quantitative – in relation to the inputs. It is a term which signifies that the aid uses the least costly resources in order to achieve the desired results. This generally requires comparing alternative approaches to achieving the same outputs, to see whether the most efficient process has been adoptedPossible questions:Were the activities cost-efficient?Are the unit costs comparable to ……
62 Evaluation of Effectiveness Analysis on how well the production of project results contributes to the achievement of the project purposeOverall ObjectiveschangeProject Purpose+ AssumptionsutilisationResultsEffectiveness+ AssumptionsactionActivities+ Assumptionsallocation+ PreconditionsMeans34
63 Effectiveness Possible questions: = A measure of the extent to which an aid intervention attains its objectivesPossible questions:To what extent was the project purpose achieved/is likely to be achieved?What were the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of the project purpose?…
64 Evaluation of Impact Analysis of the overall effects of the project Analysis of the contribution of the project purpose to the overall objectivesAlso analysis of unintended impacts (negative and positive)Overall ObjectiveschangeImpactProject Purpose+ AssumptionsutilisationResults+ AssumptionsactionActivities+ Assumptionsallocation+ PreconditionsMeans34
65 Impact= The positive and negative changes produced by an intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended.Possible questions:What real difference has the activity made to the beneficiaries?How many people have been affected?…
66 Evaluation of Sustainability Analyses likelihood of benefits produced by the project to continue to flow after external funding has ended with particular reference to factors of ownershipby beneficiariesOverall ObjectiveschangeSustainabilityProject Purpose+ AssumptionsutilisationResults+ AssumptionsactionActivities+ AssumptionsAn assessment of the likelihood of benefits produced by the project to continue to flowafter external funding has ended, and with particular reference to factors of ownershipby beneficiaries, policy support, economic and financial factors, socio-cultural aspects,gender equality, appropriate technology, environmental aspects, and institutional andmanagement capacity.allocation+ PreconditionsMeans34
67 Sustainability= Sustainability is concerned with measuring whether the benefits of an activity are likely to continue after donor funding has been withdrawn.Possible questions:To what extent did the benefits of a programme or project continue after donor funding ceased?What were the major factors which influenced the achievement or non-achievement of sustainability of the programme or project?…
68 Problem Analysis (problem tree) Establishing cause-effect relations between problems
69 Analysis of Objectives (tree of objectives) Turning the negative aspects into future desired, but realistic situations